Volume 9 · Number 2 · Pages 223–231

< Previous Paper · Next Paper >

Info-computational Constructivism and Cognition

Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic

Download the full text in
PDF (1521 kB)

> Citation > Similar > References > Add Comment


Context: At present, we lack a common understanding of both the process of cognition in living organisms and the construction of knowledge in embodied, embedded cognizing agents in general, including future artifactual cognitive agents under development, such as cognitive robots and softbots. Purpose: This paper aims to show how the info-computational approach (IC) can reinforce constructivist ideas about the nature of cognition and knowledge and, conversely, how constructivist insights (such as that the process of cognition is the process of life) can inspire new models of computing. Method: The info-computational constructive framework is presented for the modeling of cognitive processes in cognizing agents. Parallels are drawn with other constructivist approaches to cognition and knowledge generation. We describe how cognition as a process of life itself functions based on info-computation and how the process of knowledge generation proceeds through interactions with the environment and among agents. Results: Cognition and knowledge generation in a cognizing agent is understood as interaction with the world (potential information), which by processes of natural computation becomes actual information. That actual information after integration becomes knowledge for the agent. Heinz von Foerster is identified as a precursor of natural computing, in particular bio computing. Implications: IC provides a framework for unified study of cognition in living organisms (from the simplest ones, such as bacteria, to the most complex ones) as well as in artifactual cognitive systems. Constructivist content: It supports the constructivist view that knowledge is actively constructed by cognizing agents and shared in a process of social cognition. IC argues that this process can be modeled as info-computation.

Key words: Constructivism, info-computationalism, computing nature, morphological computing, self-organization, autopoiesis


Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2014) Info-computational constructivism and cognition. Constructivist Foundations 9(2): 223–231. http://constructivist.info/9/2/223

Export article citation data: Plain Text · BibTex · EndNote · Reference Manager (RIS)

Similar articles

Leydesdorff L. (2012) Radical Constructivism and Radical Constructedness: Luhmann’s Sociology of Semantics, Organizations, and Self-Organization

Urrestarazu H. (2012) Autopoietic Systems: A Generalized Explanatory Approach – Part 3: The Scale of Description Problem

Urrestarazu H. (2011) Autopoietic Systems: A Generalized Explanatory Approach – Part 2

Brier S. (2009) Cybersemiotic Pragmaticism and Constructivism

Urrestarazu H. (2014) Social Autopoiesis?


Abraham D. & Shaw R. (1999) A visual introduction to dynamical systems theory for psychology. Aerial Press, Santa Cruz. << Google Scholar

Allen C. (2010) Animal consciousness. In: Zalta E. N. (ed.) Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Available at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consciousness-animal/

Anderson P. W. (1972) More is different. Science 177: 393–396. << Google Scholar

Asaro P. M. (2007) Heinz von Foerster and the bio-computing movements of the 1960s. In: Müller K. H. & Müller A. (ed.) An unfinished revolution? Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory | BCL 1958–1976. Echoraum, Vienna: 253–276. << Google Scholar

Ashby W. R. (1960) Design for a brain. Second edition. Wiley, New York. << Google Scholar

Baeyer H. von (2013) Quantum weirdness. It’s all in your mind. Scientific American 308(6): 46–51. << Google Scholar

Baeyer H.von (2013) Can quantum bayesianism fix the paradoxes of quantum mechanics? Scientific American 308(6): 47–51. << Google Scholar

Ballard D. (2002) Our perception of the world has to be an illusion. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9: 54–71. << Google Scholar

Bar-Yam Y. (2004) A mathematical theory of strong emergence using multiscale variety. Complexity 9(6): 15–24. << Google Scholar

Bar-Yam Y. (2004) Multiscale variety in complex systems. Complexity 9(4): 37–45. << Google Scholar

Basti G. (2014) The formal ontology of the natural realism. Sociedade Brasileira de Historia de Matematica, Campinas. In press. << Google Scholar

Bateson G. (1972) Steps to an ecology of mind. Ballantine books, New York. << Google Scholar

Bateson G. (1979) Mind and nature: A necessary unity. Bantam Books, New York. << Google Scholar

Bateson G. (2002) Mind and nature: A necessary unity. Hampton Press, Princeton NJ. << Google Scholar

