Volume 11 · Number 3 · Pages 572–579

< Previous Paper · Next Paper >

Design Research as a Variety of Second-Order Cybernetic Practice

Ben Sweeting

Download the full text in
PDF (681 kB)

> Citation > Similar > References > Add Comment


Context: The relationship between design and science has shifted over recent decades. One bridge between the two is cybernetics, which offers perspectives on both in terms of their practice. From around 1980 onwards, drawing on ideas from cybernetics, Glanville has suggested that rather than apply science to design, it makes more sense to understand science as a form of design activity, reversing the more usual hierarchy between the two. I return to review this argument here, in the context of recent discussions in this journal regarding second-order science (SOS). Problem: Despite numerous connections to practice, second-order cybernetics (SOC) has tended to be associated with theory. As a result, SOC is perceived as separate to the more tangible aspects of earlier cybernetics in a way that obscures both the continuity between the two and also current opportunities for developing the field. Method: I review Glanville’s understanding of design, and particularly his account of scientific research as a design-like activity, placing this within the context of the shifting relation between science and design during the development of SOC, with reference to the work of Rittel and Feyerabend. Through this, I summarise significant parallels and overlaps between SOC and the contemporary concerns of design research. Results: I suggest that we can see design research not just as a field influenced by cybernetics but as a form of SOC practice even where cybernetics is not explicitly referenced. Implications: Given this, design research offers much to cybernetics as an important example of SOC that is both outward looking and practice based. As such, it bridges the gap between SOC and the more tangible legacy of earlier cybernetics, while also suggesting connections to contemporary concerns in this journal with SOS in terms of researching research. Constructivist content: By suggesting that we see design research as an example of SOC, I develop connections between constructivism and practice.

Key words: Science, design research, second-order cybernetics, second-order science, practice, Ranulph Glanville


Sweeting B. (2016) Design research as a variety of second-order cybernetic practice. Constructivist Foundations 11(3): 572–579. http://constructivist.info/11/3/572

Export article citation data: Plain Text · BibTex · EndNote · Reference Manager (RIS)

Similar articles

Müller K. H. & Riegler A. (2016) Mapping the Varieties of Second-Order Cybernetics

Sweeting B. & Hohl M. (2015) Exploring Alternatives to the Traditional Conference Format: Introduction to the Special Issue on Composing Conferences

Müller K. H. & Riegler A. (2014) Second-Order Science: A Vast and Largely Unexplored Science Frontier

Vörös S. & Riegler A. (2017) A Plea for not Watering Down the Unseemly: Reconsidering Francisco Varela’s Contribution to Science

Füllsack M. (2014) The Circular Conditions of Second-order Science Sporadically Illustrated with Agent-based Experiments at the Roots of Observation


Alexander C. (1964) Notes on the synthesis of form. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA. << Google Scholar

Alexander C. (1984) The state of the art in design methods. In: Cross N. (ed.) Developments in design methodology. Wiley, Chichester: 309–316. Originally published in 1971. << Google Scholar

Alrøe H. F. & Noe E. (2014) Second-order science of interdisciplinary research: A polyocular framework for wicked problems. Constructivist Foundations 10(1): 65–76 Available at http://constructivist.info/10/1/065

Arbib M. A. (2013) (Why) should architects care about neuroscience? In: Tidwell P. (ed.) Architecture and neuroscience: A tapio wirkkala-rut bryk design reader. Tapio Wirkkala Rut Bryk Foundation, Espoo: 43–76. << Google Scholar

Archer B. (1979) Design as a discipline. Design Studies 1(1): 17–20. << Google Scholar

Ashby W. R. (1957) An introduction to cybernetics. Chapman & Hall, London. << Google Scholar

Ashby W. R. (1991) General systems theory as a new discipline. In: Klir G. J. (ed.) Facets of systems science. Plenum Press, New York: 249–257. Originally published in 1958. << Google Scholar

Baron P., Glanville R., Griffiths D. & Sweeting B. (eds.) (2015) Living in Cybernetics: Papers from the 50th Anniversary Conference of the American Society for Cybernetics. Special double issue of Kybernetes 44(8/9). << Google Scholar

