RADICAL CONSTRUCTIVISM
Last update:  26 Aug 2013
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by Alexander Riegler

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foerster

Heinz von Foerster

  1. Entire The Heinz von Foerster Page with further links to biographies and online papers. bibliography of Heinz von Foerster 1943 to 1996. (Maintained by Alexander Riegler) en EN DE
  2. Interview with Heinz von Foerster by Stefano Franchi, Güven Güzeldere, and Eric Minch, printed in Stanford Humanities Review, volume 4, issue 2: Constructions of the Mind 16 Jun 1999
  3. Wir sehen nicht, da˛ wir nicht sehen de 30 Sep 1999

    Interview von Bernhard Pörksen mit HvF über die Entwicklung der Kybernetik, die Computermetapher des Geistes und die Versuche, das Gehirn zu verstehen.

  4. Ich versuche einen Tanz mit der Welt Im Gespräch: Heinz von Foerster - Wie wirklich ist die Wirklichkeit? Der Physiker und Philosoph über die Konstruktion unserer Weltbilder. In: Deutsches Allgemeines Sonntagsblatt Ausgabe Nr. 30 vom 26. Juli 1996 (due to copyright reasons this article is no longer available on the web but can be ordered from the newspaper). DE 30 Sep 1999

    Ist Wahrheitserkenntnis möglich? Oder sind unsere Weltbilder lediglich Erfindungen? Solche Fragen stellen (und beantworten) die Vertreter einer Erkenntnistheorie, die als Konstruktivismus Furore macht. Im DS-Interview spricht Heinz von Foerster, einer der bedeutendsten Vertreter dieser Denkschule, über die vermeintliche Realität unserer Wahrnehmungen und das konstruktivistische Lebensgefühl.

  5. Wir sehen nicht, daß wir nicht sehen Heinz von Foerster: Ein Porträt des Mitbegründers der Kybernetik von Hermann Rotermund. Radio Bremen Forum der Wissenschaft 26.06.1997 DE 30 Sep 1999
  6. Heinz von Foerster Entry in Castle Beat’s Bibliothek. DE 30 Sep 1999
  7. Heinz von Foerster. Eine Legende by Werner Schimanovich. DE 30 Sep 1999
  8. Warum sind Computer musikalisch, Herr von Foerster? An Interview by Peter Bexte with Heinz von Foerster on music and computers. Printed in Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 30.12.1988 de 10 Nov 1999
  9. Heinz von Foerster Workshop Organized by Timo Honkela, UIAH Media Lab, Fall 1999. The page lists also some quotes of Heinz. en 16 May 2000
  10. Ethics and Second-order Cybernetics Talk of Heinz von Foerster at “Système, éthique et perspectives en thérapie familiale”, Oct 4, 1990, Paris. Reprinted in: Cybernetics & Human Knowing Vol. 1 no. 1 1992. Deutsche Übersetzung Ethik und Kybernetik zweiter Ordnung durch Birger Olrogge. en de 16 May 2000
  11. ”Meine Lehre ist, daß man keine Lehre akzeptieren soll”: Der Anfang von Himmel und Erde hat keinen Namen - eine Buchbesprechung von Dirk Baecker in: die tageszeitung, 16. Juni 1998 de 25 Feb 2001
  12. Invitation to Dance – A Conversation with Heinz von Foerster by Christina Waters in Cybernetics & Human Knowing, Vol.6, no.4, 1999, pp. 81-84 en 04 Mar 2001
  13. Human Becoming – Becoming Human Monika Broecker and Alexander Riegler have collected contributions from colleges, students and friends who wrote about their experiences with Heinz von Foerster. In honor of Foerster’s 90th birthday. en de 13 Nov 2001
  14. The Heinz von Foerster Society of the Heinz von Foerster-Society in Vienna de 16 Nov 2001

