Creativity involves the generation of useful novelty. Two modes of creating novelty are proposed: via new combinations of pre-existing primitives (combinatoric emergence) and via creation of fundamentally new primitives (creative emergence). The two modes of creativity can be distinguished by whether the changes still fit into an existing framework of possibility, or whether new dimensions in an expanded interpretive framework are needed. Although computers are well suited to generating new combinations, it is argued that computations within a framework cannot produce new primitives for that framework, such that non-computational constructive processes must be utilised to expand the frame. Mechanisms for combinatoric and creative novelty generation are considered in the context of adaptively self-steering and self-constructing goal-seeking percept-action devices. When such systems can adaptively choose their own sensors and effectors, they attain a degree of epistemic autonomy that allows them to construct their own meanings. A view of the brain as a system that creates new neuronal signal primitives that are associated with new semantic and pragmatic meanings is outlined.