Bédard J.-F. (ed.) (1994) Cities of artificial excavation: The work of Peter Eisenman, 1978–1988. Rizzoli International, New York. << Google Scholar

Boden M. (2006) Mind as machine, a history of cognitive science. Volume 1. Oxford University Press, Oxford. << Google Scholar

Brand S., Bateson G. & Mead M. (1976) For God’s sake, Margaret: Conversation with Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead. CoEvolutionary Quarterly 10: 32–44. Available at http://www.oikos.org/forgod.htm

Bremaud I. (2012) Acoustical properties of wood in string instruments soundboards and tuned idiophones: Biological and cultural diversity. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Acoustical Society of America 2012: 131(1): 807–818. Available at https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00808347.

Broadbent G. & Ward A. (1969) Design methods in architecture. Lund Humphries, London. << Google Scholar

Crease R. P. & Lutterbie J. (2010) Technique. In: Krastner D. & Saltz D. A. (eds.) Staging philosophy: Intersections of theater, performance, and philosophy. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor: 160–179. << Google Scholar

Cross N. (1982) Designerly ways of knowing. Design Studies 3(4): 221–227. << Google Scholar

Cross N. (2007) Designerly ways of knowing. Birkhäuser, Basel. << Google Scholar

Cross N. (2007) From a design science to a design discipline: Understanding designerly ways of knowing and thinking. In: Michel R. (ed.) Design research now: Essays and selected projects. Birkhäuser, Basel. << Google Scholar

Downton P. (2004) Studies in design research: Ten epistemological pavilions. RMIT University Press, Melbourne. << Google Scholar

Dubberly H. & Pangaro P. (2007) Cybernetics and service-craft: Language for behavior-focused design. Kybernetes 36(9/10): 1301–1317. << Google Scholar

Dubberly H. & Pangaro P. (2015) How cybernetics connects computing, counterculture, and design. In: Hippie modernism: The struggle for utopia. Walker Art Center, Minneapolis MN: 1–12. Available at http://www.dubberly.com/articles/cybernetics-and-counterculture.html

Durrant A. C., Vines J., Wallace J. & Yee J. (2015) Developing a dialogical platform for disseminating research through design. Constructivist Foundations 11(1): 401–434 Available at http://constructivist.info/11/1/401

Eno B. (2011) Composers as gardeners. Edge 11.10.11. Available at https://www.edge.org/conversation/composers-as-gardeners.

Evans R. (1985) Not to be used for wrapping purposes: Peter Eisenman: Fin d’Ou T Hou S. AA Files 10: 68–78. Available at http://www.jstor.org/stable/29543477

Feyerabend P. K. (1970) Against method. In: Radner M. & Winokur S. (eds.) Analyses of theories and methods of physics and psychology. Volume IV. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis: 17–130. Retrieved from Available at http://www.mcps.umn.edu/philosophy/completeVol4.html

Feyerabend P. K. (1982) Science in a free society. Verso, London. Originally published in 1978. << Google Scholar

Feyerabend P. K. (1993) Against method. Third edition. Verso, London. Originally published in 1975. << Google Scholar

Fischer T. & Herr C. (2007) The designer as toolbreaker? Probing tool use in applied generative design. In: CAADRIA2004: Proceedings of the 12th international conference on computer aided architectural design research in Asia, Nanjing, China 19–21 April 2007: 367–375. << Google Scholar

Fischer T. & Richards L. D. (2015) From goal-oriented to constraint-oriented design: The cybernetic intersection of design theory and systems theory. Leonardo Journal, in press Available at http://cepa.info/2299

Fischer T. (2015) Wiener’s prefiguring of a cybernetic design theory. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 34(3): 52–59. << Google Scholar

Flusser V. (2011) Into the universe of technical images. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. << Google Scholar

Foerster H. von & Poerksen B. (2002) Understanding systems. Translated by K. Leube. Kluwer Academic, New York. << Google Scholar

Foerster H. von (1962) Perception of form in biological and man-made systems. In: Zagorski E. J. (ed.) Transactions of the I. D. E. A. Symposion. University of Illionois, Urbana IL: 10–37 Available at http://cepa.info/1612