    contains an index to the large amount of his publications and notes

  15. Im Goldenen Hecht. Über Konstruktivismus und Geschichte. Ein Gespräch zwischen Heinz von Foerster, Albert Müller und Karl H. Müller Österreichische Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaften 8 (1997): 129-143. de 16 Nov 2001
  16. Rück- und Vorschauen. Heinz von Foerster im Gespräch mit Albert Müller und Karl H. Müller Interview with Heinz von Foerster for the festschrift “Konstruktivismus und Kognitivismus”. In: Albert Müller, Karl H. Müller & Friedrich Stadler (eds.) (2001) Konstruktivismus und Kognitionswissenschaft. Kulturelle Wurzeln und Ergebnisse. Heinz von Foerster gewidmet. Zweite aktualisierte und erweiterte Auflage. Wien, New York, pp. 229-242. de 16 Nov 2001
  17. Sechster Tag: Erlebnisse Heuristiken Pläne Zukünfte Chapter from the book Albert Müller & Karl H. Müller (eds.) (1999) Der Anfang von Himmel und Erde hat keinen Namen. Eine Selbst-Erschaffung in 7 Tagen, 2nd edition. Wien, pp. 213-254. de 16 Nov 2001
  18. Review of Foerster’s book “Der Anfang von Himmel und Erde hat keinen Namen” By Franz Zauner de 16 Nov 2001
  19. Heinz von Foerster 90 de 18 Dec 2001

    Biographical sketch

  20. Wie heißt dieser Artikel? Heinz von Foerster zum 90. Geburtstag de 18 Dec 2001

    Biographical sketch

  21. Handle stets so, dass die Anzahl der Wahlmöglichkeiten größer wird Nachruf von Goedart Palm zum “Tod des KybernEthikers Heinz von Foerster, der sein Leben als konstruktivistisches Gesamtkunstwerk geführt hat”. [Obituary of Heinz von Foerster by Goedart Palm]. de 07 Oct 2002
  22. Bernhard Pörksen im Interview mit Wirklichkeit entsteht im Dialog in der Tageszeitung (taz). de 07 Oct 2002

    Zum Tode eines großen Dialogikers: Ein letztes Gespräch mit dem Physiker, Mathematiker und Theoretiker Heinz von Foerster über die Karriere des Konstruktivismus, Möbius-Schleifen des Denkens sowie Etiketten, die echten Gedankenaustausch stören [A last interview with Heinz von Foerster]

  23. Zur Person Heinz von Foerster veröffentlicht in Die Tageszeitung (taz). de 07 Oct 2002
  24. Heinz von Foerster Special in “Das gepfefferte Ferkel. Online-Journal für systemisches Denken und Handeln” Ausgabe Januar 2002 de 07 Oct 2002

    Mit Beiträgen von Heinz J. Kersting, Bernhand Pörsken und Theodor M. Bardmann

  25. A Selection of Writings by Heinz von Foerster en 02 Jan 2004

    HvF on “On Interaction, the Whole and its Parts: Communication Amongst Planariae,” “Magnetic Cubes in a Box: Order From Noise,” and “The Gentleman in the Bowler Hat: Autonomy, Responsibility, Reality.”

  26. Heinz von Foerster (*1911) by Stuart A. Umpleby, The George Washington University, Nov 2001. en 02 Jan 2004
  27. Interview mit Heinz von Foerster in Berlin, Hotel Hilton am Gendarmenmarkt, 23 Januar 1997. de 02 Jan 2004

    HvF talks about his collaboration and friendship with Gotthard Günther.

  28. ”Wahrheit ist die Erfindung eines Lügners”, Begegnungen mit Heinz von Foerster Obituary published in Periodikum des Medienzentrum Rheinland im Medienbrief, Ausgabe 2/2003. de 02 Jan 2004
  29. ”Nerve center” of the cybernetic world Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory. By Jamie Hutchinson en 28 Aug 2007

    This essay tells the story of BCL which is inseparable from that of its charismatic founder and only director, ECE professor Heinz von Foerster.

  30. Biological Computer Laboratory A web site bringing together resources related to the University of Illinois Biological Computer Laboratory, 1958–1976 en 28 Aug 2007
maturana

Humberto Maturana
“Everything said is said by an observer”

