born Woodrow Wilson Guthrie, 14 July 1912, Okemah, Oklahoma, USA,
died 3 October 1967.
A major figure of
America’s folk heritage, Guthrie was raised in a musical environment and achieved proficiency on harmonica as a child. By the age of 16 he had begun his itinerant lifestyle, performing in a Texas-based magic show where he learned to play guitar. In 1935 Guthrie moved to California where he became a regular attraction on Los Angeles’ KFVD radio station. Having befriended singer Cisco Houston and actor Will Geer, Woody established his left wing-oriented credentials with joint appearances at union meetings and migrant labour camps. Already a prolific songwriter, reactions to the poverty he witnessed inspired several of his finest compositions, notably
“Pastures Of Plenty,” “Dust Bowl Refugees,” “Vigilante Man” and
“This Land Is Your Land,” regarded by many as America’s ‘alternative’ national anthem. Guthrie was also an enthusiastic proponent of
Roosevelt’s New Deal, as demonstrated by “Grand Coulee Dam” and
“Roll On Columbia,” while his children’s songs, including “Car
Car,” were both simple and charming. At the end of the ’30s Woody travelled to New York where he undertook a series of recordings for the folk song archive at the Library Of Congress. The 12 discs he completed were later released commercially by Elektra Records.
Guthrie continued to traverse the country and in 1940 met Pete Seeger at a folksong rally in California. Together they formed the Almanac Singers with Lee Hayes and Millard Lampell, which in turn inspired the Almanac House, a co-operative apartment in New
York’s Greenwich Village which became the focus of the East Coast folk movement. In 1942 Guthrie joined the short-lived Headline Singers with Leadbelly, Sonny Terry and Brownie McGhee, before beginning his autobiography,
Bound For Glory, which was published the following year. He and Houston then enlisted in the merchant marines, where they remained until the end of World War II, after which Guthrie began a series of exemplary recordings for the newly-founded Folkways label. The artist eventually completed over 200 masters which provided the fledgling company with a secure foundation. Further sessions were undertaken for other outlets, while Woody retained his commitment to the union movement through columns for the
Daily Worker and People’s World. Guthrie’s prolific output—he conscientiously composed each day—continued unabated until the end of the
’40s when he succumbed to Huntington’s Chorea, a hereditary, degenerative disease of the nerves. He was hospitalized in 1952, and was gradually immobilized by this wasting illness until he could barely talk or recognize friends and visitors. By the time of his death on 3 October 1967, Woody Guthrie was enshrined in
America’s folklore, not just because of his own achievements, but through his considerable influence on a new generation of artists.
Bob Dylan, Ramblin’ Jack Elliott, Roger McGuinn and
Woody’s son Arlo Guthrie were among his most obvious disciples, but the plethora of performers, including Judy Collins, Tom Paxton, Richie Havens and
Country Joe McDonald, gathered at two subsequent tribute concerts, confirmed their debt to this pivotal figure.
adapted from Microsoft Music Central
© 1996 Microsoft Corporation and/or its suppliers.