Conventions and Abbreviations
From Lexicon Leponticum
Inclusion of texts/readings
- LexLep is inclusive, not exclusive. This means that texts and readings are included in the lexicon even if we do not consider them Celtic or correct.
- Everything separately written or engraved on an object that contains an Italo-Celtic inscription will be considered an inscription itself and will accordingly be furnished with a separate sigil.
- Ornamental, not-script-based engravings are considered a part of an inscription when in according relation to it (e.g., the triangle in VB·3.1).
- Latin seals of manufacturers imprinted on the objects are treated separately (e.g., AVILLI on NO·12 Oleggio).
- Continuous texts that switch between languages, like those on PG·1 Todi, will be treated as consisting of several inscriptions.
- Generally following Schumacher 2004: 112-120, 318-319.
- Squared brackets
[ ]cannot be used in the transliteration of words; parentheses
( )are used instead (e.g. )tiris???v?().
- Character variants: We do not distinguish between t1 (= "etruscan" T ) and t2 (= "andreas cross" T ) in our transliterations (cf. General remarks).
- Ambiguous or variant readings: We did not employ annotations that combine more than one reading variant (cf. Schumacher 2004: 114-115). For not readable signs we employ <?> instead of <x> (e.g. )tiris???v?().
- The direction of writing is not displayed with an arrow; instead it is listed separately under "Direction of Writing" on the Inscription pages (e.g. CO·11).
- Squared brackets
Our reading of the epigraphic texts is divided in two parts: the transliteration, and the graphical display of the specific character variants.
- In our transliterations we do not distinguish between the various character variants (see "Reading in Transliteration" in the Inscription pages, e.g. NO·1).
- The various character variants can be identified in the graphical rappresentation of the specific signs employed by the writer (see "Reading in Original Script" in the Inscription pages, e.g. NO·1).
- The main reading is listed under "Reading in Transliteration" (e.g. CO·11).
- Other reading variants are listed under "Variant Reading" (e.g. CO·11).
Every character or mark on an object that contains an Italo-Celtic inscription is rendered in the transcription by a special sign.
- Representing Vowels: A, E, I, U, O
- Representing Consonants: B, C, V, I, K, L, M, N, P, Ś, R, S, T, U, Φ, Χ, X
- Other characters/signs:
- Non-character sign: <§>
- Remark on p and l: in sinistroverse inscriptions, and in dextroverse inscriptions can both be read as p or as l (cf. Schumacher 2004: 113-114). When the transliteration is ambiguous both reading variants are listed.
Damaged or fragmentary inscriptions
- Corrupted or reconstructed characters are marked with a subscribed point at the concerned letter, e.g. <ṣ> in ]tiriṣ???v?[ (CO·11).
Following signs have been employed to mark the incompleteness of an inscription/ of words:
- Transliteration of Inscriptions (e.g. CO·11, TI·45.2)
- ] : beginning of the inscription is missing
- [ : ending of the inscription is missing
- ? : not readable sign; if the gap corresponds to the width of e.g. 3 unidentifiable signs, ??? is employed
- [...]: gap due to damage; letter(s) is/are missing
- Transliteration of Words (e.g. )tiris???v?(, uesa?a(...)ai)
- ) : beginning of the word is missing
- ( : ending of the word is missing
- ? : not readable sign
- (...): gap; letter(s) is/are missing
Reconstructions, Symbols, etc.
- Generally following Schumacher 2004: 160-163.
- In diphthongs the unsyllabic element is marked as unsyllabic, e.g. /au̯/.
Other signs, marks, and symbols
- Ornaments in the context of inscriptions are rendered by square brackets with denomination of the ornament, e.g. "[zigzag]" in NO·1.
- Isolated ornaments and figures are rendered by <§>.
- On "Site" pages, a point in the centre of the respective location (main square, town hall,...) is used for determining the values for the coordinate entries.
- On "Object" pages, ideally the exact coordinates where the objects were found are used. If these are unavailable, the coordinates of the site are used instead.
- On "Museum" pages, a point at the entrance of the museum is used for determining the coordinates.
|Lejeune 1971||Michel Lejeune, Lepontica, Paris: Société d'Édition "Les Belles Lettres" 1971. (reprint of the article "Documents gaulois et para-gaulois de Cisalpine", Études Celtiques 12/2, 1970-1, pp. 357-500)|
|Morandi 2004||Alessandro Morandi, Celti d'Italia. A cura di Paola Piana Agostinetti. Tomo II: Epigrafia e lingua dei Celti d'Italia [= Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica 12.2], Roma: Spazio Tre 2004.|
|Schumacher 2004||Stefan Schumacher, Die rätischen Inschriften. Geschichte und heutiger Stand der Forschung, 2nd, extended edition [= Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Kulturwissenschaft, Sonderheft 121], Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft 2004.|
|Solinas 1994||Patrizia Solinas, "Il Celtico in Italia", Studi Etruschi 60 (1994 ), 311-408.|