  1. Biology of Cognition The homepage of Humberto Maturana, Santiago de Chile. Edited by Alfredo Ruiz
  2. Biography by J. V. Kenny
  3. The ‘Official’ Bibliography [Versión en lengua española] en sp
  4. Maturana’s disciplinary matrix and list of related articles by Rob Sable
  5. What it is to be human notes from Maturana’s Australian workshops in 1994
  6. Language, Emotion and Knowing: An explanation of what it is to be human Material deriving from an interview with Humberto Maturana by David Mendes, February 1997. Online version edited by Lloyd Fell. en 07 May 1998
  7. Summary of Maturana Humberto et Francisco Varela (1994) L’arbre de la connaissance, Addison-Wesley France, Paris fr 04 Dec 1997
  8. Part 1 (Epistemology) of Richard Karash’ personal notes from a three day seminar by Prof. Humberto Maturana held at the Open University, Milton Keynes, England on March 13-15, 1997. Part 2 (Biology) Part 3 (Humanness) en 07 May 1998
  9. De mens als duikboot Recensie van H. R. Maturana en F. J. Varela, De boom der kennis (The Tree of Knowledge). Van Gert-Jan C. Lokhorst ne 16 May 2000
  10. Review of: Humberto Maturana (1980) Autopoiesis And Cognition by Piero Scaruffi en 09 Jun 2000
  11. Organization and the philosophy of life by Fernando Flores. The Latin American Seminar of Philosophy and History of Ideas, 1994. Spanish version: Organización y filosofía de la vida. Reflexiones en torno a la filosofía de la vida de Maturana y Varela de Fernando Flores Morador en sp 20 Jun 2000
  12. Abstracts of the session Autopoiesis: Implications for Social Theory at the 14th World Congress of Sociology Montreal, July 26 - August 1, 1998, chaired by John Mingers en 15 Jul 2000

    The issues covered were: Are firms autopoietic? (Biggiero); An Aristotelian model of autopoiesis (Dougall); Knowledge as an autopoietic system (Fujigaki); Autopoiesis and language/phenomenology (Introna); Autopoiesis and apoptosis (Ishikawa); Luhmann’s social theory (Jokisch); Autopoiesis and governance (Little); Autopoiesis and embodied cognition (Mingers); Modelling Luhmann’s theories (Simon); and Autopoiesis and creativity (Gornev).

  13. Autopoiesis Introduction with resource guide (Maintained by Tom Quick) en 15 Jul 2000
  14. Some remarks on Maturana and Varela’s ‘Autopoiesis and Cognition’ by Pietro Ramellini 1998 en 15 Jul 2000

    Autopoietic Theory is one of the most serious attempts to characterize life and living entities in contemporary biology. However, its foundation lies on operations of distinction so sharp and adamantine that cannot be realized in the concrete work of a biologist. The cases of biomembranes and of the cell are discussed, showing the inexcapable limits of observative distinctions. A proposal of reconsidering the relation between life and autopoiesis is finally advanced.

  15. La mentira y el error [Lie and Error] Interview with Humberto Maturana in fritzgestalt sp 28 Mar 2002
  16. El sentido de lo humano Interview with Humberto Maturana by Sima Nisis De Rezepka in enfocarte.com - Revista de Arte y Cultura en la Red 1.10 sp 28 Mar 2002
  17. Reflexiones Interview with Humberto Maturana by Paula Escobar in enfocarte.com - Revista de Arte y Cultura en la Red 1.10 sp 28 Mar 2002
  18. Um problema de desejo Interview with Humberto Maturana by Omar Sarrás Jadue in Tierramérica Nov 19, 2000 A Question of Desire English translation po 28 Mar 2002
  19. Die Ohnmacht der Macht de 07 Oct 2002

    Bernhard Pörksen im Gespräch mit Humberto R. Maturana über dessen Begegnung mit Pinochet und über eine Theorie der Macht [Maturana about his encounter with Pinochet]

  20. Explanations and Reality Plenary talk by Humberto R. Maturana at the congress “Die Wirklichkeit des Konstruktivismus,” Heidelberg, Germany, 18 Oct 1992. en 05 Feb 2004
glasersfeld

Ernst von Glasersfeld

  1. The official Homepage of Ernst von Glasersfeld en 15 Mar 2007

    Contains a searchable database of von Glasersfeld’s 280+ publications, videos of his lectures, a glossary, and bibliography.

