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from a list of strange young Spanish officers who were untrained in the law. Fortunately one was the brother of his bodyguard on his first return home and this Lieutenant Luis Taviel de Andrade did all intelligence and devotion could do to get a fair trial for the stranger dependent on his chivalry. It took real courage to make such a defense as he did in so unpopular a cause. But the result was never in doubt.

Dr. Rizal was brought back to be shot and the trial was a sorry farce. The charge was that José Rizal Mercado was the principal organizer and the soul of the insurrection in the Philippines, a founder of societies, newspapers, and books devoted to favoring and making public rebellious and seditious ideas among the people, and the chief of filibusterism in the country.

Witness were examined to give testimony against him only to have evidence of his entire ignorance of the plan made plain and to escape this embarrassment the court said it was not necessary to hear any more testimony, the charges had been sufficiently proven. No mention was made of the unsuccessful attempt to torture Paciano Mercado into admitting that he and his brother knew of the insurrection, tho the use of the thumbscrews and hanging him by the arms had taken place in Manila just after Dr. Rizal had sailed for Spain. In those days the Doctor answered very frankly except where others were concerned. The use of symbolic names among his Masonic acquaintances made it possible for him to say in many cases that he did not know any one of such a name. At the other times his memory was made the excuse for not caring to answer, but where it concerned himself there were no subterfuges. The man whose word so sacred to him that he would not take any of the many chances to escape offered during his years in banishment disdained any attempt at deception. He had said that his conscience was clear and in his trial he seemed only anxious that his real position shall be understood. In fact he asked permission to address a proclamation to the rebels in the field who had been deceived into insurrection by the fraudulent use of his name, and when it was read by the prosecutor that zealous official added it as

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created: June 12, 1998
updated: June 12, 1998
APSIS Editor Johann Stockinger