Ben-Jacob E., Shapira Y. & Tauber A. I. (2006) Seeking the foundations of cognition in bacteria. Physica A 359: 495–524. << Google Scholar

Blasone M., Jizba P. & Vitiello G. (2011) Quantum field theory and its macroscopic manifestations. Boson condensation, ordered patterns and topological defects. Imperial College Press, London. << Google Scholar

Boghossian P. (2006) Fear of knowledge: Against relativism and constructivism. Oxford University Press, Oxford. << Google Scholar

Bonsignorio F. (2013) Quantifying the evolutionary self-structuring of embodied cognitive networks. artificial Life 19(2): 267–289. << Google Scholar

Boto L. (2010) Horizontal gene transfer in evolution: Facts and challenges. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 277: 819–827. << Google Scholar

Brier S. (1992) Information and consciousness: A critique of the mechanistic foundation of the concept of information. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 1(2/3): 71–94. Available at http://www.imprint.co.uk/C&HK/vol1/v1–23sbr.htm

Brier S. (1995) Cyber-semiotics: On autopoiesis, code-duality and sign games in bio-semiotics. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 3(1): 3–14. Available at http://www.imprint.co.uk/C&HK/vol3/v3–1sbr.htm

Brier S. (1996) From second-order cybernetics to cybersemiotics: A semiotic re-entry into the second-order cybernetics of Heinz von Foerster. Systems Research 13(3): 229–244. << Google Scholar

Brier S. (2008) Cybersemiotics: Why information is not enough! Toronto studies in semiotics and communication. University of Toronto Press, Toronto. Reprinted with minor corrections in 2010 and 2013. << Google Scholar

Brier S. (2011) Cybersemiotics and the question of knowledge. In: Dodig-Crnkovic G. & Burgin M. (eds.) Information and computation. World Scientific, Singapore: 1–34. << Google Scholar

Brier S. (2011) Ethology and the Sebeokian way from zoosemiotics to cyber(bio)semiotics. In: Deely J., Kull K. & Petrilli S. (eds.) Semiotics continues to astonish: The intellectual heritage of Thomas Albert Sebeok. Mouton de Gruyter, Paris: 41–84. << Google Scholar

Brier S. (2013) Cybersemiotics: A new foundation for transdisciplinary theory of consciousness, cognition, meaning and communication. In: Swan L. (ed.) Origins of mind. Springer, Berlin: 97–126 << Google Scholar

Brier S. (2013) Cybersemiotics: A new foundation for transdisciplinary theory of information, cognition, meaningful communication and the interaction between nature and culture. Integral Review 9(2): 220–262. << Google Scholar

Brier S. (2013) Transdisciplinary view of Information theory seen from a Cybersemiotics point of view. In: Ibekwe-SanJuan F. & Dousa T. (eds.) Fundamental notions of information, communication and knowledge: Its effect on scientific research and inter-disciplinarity. Springer, New York: 23–49. << Google Scholar

Burgin M. (2005) Super-recursive algorithms. Springer, New York. << Google Scholar

Burgin M. (2010) Theory of information: Fundamentality, diversity and unification. World Scientific, Singapore. << Google Scholar

Butler D. & Gash H. (2003) Creative learning and spiritual moments. In: Lasker G. E. (ed.) Advances in sociocybernetics and human development. Volume XI. International Institute for Advanced Studies, Windsor: 41–46. << Google Scholar

Bynum T. & Moor J. (2000) The digital phoenix: How computers are changing philosophy. Revised Edition. Blackwell, Oxford. << Google Scholar

Caves C. M., Fuchs C. A. & Schack R. (2002) Quantum probabilities as Bayesian probabilities. Physical Review A 65(2): 1–6. << Google Scholar

Chalmers D. J. (1995) Facing up to the hard problem of consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2(3): 200–219. << Google Scholar

Changeux J.-P. (1983) L’homme neuronal. Fayard, Paris. << Google Scholar

Chiribella G., D’Ariano G. M. & Perinotti P. (2012) Quantum theory, namely the pure and reversible theory of information. Entropy 14: 1877–1893. << Google Scholar

Cilliers P. (2002) Complexity and postmodernism: Understanding complex systems. Routledge, London. Originally published in 1998. << Google Scholar