Foerster H. von (1992) Ethics and second-order cybernetics. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 1(1): 9–20 Available at http://cepa.info/1742

Foerster H. von (2003) Cybernetics of cybernetics. In: Understanding understanding: Essays on cybernetics and cognition. Springer, New York: 283–286. Originally published in: Krippendorff K. (ed.) (1979) Communication and control. Gordon and Breach, New York: 5–8 Available at http://cepa.info/1707

Foerster H. von (2003) Understanding understanding: Essays on cybernetics and cognition. Springer, New York. << Google Scholar

Foerster H. von (ed.) (1995) Cybernetics of cybernetics: Or, the control of control and the communication of communication. Second edition. Future Systems, Minneapolis MN. Originally published in 1974. << Google Scholar

Frayling C. (1993) Research in art and design. Royal College of Art Research Papers 1(1): 1–5. << Google Scholar

Frazer J. (1993) The architectural relevance of cybernetics. Systems Research 10(3): 43–48. << Google Scholar

Frazer J. (1995) An evolutionary architecture. Architectural Association, London. Available at http://www.aaschool.ac.uk/publications/ea/intro.html

Furtado Cardoso Lopes G. M. (2008) Cedric Price’s generator and the Frazers’ systems research. Technoetic Arts 6(1): 55–72. << Google Scholar

Furtado Cardoso Lopes G. M. (2009) Gordon Pask: Exchanges between cybernetics and architecture and the envisioning of the IE. Kybernetes 38(7/8): 1317–1331. << Google Scholar

Furtado Cardoso Lopes G. M. (2010) Pask’s encounters: From a childhood curiosity to the envisioning of an evolving environment: Exchanges between cybernetics and architecture. Edition Echoraum, Vienna. << Google Scholar

Gage S. (2006) The wonder of trivial machines. Systems Research and Behavioral Science 23(6): 771–778. << Google Scholar

Gage S. (2007) Constructing the user. Systems Research and Behavioral Science 24(3): 313–322. << Google Scholar

Gage S. (2007) How to design a black and white box. Kybernetes 36(9/10): 1329–1339. << Google Scholar

Gedenryd H. (1998) How designers work: Making sense of authentic cognitive activities. Cognitive Studies 75. Lund University, Sweden. Available at http://lup.lub.lu.se/record/18828/file/1484253.pdf

Glanville R. & Sweeting B. (eds.) (2011) Cybernetics: Art, design, mathematics – A meta-disciplinary conversation: Papers from the 2010 conference of the American Society for Cybernetics. Special double issue of Kybernetes 40(7/8). << Google Scholar

Glanville R. (1992) CAD Abusing Computing. In: Mortola E. et al. (eds.) CAAD instruction: The new teaching of an architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, Barcelona: 213–224. << Google Scholar

Glanville R. (1994) Variety in design. Systems Research 11(3): 95–103 Available at http://cepa.info/2785

Glanville R. (1997) A ship without a rudder. In: Glanville R. & de Zeeuw G. (eds.) Problems of excavating cybernetics and systems. BKS+, Southsea Available at http://cepa.info/2846

Glanville R. (1999) Researching design and designing research. Design Issues 15(2): 80–91. << Google Scholar

Glanville R. (2002) Second order cybernetics. In: Parra-Luna F. (ed.) Systems science and cybernetics. In: Encyclopaedia of life support systems (EOLSS). EoLSS, Oxford (Web publication Available at http://cepa.info/2708

Glanville R. (2004) Appropriate theory. In: Durling D., de Bono A. & Redmond J. (eds.) Futureground: Proceedings of the Design Research Society international conference 2004. Monash University, Melbourne: PAGES. << Google Scholar

Glanville R. (2004) Desirable ethics. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 11(2): 77–88. << Google Scholar

Glanville R. (2004) The purpose of second-order cybernetics. Kybernetes 33(9/10): 1379–1386 Available at http://cepa.info/2294

Glanville R. (2006) Construction and design. Constructivist Foundations 1(3): 103– 110 Available at http://constructivist.info/1/3/103

Glanville R. (2006) Design and mentation: Piaget’s constant objects. The Radical Designist 0. Retrieved from Available at http://www.iade.pt/designist/pdfs/000_05.pdf

