Approach «Constructivist Approaches»

1. Questioning the Cartesian separation between the objective world and subjective experience
2. Including the observer in scientific explanations
3. Rejecting representationalism: knowledge is a system-related cognitive process rather than a mapping of an objective world onto subjective cognitive structures
4. Defining reality as being brought forth by the subject rather than passively received
5. Claiming that any reference to a mind-independent reality beyond one’s cognitive horizon is metaphysical speculation
6. Moving the focus of research from the world that consists of matter to the world that consists of what matters
7. Defining cognitive systems as self-referential and organizationally closed: They strive for control over their inputs rather than their outputs
8. Favoring a process-oriented approach rather than a substance-based perspective: Systems are defined by the processes whereby they constitute and maintain their own organization
9. Defining sociality as accommodation within the framework of social interaction
10. Asking for an open and less dogmatic approach to science in order to generate the flexibility that is needed to cope with today’s scientific frontiers
Cite this definition as: Riegler A. (2015) Constructivist Approaches. Constructivist E-Paper Archive. Version of 5 December 2015. Available at

Publications Found: 35 · Show All Abstracts

Bunnell P. & Riegler A. (2011) Maturana Across the Disciplines. Constructivist Foundations 6(3): 287–292. Available at
Chiari G. & Nuzzo M. L. (2010) Constructivist psychotherapy: A narrative hermeneutic approach. Routledge, London. Reviewed in Constructivist Foundations 5(2)
Diettrich O. (1993) Cognitive and communicative development in reality free representation. Cognitiva 5(2): 219–243. Available at
Diettrich O. (1994) Heisenberg and Gödel in the light of constructivist evolutionary epistemology. Ludus Vitalis 2(2): 119–130. Available at
Diettrich O. (1997) Kann es eine ontologiefreie evolutionäre Erkenntnistheorie geben? Philosophia naturalis 34(1): 71–105. Available at
Diettrich O. (1998) On some relations between cognitive and organic evolution. In: Van de Vijver G., Salthe S. & Delpos M. (eds.) Evolutionary systems: Biological and epistemological perspectives on selection and self-organization. Kluwer, Dordrecht: 319–340. Available at
Gash H. (1991) Gender perceptions, a constructivist approach to stereotyping. Oideas 37: 57–74. Available at
Gash H. (1992) Reducing prejudice: Constructivist considerations for special education. European Journal of Special Needs Education 7(7): 146–155. Available at
Gash H. (1993) A constructivist attempt to promote positive attitudes towards children with special needs. European Journal of Special Needs Education 8: 106–125. Available at
Gash H. (1995) Attitudes of Irish primary school children to European and Third World children. In: Hackett M. (ed.) Intercultural education – celebrating diversity. Available at
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