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Glasersfeld E. von (1974) Jean Piaget and the radical constructivist epistemology
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Le van Quyen M.
Varela F. J.
Interactions entre réseau épileptique et fonctionnement cérébral: Approche par analyse non-lineaire de l’EEG intracrânien.
Gypsy reason: Niklas Luhmann’s sociological enlightenment.
Cybernetics & Human Knowing
Fulltext at http://cepa.info/3131
Niklas Luhmann died in November 1998. He had been elaborating his theory of the society for more than thirty years which has been well received in many quarters of society in the modern world. Yet somehow we are only now beginning to read him when he is no longer there to be asked. And we are beginning to discuss his work although we cannot invite him to lecture us anymore. The following article takes up Luhmann’s very recent small and comprehensive book on Husserl and places him, as he did himself, in a tradition of “enlightenment” which aims for a self-critical constitution of reason.
Enactivism and the Experiential Reality of Culture: Rethinking the Epistemological Basis of Cultural Psychology.
Culture & Psychology
Fulltext at http://cepa.info/2414
The key problem of cultural psychology comprises a paradox: while people believe they act on the basis of their own authentic experience, cultural psychologists observe their behavior to be socially patterned. It is argued that, in order to account for those patterns, cultural psychology should take human experience as its analytical starting point. Nevertheless, there is a tendency within cultural psychology to either neglect human experience, by focusing exclusively on discourse, or to consider the structure of this experience to originate in an already produced cultural order. For an alternative approach, we turn to the enactive view of cognition developed by Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela. Their theory of autonomy can provide the epistemological basis for a cultural psychology that explains how experience can become socially patterned in the first place. Cultural life forms are then considered as consensually coordinated, embodied practices.
Barton A. C.
Osborne M. D.
Re-examining lived experiences: Radical constructivism and gender.
Cybernetics & Human Knowing
Fulltext at http://cepa.info/3122
Radical constructivism grows out of the belief that knowledge is constructed and legitimated by individuals as they make sense of their experiences in particular contexts and drawing on their own histories. Extending this understanding of learning and ways of knowing to girls as they work in the terrain of science, we argue that honoring student experience as the starting place for science instruction fundamentally alters the nature of science, the purpose of teaching and learning science, and the focus of relationships in science class. The implications for this position are extensive: they suggest that the dynamic relationships between language and cultural background of students and teachers alter the ways in which science education historically has enacted discipline, curriculum and pedagogy. We argue that this is particularly important to understand, for science and science education have historically operated within the masculine domain and working with girls in science in ways that respect their (gendered and cultural) construction of knowledge and their experiences, fundamentally alters the enterprise of science – an idea contradictory to most visions of the purposes of education and current reform efforts in science education, even the most liberal.
Le van Quyen M.
Varela F. J.
Pre-ictal changes of the EGG dynamics in epileptic patients: clinical and neurobiological implications.
In: Grassberger P. & Lehnertz K. (eds.)
Chaos in the Brain?
. World Scientific, Singapore: 77–86.
The body in Husserl and Merleau-Ponty.
Fulltext at http://cepa.info/2264
The terminological boxes into which we press the history of philosophy often obscure deep and important differences among major figures supposedly belonging to a single school of thought. One such disparity within the phenomenological movement, often overlooked but by no means invisible, separates Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology of Perception from the Husserlian program that initially inspired it. For Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology amounts to a radical, if discreet, departure not only from Husserl’s theory of intentionality generally, but more specifically from his account of the intentional constitution of the body and its role in perceptual experience.
Visual awareness and visuomotor action.
Journal of Consciousness Studies
Fulltext at http://cepa.info/2266
Recent work in "embodied, embedded" cognitive science links mental contents to large-scale distributed effects: dynamic patterns implicating elements of (what are traditionally seen as) sensing, reasoning and acting. Central to this approach is an idea of biological cognition as profoundly "action-oriented" - geared not to the creation of rich, passive inner models of the world, but to the cheap and efficient production of real-world action in real-world context. A case in point is Hurley's (1998) account of the profound role of motor output in fixing the contents of conscious visual awareness – an account that also emphasizes distributed vehicles and long-range dynamical loops. Such stories can seem dramatically opposed to accounts, such as Milner and Goodale (1995), that stress relatively local mechanisms and that posit firm divisions between processes of visual awareness and of visuomotor action. But such accounts, I argue, can be deeply complimentary and together illustrate an important lesson. The lesson is that cognition may be embodied and action-oriented in two distinct – but complimentary – ways. There is a way of being embodied and action-oriented that implies being closely geared to the fine-grained control of low level effectors (hands, arms, legs and so on). And there is a way of being embodied and action-oriented that implies being closely geared to gross motor intentions, current goals, and schematic motor plans. Human cognition, I suggest, is embodied and action- oriented in both these ways. But the neural systems involved, and the size and scope of the key dynamic loops, may be quite different in each case.
Constructivist epistemologies and therapies.
British Journal of Guidance & Counselling
Fulltext at http://cepa.info/3836
Constructivists link their therapeutic approach to arguments against an objectivist epistemology. These anti-objectivist arguments are examined: it is concluded that none of them is cogent. The question of whether acceptance of a constructivist, non-objectivist epistemology is likely to affect constructivists’ therapeutic practice is considered.
Software development process: Some reflections on its cultural, political and ethical aspects from a constructivist epistemology point of view.
Cybernetics & Human Knowing
Fulltext at http://cepa.info/3126
Design in software development is viewed, from a constructivist epistemological perspective, as an insight building process linking the worlds of application, of methods, and technology. Design unfolds as a web of distinctions and decisions constructing at the same time the problem and a fitting solution. Design is evaluated based on the coherence of the decisions taken and their viability. Closure and self-organization arise from the feedback of evaluation on design, leading to revisions and further distinctions and decisions. Software design is specific in that it starts from operational form in different areas of human practice and provides auto-operational form to be re-embedded in human practice. Dialogical design seeks deeper insights by taking account of and crossing different perspectives. The consequences of this view on software development methods are briefly discussed.
Foerster H. von
An Niklas Luhmann.
In: Bardmann T. M. & Baecker D. (eds.)
Gibt es eigentlich den Berliner Zoo noch?
. Universitätsverlag Konstanz: 13–15.
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