Glanville R. (2007) Designing complexity. Performance Improvement Quarterly 20(2): 75–96 Available at http://cepa.info/2694

Glanville R. (2007) Try again. Fail again. Fail better: The cybernetics in design and the design in cybernetics. Kybernetes 36(9/10): 1173–1206 Available at http://cepa.info/2464

Glanville R. (2009) A (cybernetic) musing: Certain propositions concerning prepositions. In: The black b∞x, volume III: 39 steps. Edition Echoraum, Vienna: 319–329. Originally published as: (2005) Cybernetics & Human Knowing 12(3): 87–95. << Google Scholar

Glanville R. (2009) A (cybernetic) musing: Design and cybernetics. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 16(3–4): 175–186. << Google Scholar

Glanville R. (2009) A (cybernetic) musing: Design and cybernetics. In: The black b∞x. Volume III: 39 steps. Edition Echoraum, Vienna: 423–425. Originally published as: (2009) Cybernetics & Human Knowing 16(3–4): 175–186. << Google Scholar

Glanville R. (2011) A (cybernetic) musing: Wicked problems. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 19(1–2): 163–173. << Google Scholar

Glanville R. (2011) Introduction: A conference doing the cybernetics of cybernetics. Kybernetes 40(7/8): 952–963. << Google Scholar

Glanville R. (2013) Radical constructivism = second order cybernetics. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 19(4): 27–42 Available at http://cepa.info/2695

Glanville R. (2014) Acting to understand and understanding to act. Kybernetes 43(9/10): 1293–1300. << Google Scholar

Glanville R. (2014) Freedom and the machine. Text of inaugural professorial lecture. University College London, 10 March 2010. In: Glanville R., The black b∞x. Volume II: Living in cybernetic circles. Edition echoraum, Vienna: 61–81. << Google Scholar

Glanville R. (2014) Why design research? In: Glanville R., The black b∞x. Volume II: Living in cybernetic circles. Edition Echoraum, Vienna: 111–120. Originally published in: Jacues R. & Powell J. (eds.) (1981) Design, science, method: Proceedings of the 1980 Design Research Society conference. Westbury House, Guildford: 86–94. << Google Scholar

Glanville R. (2015) The sometimes uncomfortable marriages of design and research. In: Rogers P. A. & Yee J. (eds.) The Routledge companion to design research. Routledge, London: 9–22 Available at http://cepa.info/2799

Glanville R. (ed.) (2007) Cybernetics and design. Special double issue of Kybernetes 36(9/10). << Google Scholar

Glanville R. (ed.) (2012) Trojan horses: A rattle bag from the ‘Cybernetics: Art, design, mathematic – A meta-disciplinary conversation’ post-conference workshop. Edition echoraum, Vienna. << Google Scholar

Glanville R., Griffiths D. & Baron P. (eds.) (2014) A circularity in learning. Special double issue of Kybernetes 43(9/10). << Google Scholar

Glasersfeld E. von (1990) An exposition of constructivism: Why some like it radical. In: Davis R. B., Maher C. A. & Noddings N. (eds.) Monographs of the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education #4. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Reston VA: 19–29 Available at http://cepa.info/1415

Glasersfeld E. von (1995) Radical constructivism: A way of knowing and learning. Falmer Press, London. << Google Scholar

Goodbun J. (2011) Gregory Bateson’s ecological aesthetics: An addendum to urban political ecology. Field 4(1): 35–46. Available at http://www.field-journal.org/uploads/file/2011 Volume 4/field-journal_Ecology.pdf

Gooding D. (1992) Putting agency back into experiment. In: Pickering A. (ed.) Science as practice and culture. University of Chicago Press, Chicago IL: 65–112. << Google Scholar

Grand S. & Jonas W. (2012) Mapping design research. Birkhäuser, Basel. << Google Scholar

Halprin L. (1969) The RSVP cycles: Creative processes in the human environment. George Brazillier, New York. << Google Scholar

Herr C. & Fischer T. (2004) Using hardware cellular automata to simulate use in adaptive architecture. In: CAADRIA2004: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, Seoul, Korea 28–30 April 2004: 815–828. << Google Scholar