Clark A. (1989) Microcognition: Philosophy, cognitive science, and parallel distributed processing. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. << Google Scholar

Crutchfield J. P., Ditto W. L. & Sinha S. (2010) Introduction to focus issue: Intrinsic and designed computation: information processing in dynamical systems-beyond the digital hegemony. Chaos 20(3): 037101. << Google Scholar

Csermely P. (2009) Weak links. The universal key to the stability of networks. Springer, New York. << Google Scholar

Davies P. C. W. (2010) Universe from bit. In: Davies P. C. W. & Gregersen N. H. (eds.) Information and the nature of reality. From physics to metaphysics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 65–91. << Google Scholar

Deacon T. (2011) Incomplete nature. How mind emerged from matter. W. W. Norton, New York. << Google Scholar

Deffner S. & Jarzynski C. (2013) Information processing and the second law of thermodynamics: An inclusive, Hamiltonian approach. Physical Review X 3: 041003. Available at https://journals.aps.org/prx/pdf/10.1103/PhysRevX.3.041003

Dennett D. C. (1978) Brainstorms: Philosophical essays on mind and psychology. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. << Google Scholar

Dennett D. C. (1987) The intentional stance. MIT Press: Cambridge MA. << Google Scholar

Dennett D. C.(1993) Consciousness explained. Penguin Books, London. << Google Scholar

Dodig-Crnkovic G. & Giovagnoli R. (2013) Computing nature. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg. << Google Scholar

Dodig-Crnkovic G. & Hofkirchner W. (2011) Floridi’s open problems in philosophy of information. Ten years after. Information 2(2): 327–359. << Google Scholar

Dodig-Crnkovic G. & Müller V. (2011) A dialogue concerning two world systems: Info-computational vs. mechanistic. In: Dodig Crnkovic G. & Burgin M. (eds.) Information and computation. World Scientific, Singapore: 149–184. << Google Scholar

Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2006) Investigations into information semantics and ethics of computing. Mälardalen University Press, Västerås Sweden: 1–133. << Google Scholar

Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2008) Knowledge generation as natural computation. Journal of Systemics. Cybernetics and Informatics 6(2): 12–16. << Google Scholar

Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2009) Information and computation nets. Investigations into info-computational world. VDM Verlag, Saarbrücken. << Google Scholar

Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2010) Biological information and natural computation. In: Vallverdú J. (ed.) Thinking machines and the philosophy of computer science: Concepts and principles. IGI Global, Hershey PA: 36–52. << Google Scholar

Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2010) Constructivist research and info-computational knowledge generation. In: Magnani L., Carnielli W. & Pizzi C. (eds.) Model-based reasoning in science and technology. Abduction, logic, and computational discovery. Springer, Heidelberg/Berlin: 359–380. << Google Scholar

Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2010) The cybersemiotics and info-computationalist research programmes as platforms for knowledge production in organisms and machines. Entropy 12(4): 878–901. << Google Scholar

Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2011) Dynamics of information as natural computation. Information 2(3): 460–477. << Google Scholar

Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2011) Significance of models of computation from turing model to natural computation. Minds and Machines 21(2): 301–322. << Google Scholar

Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2012) Physical computation as dynamics of form that glues everything together. Information 3(2): 204–218. << Google Scholar

Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2014) Information, computation, cognition. Agency-based hierarchies of levels. In: Müller V. C. (ed.) Fundamental issues of artificial intelligence. Springer, Berlin. In press. << Google Scholar

Edelman G. M. & Gally J. A. (2001) Degeneracy and complexity in biological systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98: 13763–13768. << Google Scholar

Edelman G. M. (1989) The remembered present. Basic Books, New York. << Google Scholar

Ehresmann A. C. & Vanbremeersch J.-P. (2007) Memory Evolutive Systems: Hierarchy, emergence, cognition. Elsevier, New York. << Google Scholar

Ehresmann A. C. (2012) MENS, an info-computational model for (neuro-)cognitive systems capable of creativity. Entropy 14: 1703–1716. << Google Scholar

Eilenberg S. & MacLane S. (1945) General theory of natural equivalences. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society 58(2): 231–294. << Google Scholar

Füllsack M. (2011) Firstness – As seen from the perspective of complexity research. E-Logos. Journal for Philosophy 8: 2–19. << Google Scholar

