Whose anticipations? (2003)
In: Butz, M., Sigaud, O., and Gerard, P. (eds) Anticipatory behavior in adaptive learning systems: Foundations, theories, and systems. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Springer-Verlag: Dordrecht, pp. 11-22
The central question in this paper is: Who (or what) constructs anticipations? I challenge the (tacit) assumption of Rosen‘s standard definition of anticipatory systems according to which the cognitive system actively constructs a predictive model based on which it carries out anticipations. My arguments show that so-called implicit anticipatory systems are at the root of any other form of anticipatory systems as the nature of the “decision maker” in the latter cannot be a conscious one.