  2. Bibliography of Ernst von Glasersfeld en 30 Mar 1998
  3. Biography by J. V. Kenny
  4. Ernst von Glasersfeld’s Answers to How is shared social reality possible? How does one deal with the charge of solipsism?
  5. Welten konstruieren, die für alle gangbar sind – Ein Interview mit Ernst von Glasersfeld über Schuhe, Stadtpläne und Regenbogen von Rudolf Maresch, Telepolis de 16 Jun 1999
  6. Homepage of Ernst von Glasersfeld at the Scientific Reasoning Research Institute, UMass/Amherst, with list of publications 18 Jun 1999
  7. Fragebeantwortungen durch Ernst von Glasersfeld im Rahmen des Seminars “Konstruktivismus und Systemtheorie” - Fragebeantwortungen 7.5.98 de 17 Aug 2000

    Widmet sich u.a. folg. Fragen: Welcher Begriff der Wirklichkeit wird vom Radikalen Konstruktivismus vertreten? Woher kommt das Bewußtsein? Welche Praxisrelevanz hat der Konstruktivismus? Welche Arten des Konstruktivismus gibt es und worin unterscheiden sie sich? Inwieweit ist der Konstruktivismus anarchistisch?

  8. Zusammenfassung von: Ernst von Glasersfeld - Wege des Wissens in der Bibliothek der Hyperkommunikation de 28 Aug 2007
pask

Gordon Pask

  1. Gordon Pask Archive (Maintained by Paul Pangaro)
  2. Gordon Pask - In Memoriam
  3. Gordon Pask by Ranulph Glanville en 16 Jul 1999

    Gordon Pask’s life and work may be interpreted through the filter of two themes: interaction and drama. Those who knew him, or saw him make a presentation, will be acutely aware of the drama of the persona. And all those who know his work will be familiar with the use of the word interaction as well as words such as conversation, implying/embodying interaction.

  4. Short outline of Gordon Pask’s Conversation Theory en 20 Jun 2000
  5. Biography of Gordon Pask by Paul Pangaro en 12 Dec 2003
  6. Obituary for Professor Gordon Pask by Bernard Scott en 12 Dec 2003
  7. Reflections on the Conversation Theory of Gordon Pask by Boyd, Gary McI. en 02 Jan 2004

    Gordon Pask set out to create a formal theory of learning conversations capable of being used to build well formalised people-machine-system executable models of conversations.

  8. Obituary for Professor Gordon Pask by Luis Rocha en 02 Jan 2004
kelly

George Kelly
“A person’s processes are psychologically channelized by the way in which he anticipates events.”

  1. George Kelly , founder of Personal Construct Psychology (PCP)
  2. George Kelly page by Vincent Kenny (Ecology of Mind/OIKOS)
  3. An Introduction to the Personal Construct Psychology of George A. Kelly 16 Jun 1999
  4. The personality theory of George Kelly, 1905-1967 Part of an electronic textbook created for undergraduate and graduate courses in personality theories. (Maintained by George Boeree) 16 Jun 1999

    The philosophy which Kelly called constructive alternativism is the idea that, while there is only one true reality, reality is always experienced from one or another perspective, or alternative construction.

  5. Overview of the Personal Construction Theory 16 Jun 1999

    The key message of the Personal Construction Theory is that the world is ‘perceived’ by a person in terms of whatever ‘meaning’ that person applies to it and the person has the freedom to choose a different ‘meaning’ of whatever he or she wants. In other words, the person has the ‘freedom to choose’ the meaning that one prefers or likes. Kelly called this alternative constructivism. In simple words, the person is capable of applying alternative constructions (meanings) to any events in the past, present or future. The person is not a prisoner of one’s ‘biography or past’ and could liberate oneself from the misery of ‘miserable’ events if one desires by reconstruing (reinterpreting and redefining) them. The theory rejects the existing schism between affect, cognition, and action and recommends that they be construed together for developing a fuller understanding of human behavior.

  6. Personal Construct Psychology (PCP) at the Knowledge Science Institute, University of Calgary. 16 Jun 1999

    PCP is a system of psychology developed by George Kelly in the early 1950s that has wide application in modeling human knowledge processes.

  7. Basic Postulate of Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory and its Collaries as presented in Jeff Feist’s Theories of Personality, pages 587-588 16 Jun 1999
  8. Personal Construct Psychology Research Group at the Department of Psychology, University of Wollongong, Australia 16 Jun 1999
  9. PCP References Database This database builds on the References in Personal Construct Psychology and Psychotherapy, which is Edited by Gabriele Chiari for the Centro Di Psicologia E Psioterapia Costruttivista. en 20 Jun 2000
  10. Constructivism Overhead Material & Notes by John Lye at the Brock University en 15 Jul 2000
  11. Personal Construct Gateway covers the Psychology of Personal Constructs, the Repertory Grid Technique, and information on George A. Kelly en 28 Aug 2007
  12. The Internet Encyclopaedia Of Personal Construct Psychology edited by Jörn Scheer and Beverly Walker en 28 Aug 2007
  13. Australasian Personal Construct Group en 28 Aug 2007
  14. The PCP News Blog formerly known as The Internet-ional PCP Newsletter en 28 Aug 2007
uexkuell

Jakob von Uexküll
“Alle Wirklichkeit ist subjektive Erscheinung.”