Füllsack M. (2013) Constructivism and computation. Can computer-based modeling add to the case of constructivism? Constructivist Foundation 9(1): 7–16. Available at http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/journal/9/1/007.fuellsack

Fields C. (2012) If physics is an information science, what is an observer? Information 3(1): 92–123. << Google Scholar

Floridi L. (2003) Informational realism. In: Weckert J. & Al-Saggaf Y. (eds.) Selected papers from conference on Computers and Philosophy (CRPIT ’03) Australian Computer Society, Darlinghurst: 7–12. << Google Scholar

Floridi L. (2008) A defense of informational structural realism. Synthese 161(2): 219–253. << Google Scholar

Floridi L. (2008) Trends in the philosophy of information. In: Adriaans P. & van Benthem J. (eds.) Handbook of philosophy of information. Elsevier, Amsterdam: 113–132. << Google Scholar

Floridi L. (2009) Against digital ontology. Synthese 168(1): 151–178. << Google Scholar

Floridi L. (2010) The Cambridge handbook of information and computer ethics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. << Google Scholar

Foerster H. von (1976) Objects: Tokens for (eigen-)behaviors. ASC Cybernetics Forum 8(3–4): 91–96. Reprinted in: Foerster H. von (2003) Understanding understanding: Essays on cybernetics and cognition. Springer, New York: 261–271. << Google Scholar

Foerster H. von (1981) Observing systems. Intersystems Publications, Seaside CA. << Google Scholar

Foerster H. von (2003) Notes on an epistemology for living things. In: Foerster H. von, Understanding understanding: Essays on cybernetics and cognition. Springer, New York: 247–259. Originally published in 1972. << Google Scholar

Foerster H. von (2003) Objects: Tokens for (eigen-)behaviors. In: Foerster H. von, Understanding understanding: Essays on cybernetics and cognition. Springer, New York: 261–271. Originally published in 1976. << Google Scholar

Foerster H. von (2003) On constructing a reality. In: Foerster H. von, Understanding understanding: Essays on cybernetics and cognition. Springer, New York: 211–227. Originally published in 1973. << Google Scholar

Froese T., C. & Rosenblueth D. A. (2013) The dynamically extended mind – A minimal modeling case study. In: IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2013), Cancun, Mexico. IEEE Press, Piscataway NJ: 1419–1426. << Google Scholar

Fuchs C. A. (2011) Coming of age with quantum information: Notes on a Paulian idea. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge MA. << Google Scholar

Garzón P. C. (2012) Plant neurobiology: Lessons for the unity of science. In: Pombo O., Torres J. M., Symons J. & Rahman S. (eds.) Special sciences and the unity of science. Springer, Dordrecht: 121–137. << Google Scholar

Gánti T. (2003) The principles of life. Oxford University Press, Oxford. << Google Scholar

Gershenson C. (2011) The sigma profile: A formal tool to study organization and its evolution at multiple scales. Complexity 16(5): 37–44. << Google Scholar

Gershenson C. (2012) The world as evolving information. In: Minai A., Braha D. & Bar-Yam Y. (eds.) Unifying themes in complex systems Volume VII. Springer, Berlin: 100–115. << Google Scholar

Gershenson C. (2013) The implications of interactions for science and philosophy. Foundations of Science 18(4): 781–790. << Google Scholar

Glasersfeld E. von (1974) Piaget and the radical constructivist epistemology. In: Smock C. D. & Glasersfeld E. von (eds.) Epistemology and education. Follow Through Publications, Athens GA: 1–24. Available at http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/EvG/papers/034.pdf

Glasersfeld E. von (1979) Cybernetics, experience, and the concept of self. In: Ozer M. N. (ed.) A cybernetic approach to the assessment of children: Toward a more humane use of human beings. Westview Press, Boulder CO: 67–113. Available at http://www.vonglasersfeld.com/056

Glasersfeld E. von (1984) An introduction to radical constructivism. In: Watzlawick P. (ed.) The invented reality. Norton, New York: 17–40. Available at http://www.vonglasersfeld.com/070.1

Glasersfeld E. von (1991) A constructivist’s view of learning and teaching. In: Duit R., Goldberg F. & Niedderer H. (eds.) Research in physics learning: Theoretical issues and empirical studies – Proceedings of an international workshop. IPN, Kiel: 29–39. Available at http://www.vonglasersfeld.com/135

