Publication 2508

Gash H. (2014) Belief and systems. In: G. E. Lasker & K. Hiwaki. (eds.) Personal and Spiritual Development in the World of Cultural Diversity. Vol XI. International Institute for Advanced Studies, PO Box 3010 Tecumseh Ontario: 7–11. Fulltext at
Systems thinking is a source of insights into how ideas interact and change. In the contemporary world there is evidence of turbulence in many domains such as the economic, ecological, and political systems. Constructivism offers insights into the role of beliefs in conflicts and the conditions for reconciliation. These include the limited nature of knowledge, the role of difference in cognition, our need for certainty, and the importance of negative feedback in regulating process. Relevance: Linking constructivism with systems thinking is important to see how to avoid being trapped with visions of what is real in terms of beliefs.


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