Herr C. & Fischer T. (2013) Systems for showing and repurposing: A second-order cybernetic reflection on some cellular automata projects. Journal of Mathematics and System Science 3(2013): 201–216 Available at http://cepa.info/2323

Herr C. M. (2011) Mutually arising abstract and actual. Kybernetes 40(7/8): 1030–1037. << Google Scholar

Herr C. M. (2015) Second order cellular automata to support designing. Kybernetes 44(8/9): 1251–1261. << Google Scholar

Herr C. M. (2015) The big picture: Connecting design, second order cybernetics and radical constructivism. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 22(2–3): 107–114 Available at http://cepa.info/2468

Hohl M. & Sweeting B. (eds.) (2015) Composing conferences. Special issue of Constructivist Foundations 11(1 Available at http://constructivist.info/11/1

Holl S., Pallasmaa J. & Pérez-Gómez A. (2006) Questions of perception: Phenomenology of architecture. William Stout, San Francisco CA. << Google Scholar

Hollingsworth R. & Müller, K. H. (2008) Transforming socio-economics with a new epistemology. Socio-Economic Review 6(3): 395–426. << Google Scholar

Irwin T. (2015) Transition design: A proposal for a new area of design practice, study and research. Design and Culture 7(2): 229–246. << Google Scholar

Jelić A. (2015) Designing “pre-reflective” architecture: Implications of neurophenomenology for architectural design and thinking. Ambiances – International Journal of Sensory Environment, Architecture, and Urban Space: 11 September 2015. Available at http://ambiances.revues.org/628

Jelić A., Tieri G., De Matteis F., Babiloni F. & Vecchiato G. (2016) The enactive approach to architectural experience: A neurophysiological perspective on embodiment, motivation, and affordances. Frontiers in Psychology 7. Available at http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00481

Jonas W. (2007) Design research and its meaning to the methodological development of the discipline. In: Michel R. (ed.) Design research now: Essays and selected projects. Birkhäuser, Basel: 187–206. << Google Scholar

Jonas W. (2007) Research through DESIGN through research: A cybernetic model of designing design foundations. Kybernetes 36(9/10): 1362–1380. << Google Scholar

Jonas W. (2012) Exploring the swampy ground. In: Grand S. & Jonas W. (eds.) Mapping design research. Birkhäuser, Basel: 11–41. << Google Scholar

Jonas W. (2014) The strengths/limits of Systems Thinking denote the strengths/limits of Practice-Based Design Research. FORMakademisk 7(4): Article 1: 1–11. << Google Scholar

Jonas W. (2015) A cybernetic model of design research: Towards a trans-domain of knowing. In: Rogers P. A. & Yee J. (eds.) The Routledge companion to design research. Routledge, London: 23–37. << Google Scholar

Jonas W. (2015) Research through design is more than just a new form of disseminating design outcomes. Constructivist Foundations 11(1): 32–36 Available at http://constructivist.info/11/1/032

Jones J. C. (1984) How my thoughts about design methods have changed during the years. In: Essays in design. Wiley, Chichester: 13–27. Originally published in 1974. << Google Scholar

Jones P. (2014) Design research methods in systemic design. In: Sevaldson B. & Jones P. (eds.) Proceedings of the Third Symposium of Relating Systems Thinking to Design (RSD3) Oslo School of Architecture and Design, Oslo. Available at http://systemic-design.net/rsd3-proceedings/

Knorr Cetina K. (1992) The couch, the cathedral, and the laboratory: On the relationship between experiment and laboratory in science. In: Pickering A. (ed.) Science as practice and culture. University of Chicago Press, Chicago IL: 113–138. << Google Scholar

Kolarevic B. (2003) Architecture in the digital age: Design and manufacturing. Taylor & Francis, New York. << Google Scholar

Krippendorff K. (2007) The cybernetics of design and the design of cybernetics. Kybernetes 36(9/10): 1381–1392 Available at http://cepa.info/2463

Krueger T. (2007) Design and prosthetic perception. Kybernetes 36(9/10): 1393–1405. << Google Scholar