Glasersfeld E. von (1995) A constructivist approach to teaching. In: Steffe L. P. & Gale J. (eds.) Constructivism in education. Erlbaum, Hillsdale: 3–15. << Google Scholar

Glasersfeld E. von (1995) Radical constructivism: A way of knowing and learning. Falmer Press, London. << Google Scholar

Glasersfeld E. von (2010) Partial memories. Imprint Academic, Exeter. << Google Scholar

Glasser W. (1985) Control theory. Harper & Row, New York. << Google Scholar

Gontier N. (2010) Evolutionary epistemology as a scientific method: A new look upon the units and levels of evolution. Theory in Biosciences 129: 167–182. << Google Scholar

Gopnik A., Glymour C., Sobel D., Schulz L., Kushnir T., & Danks D. (2004) A theory of causal learning in children: Causal maps and Bayes nets. Psychological Review 111(1): 1–31. << Google Scholar

Goyal P. (2012) Information physics. Towards a new conception of physical reality. Information 3: 567–594. << Google Scholar

Granovetter M. (1973) The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology 78: 1360–1380. << Google Scholar

Harms W. F. (2004) Information and meaning in evolutionary processes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge MA. << Google Scholar

Harms W. F. (2006) Naturalizing epistemology: Prospectus 2006. Biological Theory 1: 23–24. << Google Scholar

Hebb D. (1949) The organization of behaviour. Wiley, New York. << Google Scholar

Hewitt C. (2007) What is commitment? Physical, organizational, and social. In: Noriega P., Vazquez-Salceda J., Boella G., Boissier O. & Dign V. (eds.) Coordination, organizations, institutions, and norms in agent systems II. Springer, Berlin: 293–307. << Google Scholar

Hewitt C. (2010) Actor model for discretionary, adaptive concurrency. Computing Research Repository CoRR, abs/1008.1. Available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1008.1459

Hewitt C. (2012) What is computation? Actor Model versus Turing’s Model. In: Zenil H. (ed.) (2012) A computable universe. Understanding computation and exploring nature as computation. World Scientific, Singapore: 159–186. << Google Scholar

Hewitt C., Bishop P. & Steiger P. (1973) A universal modular ACTOR formalism for artificial intelligence. In: Nilsson N. J. (ed.) Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. William Kaufmann, Standford: 235–245. << Google Scholar

Heyes C. & Huber L. (eds.) (2000) The evolution of cognition. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. << Google Scholar

Heylighen F., Cilliers P. & C. (2007) Complexity and philosophy. In: Bogg J. & Geyer R. (eds). Complexity, science and society. Radcliffe Publishing, Oxford: 117–134. << Google Scholar

Hoffman D. (2009) The interface theory of perception: Natural selection drives true perception to swift extinction. In: Dickinson S. J., Leonardis A., Schiele B. & Tarr M. J. (ed.) Object categorization: Computer and human vision perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge MA: 148–166. << Google Scholar

Jablonka E. & Lamb M. (2005) Evolution in four dimensions: Genetic, epigenetic, behavioral, and symbolic variation in the history of life. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. << Google Scholar

Jain R., Rivera M. C. & Lake J. A. (1999) Horizontal gene transfer among genomes: The complexity hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U. S.A. 96(7): 3801–3806. << Google Scholar

James W. (1983) Principles of psychology. Harvard University Press, Boston. Originally published in 1890. << Google Scholar

Johannessen J.-A. & Hauan A. (1994) Communication – A systems theoretical point of view (Third-order cybernetics). Systems Practice 7(1): 63–73. << Google Scholar

Johnson D. (2008) Computer Ethics. Forth Edition. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River NJ. << Google Scholar

Juarrero A. (1999) Dynamics in action: Intentional behavior as a complex system. MIT Press, Cambridge,MA. << Google Scholar

Juarrero A. (2002) Complex dynamical systems and the problems of identity. Emergence 4(1): 94–104. << Google Scholar

Kan D. M. (1958) Adjoint functors. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society 87: 294–329. << Google Scholar

Kauffman L. (2009) Reflexivity and eigenform. Constructivist Foundation 4(3): 121–137. Available at http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/journal/4/3/121.kauffman