  1. Jakob von Uexküll. Von Mückensonnen und Umweltröhren by Patrick Horvath.

    In this article the ideas of von Uexkülls main book “Theoretische Biologie” (1928) are presented. It shows that the author intended to carry biology beyond purely structural-anatomical analysis. Biology should also take the subject of the human (as observer) and the subject of the animal into consideration. Relating his ideas to those of German philosopher I. Kant, von Uexküll emphasizes that objects are appearances which owe their organization to a subject.

  2. Uexküll’s biography and publications by the Jakob von Uexküll Centre in Estonia


Further Researchers

  1. Dirk Baecker combines constructivism, sociology, and management en 15 May 2002
  2. Ian D. Beatty is interested in physics education research (PER) with a fundamentally constructivist outlook.
  3. Marco C. Bettoni One of his main research interest is the science of Natural Intelligence, particularly its fundamental questions and methodological aspects from a constructivist persepctive. en 31 Aug 1998
  4. C. George Boeree an phenomenological-existentialist who draws on George Kelly. en 03 Jul 1999
  5. Peter Bogacki reduced the core of Stafford Beer’s Viable System Model (VSM) to The Essential VSM which is founded on the premise that a mind is responsible for creating, containing and regulating the experience in being. en 14 Feb 2002
  6. Peter Cariani is interested in constructivist aspects of emergence, consciousness, and mathematics. en 21 Jun 2001
  7. Jane Cull Her work is directly associated with Maturana’s concepts. She specializes in his work and its applications through offering tutorials, workshops and consulting. en 7 May 1998
  8. Olaf Diettrich combines constructivism with evolutionary epistemology: constructivist evolutionary epistemology (CEE). It considers the perceived patterns and regularities from which we derive the laws of nature to be invariants of inborn cognitive (sensory) operators. en 09 Mar 1998
  9. Dewey Dykstra focuses on radical constructivist aspects of (physics) education. en 07 Apr 2002
  10. Paul Ernest is interested in constructivist aspects of mathematics education and is the editor of “Philosophy of Mathematics Education Journal”. en 03 Jul 1999
  11. Lloyd Fell explores the science of wholeness and self-organising systems (rather than genetic manipulation and control) and its role in nurturing the human spirit.
  12. Ranulph Glanville bases his work in the notion that each of us constructs our own world, that observation is done by observers, and knowing is done by knowers. His interest in cybernetics is because it is the area of study that welcomes the observer (and allows him to make errors). Also, he is interested in design since it is, par excellence, an area of constructing. en 20 Jul 1999
  13. Gerhard Grössing at the Austrian Institute for Nonlinear Science in Vienna is a proponent of a physically oriented constructivism. en 27 Nov 2003
  14. In his latest works, William P. Hall combines Karl Popper’s epistemology and Maturana and Varela’s autopoiesis with practical experience in organizational knowledge management. en 20 Feb 2005
  15. Peter M. Hejl focusses among other topic on autopoeisis and sociological systems theory de 10 Jan 2002
  16. Francis Heylighen is interested in evolutionary development of higher levels of complexity, and in particular the development of knowledge. He tries to apply these ideas to the integration of knowledge from different disciplines into an encompassing, computer-supported conceptual framework or “world view”
  17. Cornelius J. Holtorf applies Constructivism to Archaeology
  18. Leonor Irarrázaval is concerned with the study of subjectivity. It creates the basis for a psychotherapy based on phenomenology and hermeneutics, where processes of critical reflection and consensual interpretation are the main instruments for the therapeutic analysis. Maintaining the scientific status for the study of human experience in "1st-person perspective", a new alliance is built with objective phenomenology, neurosciences, cognitive sciences and medical sciences. sp en 07 Dec 2011
  19. Georg Ivanovas’ thinking is influenced by Heinz von Foerster and Gregory Bateson and focuses on medicine, perception, communication, and art being brought forth through self-generated perceptions. de 09 Jul 2003
  20. György (George) Kampis
  21. Vincent Kenny works internationally as an organisational consultant applying the framework of systemic constructivism for the improvement of human living and working in organisations, in families, in individuals