Lautenschlaeger G. & Pratschke A. (2011) Don’t give up! Media art as an endless conversational process. Kybernetes 40(7/8): 1090–1101. << Google Scholar

Leach N. (2012) Parametrics explained. In: Leach N. & Yuan P. F. (ed.) Scripting the future. Tongij University Press, Shanghai. Reprinted as: Leach N. (2014) Parametrics explained. Next Generation Building 1(1): 8–15. << Google Scholar

Littlewood J. (1964) A laboratory of fun. New Scientist 22(391): 432–433. << Google Scholar

Lloyd Thomas K., Amhoff T. & Beech N. (eds.) (2016) Industries of architecture. Routledge, London. << Google Scholar

Lobsinger M. L. (2000) Cybernetic theory and the architecture of performance: Cedric Price’s Fun Palace. In: Goldhagen S. W. & Legault R. (eds.) Anxious modernisms: Experimentation in post-war architectural culture. MIT Press, Cambridge MA: 119–139. << Google Scholar

Lynn G. (ed.) (1993) Folding in architecture. Architectural Design Profile 102: 8–15. << Google Scholar

Mallgrave H. F. (2011) The architect’s brain: Neuroscience, creativity, and architecture. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. << Google Scholar

Mallgrave H. F. (2013) Architecture and embodiment: The implications of the new sciences and humanities for design. Routledge, New York NY. << Google Scholar

Mathews S. (2005) The Fun Palace: Cedric Price’s experiment in architecture and technology. Technoetic Arts: A Journal of Speculative Research, 3(2): 73–91. << Google Scholar

Mathews S. (2006) The Fun Palace as virtual architecture: Cedric Price and the practices of indeterminacy. Journal of Architectural Education 59(3): 39–48. << Google Scholar

Mathews S. (2007) From agit-prop to free space: The architecture of Cedric Price. London: Black Dog. << Google Scholar

Maturana H. R. (1990) Science and daily life: The ontology of scientific explanations. In: Krohn W., Kuppers G. & Nowotny H. (eds.) Selforganization: Portrait of a scientific revolution. Kluwer, Dordrecht: 12–35 Available at http://cepa.info/607

Müller A. & Müller K. H. (eds.) (2007) An unfinished revolution? Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory (BCL): 1958–1976. Edition Echoraum, Vienna. << Google Scholar

Müller K. H. & Müller A. (2011) Foreword: Re-discovering and re-inventing Heinz von Foerster. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 18(3–4): 5–16. << Google Scholar

Müller K. H. & Riegler A. (2014) A new course of action. Constructivist Foundations 10(1): 1–6 Available at http://constructivist.info/10/1/001

Müller K. H. & Riegler A. (2014) Second-order science: A vast and largely unexplored science frontier. Constructivist Foundations 10(1): 7–15 Available at http://constructivist.info/10/1/007

Müller K. H. (2008) The new science of cybernetics: The evolution of living research designs. Volume I: Methodology. Edition Echoraum, Vienna. << Google Scholar

Müller K. H. (2010) The radical constructivist movement and its network formations. Constructivist Foundations 6(1): 31–39 Available at http://constructivist.info/6/1/031

Müller K. H. (2011) The new science of cybernetics: The evolution of living research designs. Volume II: Theory. Edition Echoraum, Vienna. << Google Scholar

Müller K. H. (2014) Towards a general methodology for second-order science. Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics 12(5): 33–42 Available at http://cepa.info/2786

Mead M. (1968) Cybernetics of cybernetics. In: Foerster H. von, White J. D., Peterson L. J. & Russell J. K. (eds.) Purposive systems. Spartan Books, New York: 1–11 Available at http://cepa.info/2634

Medawar P. (1996) Is the scientific paper a fraud? In: The strange case of the spotted mice and other classic essays on science. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 33–39. Originally published in 1963. << Google Scholar

Michel R. (2007) Design research now: Essays and selected projects. Birkhäuser, Basel. << Google Scholar

Negroponte N. (1975) Soft architecture machines. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. << Google Scholar

Nicolescu B. (2012) Transdisciplinarity: The hidden third, between the subject and the object. Human & Social Studies 1(1): 13–28. << Google Scholar