Kauffman S. A. (1993) The origins of order: Self-organization and selection in evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford. << Google Scholar

Kauffman S. A. (2000) Investigations. Oxford University Press, Oxford. << Google Scholar

Kauffman S. A. (2010) Reinventing the sacred: A new view of science, reason, and religion. Basic Books, New York NY. << Google Scholar

Kauffman S. A., Logan R., Este R., Goebel R., Hobill D. & Shmulevich I. (2008) Propagating organization: An enquiry. Biology and Philosophy 23(1): 27–45. << Google Scholar

Kolmogorov A. N. (1965) Three approaches to the quantitative definition of information. Problems of Information Transmission 1: 1–17. << Google Scholar

Laclau E. & Mouffe C. (1985) Hegemony and socialist strategy: Towards a radical democratic politics. Verso, London. << Google Scholar

Laclau E. (1990) New reflections on the revolution of our time. Verso, London. << Google Scholar

Ladyman J. (2013) Structural realism. In: Zalta E. N. (ed.) The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Available at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/structural-realism/

Landauer R. (1991) Information is physical. Physics Today 44: 23–29. << Google Scholar

Landauer R. (1996) The physical nature of information. Physics Letter A 217: 188–193. << Google Scholar

Luhmann N. (1995) Social systems. Stanford University Press, Stanford. German original: Luhmann N. (1984) Soziale Systeme. Grundriß einer allgemeinen Theorie. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. << Google Scholar

Lungarella M. & Sporns O. (2005) Information self-structuring: Key principle for learning and development. In: Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning. IEEE Press, Piscataway NJ: 25–30. << Google Scholar

Matsuno K. & Salthe S. (2011) Chemical affinity as material agency for naturalizing contextual meaning. Information 3(1): 21–35. << Google Scholar

Maturana H. R. & Varela F. J. (1980) Autopoiesis and cognition: The realization of the living. Reidel, Dordrecht. << Google Scholar

Maturana H. R. & Varela F. J. (1987) The tree of knowledge: The biological roots of human understanding. Shambhala, Boston. << Google Scholar

Maturana H. R. (1970) Biology of cognition. Biological Computer Laboratory (BCL) Research Report BCL 9.0. University of Illinois, Urbana. << Google Scholar

Maturana H. R. (1987) Everything is said by an observer. In: Thompson W. (ed.) Gaia, a way of knowing. Lindisfarne Press, Great Barrington MA: 65–82. << Google Scholar

Maturana H. R. (1988) The search for objectivity, or the quest for a compelling argument. Irish Journal of Psychology 9: 25–82. Available at http://www.enolagaia.com/M88Reality.html

Maturana H. R. (2002) Autopoiesis, structural coupling and cognition: A history of these and other notions in the biology of cognition. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 9(3–4): 5–34. << Google Scholar

Mikkilineni R. (2011) Designing a new class of distributed systems. Springer, New York. << Google Scholar

Morowitz H. J. (1992) Beginnings of cellular life: Metabolism recapitulates biogenesis. Yale University Press, New Haven CT. << Google Scholar

Nørretranders T. (1999) The user illusion: Cutting consciousness down to size. Viking, New York. << Google Scholar

Nescolarde-Selva J. A. & Usó-Doménech J.-L. (2013) Topological structures of complex belief systems. Complexity 19(1): 46–62. << Google Scholar

Nicolescu B. (2002) Manifesto of transdisciplinarity. State University of New York Press, New York. << Google Scholar

Noë A. (2004) Action in perception. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. << Google Scholar

Nydahl O. (2008) The way things are: A living approach to Buddhism for today’s world. O Books, London. << Google Scholar

Okasha S. (2005) Review of William F. Harms, Information and Meaning in Evolutionary Processes. Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews,12. Available at http://ndpr.nd.edu/news/24927-information-and-meaning-in-evolutionary-processes

Pask G. (1992) Interactions of actors, theory and some applications. Volume 1. Unpublished manuscript. University of Amsterdam. Available at http://www.cybsoc.org/PasksIAT.PDF

Pfeifer R. & Bongard J. (2006) How the body shapes the way we think. A new view of intelligence. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. << Google Scholar

