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mind from the night its January of 1884 when he finished the French novel.

During his stay in Madrid, Dr. Rizal was made a freemason in Acacia Lodge No. 9 of the "Gran Oriente de España" at whose head was then Manuel Becerra, later Minister of Ultramar, or Colonies. Among the persons with whom he thus became acquainted were Manuel Ruiz Zorilla, Praxedes M. Sagasta, Emilio Castelar and Victor Balaguer, all prominent in the politics of Spain. However slight the association, it came in the formative period of the young student's life and turned his thoughts into constructive lines rather than destructive. He no longer thought only of getting rid of Spanish sovereignty but began to question what sort of a government was to replace it. At Barcelona he had seen the monument of General Prim whose motto had been "More liberal today than yesterday, more liberal tomorrow than in today" yet he knew how opposed the Spanish patriot had been to a Spanish republic because Spaniards were not prepared for it. So he resolved to prepare the Filipinos and the compaign of education which he, saw being waged by Spaniards in Spain Rizal thought would be no more unpatriotic or anti-Spanish if carried on by a Filipino for the Philippines. Already he had become convinced of one political truth which was to separate him from other leaders of his countrymen, that the condition of the common people and not the form of the government is the all-important thing.

From Madrid, after a short trip thru the more backward provinces because these were the country regions of Spain and so more fairly to be compared with the Philippnes, Dr. Rizal in 1885 went to Paris and continued his medicine studies under an eye specialist. Association with artists and seeing the treasures of the city's rich galleries also assisted in his art education.

For the political part Masonry again was responsible. The Grand Orient of France was not recognized by the Spanish Masonry of which Rizal was a member but held relations with a rival organization over which Prof. Miguel Morayta presided. So in Rue Cadet 16 he was mitiated into this irregular body which had been responsible for the French Revolution and, because it did not

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created: June 12, 1998
updated: June 12, 1998
APSIS Editor Johann Stockinger