Nowotny H., Scott P. & Gibbons M. (2006) Re-thinking science: Mode 2 in societal context. In: Carayannis E. G. & Campbell D. F. J. (eds.) Knowledge creation, diffusion, and use in innovation networks and knowledge clusters. A comparative systems approach across the United States, Europe and Asia. Praeger, Westport CT: 39–51. << Google Scholar

Oxman R. (2006) Theory and design in the first digital age. International Journal of Design Studies 27: 229–265. << Google Scholar

Pallasmaa J. (2005) The eyes of the skin: Architecture and the senses. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. << Google Scholar

Pask G. (1963) The conception of a shape and the evolution of a design. In: Jones J. C. & Thornley D. G. (eds.) Conference on Design Methods, September, 1962. Pergamon Press, Oxford: 153–167. Retrieved from Available at http://pangaro.com/pask/pask conception of shape and evolution of design.pdf

Pask G. (1969) The architectural relevance of cybernetics. Architectural Design 39(9): 494–496 Available at http://cepa.info/2696

Pask G. (1976) Conversation theory: Applications in education and epistemology. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Retrieved from Available at http://pangaro.com/pask/ConversationTheory.zip

Pickering A. (1993) The mangle of practice: Agency and emergence in the sociology of science. American Journal of Sociology 99(3): 559–589. << Google Scholar

Pickering A. (1995) The mangle of practice: Time, agency, and science. University of Chicago Press, Chicago IL. << Google Scholar

Pickering A. (2010) The cybernetic brain: Sketches of another future. University of Chicago Press, Chicago IL. << Google Scholar

Pickering A. (ed.) (1992) Science as practice and culture. University of Chicago Press, Chicago IL. << Google Scholar

Popper K. R. (1976) Unended quest: An intellectual autobiography. Routledge, London. << Google Scholar

Pratschke A. (2007) Architecture as a verb: Cybernetics and design processes for the social divide. Kybernetes 36(9/10): 1458–1470. << Google Scholar

Price C. (2003) Re: CP. Edited by H. U. Obrist. Birkhäuser, Basel. << Google Scholar

Ramsgard Thomsen M. (2007) Drawing a live section: Explorations into robotic membranes. Kybernetes 36(9/10): 1471–1485. << Google Scholar

Rawes P. (2007) Second-order cybernetics, architectural drawing and monadic thinking. Kybernetes 36(9/10): 1486–1496. << Google Scholar

Rawes P. (ed.) (2013) Relational architectural ecologies: Architecture, nature and subjectivity. Routledge, London. << Google Scholar

Richards L. D. (2010) The anticommunication imperative. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 17(1–2): 11–24 Available at http://cepa.info/925

Richards L. D. (2015) Designing academic conferences in the light of second-order cybernetics. Constructivist Foundations 11(1): 65–73 Available at http://constructivist.info/11/1/065

Riegler A. & Müller K. H. (eds.) (2014) Second-order science. Special issue of Constructivist Foundations 10(1 Available at http://constructivist.info/10/1

Rietveld E. & Kiverstein J. (2014) A rich landscape of affordances. Ecological Psychology 26(4): 325–352. << Google Scholar

Rietveld E. (2016) Situating the embodied mind in a landscape of standing affordances for living without chairs: Materializing a philosophical worldview. Sports Medicine: 1–6. << Google Scholar

Rittel H. & Webber M. (1973) Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences 4: 155–169. << Google Scholar

Rittel H. & Webber M. (1984) Planning problems are wicked problems. In: Cross N. (ed.) Developments in design methodology. Wiley, Chichester: 135–144. << Google Scholar

Rittel H. (1972) On the planning crisis: Systems analysis of the “first and second generations.” Bedriftskonomen 8: 390–396. << Google Scholar

Rogers P. A. & Yee J. (eds.) (2015) The Routledge companion to design research. Routledge, London. << Google Scholar

Schön D. A. (1988) Designing: Rules, types and worlds. Design Studies 9(3): 181–190. << Google Scholar

Schön D. A. (1991) The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. Arena, Farnham. Originally published in 1983. << Google Scholar