Pfeifer R. & Gomez G. (2009) Morphological computation – connecting brain, body, and environment. In: Sendhoff K. B., Sporns O., Körner E., Ritter H. & Doya K. (eds.) Creating brain-like intelligence: From basic principles to complex intelligent systems. Springer, Berlin: 66–83. << Google Scholar

Pfeifer R., Lungarella M. & Iida F. (2007) Self-organization, embodiment, and biologically inspired robotics. Science 318: 1088–1093. << Google Scholar

Popper K. R. (1957) The poverty of historicism. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. << Google Scholar

Popper K. R. (1999) All life is problem solving. Routledge, London. << Google Scholar

Purves D., Augustine J. G. & Fitzpatrick D. (eds.) (2001) Neuroscience. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA. << Google Scholar

Putnam R. (2000) Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. Simon & Schuster, New York. << Google Scholar

Rössler O. (1998) Endophysics: The world as an interface. World Scientific, Singapore. << Google Scholar

Reading A. (2011) Meaningful information. The bridge between biology, brain, and behavior. Springer, New York. << Google Scholar

Reading A. (2012) When information conveys meaning. Information 3: 635–643. << Google Scholar

Riegler A. & Douven I. (2009) Extending the Hegselmann-Krause model III: From single beliefs to complex belief states. Episteme 6(2): 145–163. Available at http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/riegler/56

Riofrio W. (2007) Informational dynamic systems: Autonomy, information, function. In: Gershenson C., Aerts D. & Edmonds B. (eds.) Worldviews, science, and us: Philosophy and complexity. World Scientific, Singapore: 232–249. << Google Scholar

Riofrio W. (2008) Understanding the emergence of cellular organization. Biosemiotics 1: 361–377. << Google Scholar

Riofrio W. (2010) On biological computing, information and molecular networks. In: Vallverdú J. (ed.) Thinking machines and the philosophy of computer science: Concepts and principles. IGI Global, Hershey PA: 53–65. << Google Scholar

Riofrio W. (2011) A molecular dynamic network: Minimal properties and evolutionary implications. In: Burgin M. & Dodig-Crnkovic G. (eds.) Information and computation: Essays on scientific and philosophical understanding of foundations of information and computation. World Scientific, Singapore: 307–330. << Google Scholar

Riofrio W. (2012) Studies on molecular mechanisms of prebiotic systems. Foundations of Science 17(3): 277–289. << Google Scholar

Riofrio W. (2013) Ubiquity symposium: Evolutionary computation and the processes of life: Information, biological, and evolutionary computing. Ubiquity 2013(May): Article 2. Available at http://ubiquity.acm.org/article.cfm?id=2480356

Rocha L. M. (1998) Selected self-organization and the semiotics of evolutionary systems. In: Salthe S., Van de Vijver G. & Delpos M. (eds.) Evolutionary systems: Biological and epistemological perspectives on selection and self-organization. Kluwer, Dordrecht: 341–358. << Google Scholar

Rosen R. (1985) Anticipatory systems. Pergamon Press, New York. << Google Scholar

Rovelli C. (1996) Relational quantum mechanics. International Journal of Theoretical Physics 35: 1637–1678. << Google Scholar

Rozenberg G., Bäck T. & Kok J. N. (eds.) (2012) Handbook of natural computing. Springer, Berlin. << Google Scholar

Sayre K. M. (1976) Cybernetics and the philosophy of mind. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. << Google Scholar

Scheutz M. (ed.) (2002) Computationalism: New directions. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. << Google Scholar

Schmidt S. J. (2011) From objects to processes: A proposal to rewrite radical constructivism. Constructivist Foundations 7(1): 1–9 & 37–47. Available at http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/journal/7/1/001.schmidt

Schroeder M. J. (2011) Concept of information as a bridge between mind and brain. Information 2(3): 478–509. << Google Scholar

Segal L. (2001) The dream of reality. Heinz von Foerster’s constructivism. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg. << Google Scholar

Skyrms B. (2010) Signals: Evolution, learning and information. Oxford University Press, Oxford. << Google Scholar

Sloman A. (1996) Beyond Turing equivalence. In: Clark A. & Millican P. J. R. (eds.) Machines and thought: The legacy of Alan Turing. Volume I. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 179–219. << Google Scholar

Sloman A. (2002) The irrelevance of Turing machines to AI. In: Scheutz M. (ed.) Computationalism – new directions. MIT Press, Cambridge MA: 87–127. << Google Scholar

