Publication 3205

Brier S. (2002) Varela’s Contribution to the Creation of Cybersemiotics: The calculus of self-reference. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 9(2): 77–82. Fulltext at
Excerpt: The idea of evolution of living beings did not establish a firm foothold in the thinking of our culture until the 19th century. Evolution, though a biological concept, was nevertheless basically understood as a material change in body structure and function. In such a materialistic view great problems occur when one is trying to explain how mind came into being. How is it possible that the original “dead” world consisting of “pure” matter can foster living beings or observers with a sense of their own psychic existence?


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