Schneidewind U. & Augenstein K. (2012) Analyzing a transition to a sustainability-oriented science system in Germany. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 3: 16–28. << Google Scholar

Scott B. (2003) “Heinz von Foerster – An appreciation” (Revisited). Cybernetics & Human Knowing 10(3–4): 137–149 Available at http://cepa.info/2697

Scott B. (2004) Second-order cybernetics: An historical introduction. Kybernetes 33(9/10): 1365–1378. << Google Scholar

Scott B. (2011) Explorations in second-order cybernetics: Reflections on cybernetics, psychology and education. Edition Echoraum, Vienna. << Google Scholar

Shannon C. E. (1948) A mathematical theory of communication. The Bell System Technical Journal 27: 379–457. Available at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6773024

Simon H. A. (1996) The sciences of the artificial. Third edition. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. Originally published in 1969. << Google Scholar

Snow C. P. (1961) The two cultures and the scientific revolution. Cambridge University Press, New York. << Google Scholar

Spiller N. (2006) Visionary architecture: Blueprints of the modern imagination. Thames and Hudson, London. << Google Scholar

Spiller N. (ed.) (2002) Cyber_reader: Critical writings for the digital era. Phaidon Press, London. << Google Scholar

Sweeting B. & Hohl M. (2015) Exploring alternatives to the traditional conference format: Introduction to the special issue on composing conferences. Constructivist Foundations 11(1): 1–7 Available at http://constructivist.info/11/1/001

Sweeting B. (2011) Conversing with drawings and buildings: From abstract to actual in architecture. Kybernetes 40 (7/8): 1159–1165 Available at http://cepa.info/1002

Sweeting B. (2014) Architecture and undecidability: Explorations in there being no right answer – Some intersections between epistemology, ethics and designing architecture, understood in terms of second-order cybernetics and radical constructivism. PhD Thesis, UCL, London. Available at http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1443544

Sweeting B. (2015) Architecture and second order science. In: Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the ISSS 1(1): 1–6 Available at http://cepa.info/2843

Sweeting B. (2015) Conversation, design and ethics: The cybernetics of Ranulph Glanville. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 22(2–3): 99–105 Available at http://cepa.info/2845

Sweeting B. (2015) Cybernetics of practice. Kybernetes 44(8/9): 1397–1405. << Google Scholar

Toffler A. (1970) Future shock: A study of mass bewilderment in the face of accelerating change. Bodley Head, London. << Google Scholar

Trimingham R. (2008) The role of values in design decision-making. Design and Technology Education: An International Journal 13(2): 37–52. << Google Scholar

Turnbull D. (2000) Masons, tricksters and cartographers: Comparative studies in the sociology of scientific and indigenous knowledge. Routledge, London. << Google Scholar

Umpleby S. A. & Dent E. (1999) The origins and purposes of several traditions in systems theory and cybernetics. Cybernetics and Systems 30(2): 79–103 Available at http://cepa.info/2698

Umpleby S. A. (2003) Heinz von Foerster and the Mansfield amendment. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 10(3–4): 187–190 Available at http://cepa.info/1876

Umpleby S. A. (2014) Second-order science: Logic, strategies, methods. Constructivist Foundations 10(1): 16–23 Available at http://constructivist.info/10/016

Upitis A. (2013) Alexander’s choice: How architecture avoided computer aided design c. 1962. In: Dutta A. (ed.) A second modernism: MIT, architecture, and the “techno-social” moment. SA+P Press, Cambridge MA: 474–505. << Google Scholar

van Ditmar D. F. & Glanville R. (eds.) (2013) Listening: Proceedings of ASC conference 2011. Special double issue of Cybernetics & Human Knowing 20(1–2). << Google Scholar

Vörös S. (2014) The uroboros of consciousness: Between the naturalisation of phenomenology and the phenomenologisation of nature. Constructivist Foundations 10(1): 96–104 Available at http://constructivist.info/10/1/096

Wiener N. (1950) The human use of human beings: Cybernetics and society. Eyre and Spottiswoode, London. << Google Scholar

Zumthor P. (1999) Thinking architecture. Birkhäuser, Basel. << Google Scholar

Comments: 0

To stay informed about comments to this publication and post comments yourself, please log in first.