Sloman A. (2013) Meta-morphogenesis: Evolution and development of information-processing machinery. In: Cooper S. B. & van Leeuwen J. (eds.) Alan Turing: His work and impact. Elsevier, Amsterdam: 849–857. << Google Scholar

Smolensky P. & Legendre G. (2006) The harmonic mind: From neural computation to optimality-theoretic grammar. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. << Google Scholar

Smolensky P. (1988) On the proper treatment of connectionism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11: 1–74. << Google Scholar

Soare R. (2009) Turing Oracle Machines, online computing, and three displacements in computability theory. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 160(3): 368–399. << Google Scholar

Sowers K. A. & Schreier H. J. (1999) Gene transfer systems for the Archaea. Trends in Microbiology 7: 212–219. << Google Scholar

Spencer Brown G. (1969) Laws of form. Allen & Unwin, London. << Google Scholar

Stepney S. (2012) Programming unconventional computers: Dynamics, development, self-reference. Entropy 14: 1939–1952. << Google Scholar

Strogatz S. (1994) Nonlinear dynamics and chaos. With applications to physics, biology, chemistry and engineering. Addison-Wesley, Boston. << Google Scholar

Swan L. (ed.) (2012) Origins of mind. Springer, Berlin. << Google Scholar

Tegmark M. (2011) How unitary cosmology generalizes thermodynamics and solves the inflactionary entropy problem. Available at http://arxiv.org/pdf/1108.3080.pdf

Terzis G. & Arp R. (2011) Information and living systems: Philosophical and scientific perspectives. MIT Press: Cambridge MA. << Google Scholar

Turing A. M. (1952) The chemical basis of morphogenesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 237: 37–72. << Google Scholar

Umpleby S. (2001) What comes after second order cybernetics? Cybernetics and Human Knowing 8(3): 87–89. << Google Scholar

Umpleby S. (2002) The design of intellectual movements. In: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences, Beijing, China, 2–6 August 2002. Republished 2006 as 86 in the Karl Jaspers Forum. Available at http://www.kjf.ca/86-TAUMP.htm

Valiant L. (2013) Probably approximately correct: Nature’s algorithms for learning and prospering in a complex world. Basic Books, New York. << Google Scholar

Varela F. J. (1992) Autopoiesis and a biology of intentionality. In: McMullin B. (ed.) Proceedings of the Workshop “Autopoiesis and Perception,” Dublin City University: 4–14. Available at http://elm.eeng.dcu.ie/~alife/bmcm9401/varela.pdf

Varela F. J., Maturana H. R. & Uribe R. (1974) Autopoiesis: The organization of living systems, its characterization and a model. BioSystems 5: 187–196. << Google Scholar

Varela F. J., Thompson E. & Rosch E. (1991) The embodied mind: Cognitive science and human experience. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. << Google Scholar

Vedral V. (2010) Decoding reality: The universe as quantum information. Oxford University Press, Oxford. << Google Scholar

Wheeler J. A. (1990) Information, physics, quantum: The search for links. In: Zurek W. (ed.) Complexity, entropy, and the physics of information. Addison-Wesley, Redwood City: 3–28. << Google Scholar

Woese C. R. (2002) On the evolution of cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U. S.A. 99(13): 8742–8747. << Google Scholar

Zeh H.-D. (2004) Wave function: “It” or “bit”? In: Barrow J. D., Davies P. C. W. & Harper C. L. Jr. (eds.) Science and ultimate reality. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge MA: 103–120. << Google Scholar

Zeh H.-D. (2010) Quantum discreteness is an illusion. Foundations of Physics 40: 1476–1493. << Google Scholar

Zeilinger A. (2005) The message of the quantum. Nature 438(7069): 743. << Google Scholar

Zeleny M. (1977) Self-organization of living systems: A formal model of autopoiesis. International Journal of General Systems 4(1): 13–28. << Google Scholar

Zenil H. (ed.) (2012) A computable universe. Understanding computation and exploring nature as computation. World Scientific, Singapore. << Google Scholar

Zuse K. (1969) Rechnender Raum. Vieweg, Braunschweig. << Google Scholar

Comments: 0

To stay informed about comments to this publication and post comments yourself, please log in first.