  22. Arne Kjellman’s lifelong interest in modelling, perception and conception has resulted in the formulation of the “subject-oriented approach to science”, a constructivistic approach which turns the conception and thinking of traditional science upside down Ò with implications on learning and scientific activity. en 25 Sep 2005
  23. Klaus Krippendorff focuses on communication from a second order cybernetics point of view. en 25 Feb 2001
  24. Ronald Lemmen is interested a non-Cartesian, non-reductionist approach to cognitive science, based on, among others, insights from enaction and phenomenology
  25. Loet Leydesdorff investigates quantitative methods for the analysis of the non-linear dynamics of social systems with a constructivist bias. en 13 Jun 2002
  26. Niklas Luhmann applies constructivism to social systems (Constructionist Social Theory). He represents the structural-functional theory, which he developed further to a sociological systems theory. This theory tries to capture the entire reality in the context of a universal theoretical construction. The world in its variety appears in socially integrated (logical) systems. de 04 Dec 1997
  27. The Personally Constructed Page of James C. Mancuso focuses on Personal Construct Psychology and topics like “The Concept of Reality and its Control”. en 7 Jan 1999
  28. Kevin McGee has a background in “constructivist artificial intelligence.” His current work involves the development of computational media within the framework of “enactive cognitive science”.
  29. Sibylle Moser focusses on the development of a transdisciplinary constructivist methodology and the application of constructivism to media theory, gender studies and empirical aesthetics. de en 28 Feb 2006
  30. Daniel Müllensiefen is concerned wit radical constructivism as a research modulating paradigm in musicology. de en sp 03 Aug 2003
  31. Massimo Negrotti His Theory of the Artificial (TA) introduces the concept of Observation Level to mean the profile of reality one selects or builts in interacting with nature. Since judgements on nature largely depend on our interests, paradigms, preferences an so on, every observation becomes mental or social representations. Thus, the attempt to reproduce natural Exemplars becomes the attempt to reproduce our representations of them. en 02 Jul 1998
  32. Uric Neisser proposed in the 1970s developed a theory of schemata controlled ‘information pickup.’ A cognitive schema “accepts information as it becomes available at sensory surfaces and is changed by that information. It directs movements and exploratory activities that make more information available, by which it is further modified.” en 27 Nov 2003
  33. Alva Noë Editor of the book “Is the Visual World A Grand Illusion?” en 27 Nov 2003
  34. J. Kevin O’Regan works on sensory substitution and developed a theory regarding the extraction of space from sensorimotor dependencies, which is based on Donald MacKays work on sensorimotor contingencies. en 27 Nov 2003
  35. Kent D. Palmer has developed a theory of Social (Reflexive) Autopoiesis en 14 Feb 2001
  36. Paul Pangaro
  37. Andrea Pitasi adopts a constructivist approach to analyze the self-referential individual patterns of media use. it en 07 Feb 2003
  38. Luis Rocha His research interests include fuzzy logic, evolutionary systems, genetic algorithms, artificial life, artificial intelligence, cybernetics and systems research
  39. Alfredo Ruiz Chilean Psychologist who is working together with Humberto Maturana on the psychological dimension of the Biology of Cognition.
  40. Gebhard Rusch is concerned with literary studies from a constructivist point of view de 12 Dec 2007
  41. A homepage and festschrift for Siegfried J. Schmidt He is one of the authors who paved the way for radical constructivism in German-speaking countries. de 14 Feb 2001
  42. Frank Thissen is concerned with multimedia-based didactics based on constructivist concepts. de 14 Jan 2000
  43. Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek is interested in the relationship between Comparative Literature and radical Constructivism. 02 Dec 1998
  44. Stuart Umpleby Philosophy of science, cross-cultural management, and systems thinking.
  45. Francisco Varela was concerned with neuronal integration and consciousness en fr 11 Dec 2007
  46. The Homepage of Paul Watzlawick at the George Washington University in Washington DC. [Needs an update]. en 27 Nov 2003
  47. Stefan Weber investigates autopoiesis and journalism de 15 Jul 2000
  48. Randall Whitaker focuses on systemic approaches to human (inter-)action, human / computer interaction, and the ramifications for enterprises at all scales.

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