North Italic Script

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The North Italic Script is an alphabet system that has been widespread in northern Italy approximately between the 8th century BC and the 1st century AD. Several regional variants can be identified over this period of time.


Regional variants

Please note: In LexLep we do not distinguish between regional variants of the North Italic script as long as we have not defined significant formal criteria. Formerly established "alphabet areas" like those of Lugano, Sondrio, Bolzano, and so on (Pauli 1885, Lejeune 1971) seem to be inadequate since there are, with the one exception of Camunic alphabet around Sondrio, no graphic or orthographic borders between these areas. One may, though, recognise certain typical "Venetic", "Raetic" characteristics. The variation, for example, between the various sub-types of the Venetic script are more pronounced than are the differences between any of those variants and the Lepontic script. Only the "Camunic" script stands out very distinctly in the North-Italian area.

Comparison chart of North Italic alphabets by Morandi 2004

Supposed "Lepontic Alphabet"

This definition is mainly based on the definition of the "Lugano" alphabet by Lejeune 1971 (cf. p. 14, fig. 2).

Position Character Customary Name Transliteration Attestation in Lepontic inscriptions (61)
(all variants, including alternative reading variants)
alpha A 34 (show list) 55.73 %
e psilon E 24 (show list) 39.34 %
digamma, wau V 8 (show list) 13.11 %
zeta Z 5 (show list) 8.19 %
theta Θ 3 (show list) 4.91 %
iota I 40 (show list) 65.57 %
kappa K 20 (show list) 32.78 %
lambda L 28 (show list) 45.90 %
mu M 11 (show list) 18.03 %
nu N 18 (show list) 29.50 %
pi P 26 (show list) 42.62 %
san, sade Ś 9 (show list) 14.75 %
qoppa Q 0 (none) 0.00 %
rho R 18 (show list) 29.50 %
sigma S 26 (show list) 42.62 %
tau T 20 (show list) 32.78 %
y psilon U 31 (show list) 50.81 %
phi Φ 0 (none) 0.00 %
chi Χ 4 (show list) 6.55 %
o mikron O 33 (show list) 54.09 %
space, spatium space 6 (show list) 9.83 %
separator : 20 (show list) 32.78 %

Abecedarial texts

A curious feature of Lepontic, which aligns it with the Venetic and Camunic writing traditions, is the inclination to 'abecedarial' writing. Even though no full alphabetic sequence has been found so far in the Lepontic region, there are a number of sequences consisting of the initial elements of the alphabetic sequence (aev, maybe zv with reversed order of the first two consonantal signs) which serve as abridged surrogate of the full series.

Character Variants

All the character variants of the North Italic Script are rendered by a special character.

Please note that the hitherto defined character variants represent an interim result. Not all variants are confirmed yet. The listed variants include all readings (including several variant readings), and therefore some variants are listed a number of times. We are still working on the evaluation. A chronological analysis has not yet been conducted.

Additional Literature

This list is not a comprehensive collection of relevant literature. It is a first result of the research work in progress.

North Italic Scripts

Alphabet of Lugano

  • Sign variants, chronology and phonology:

Lejeune 1974: 343 (alpha, theta), 373-375 (<z> / <ś>); regarding theta Θ2 s cf. Bermond Montanari 1988: 242 (Etruscan script), further to theta and alphabet variant from Chiusi cf. Maggiani & Prosdocimi 1976: 262, Briquel 1973 (in MEFRA 85): 75 ff., Cristofani 1974 (in REE 1974): n. 333, Tibiletti Bruno 1973-5: 47-57 (chronology and typology of sign-variants); Tibiletti Bruno 1978: 172-175 (phonetic value of χ, v, z, ś); Salzani & Solinas 1998: 143-148 and Verger 1998: 280 fn. 42, 284-287, fn. 58 (phonetic value of ś)


Inscriptions in North Italic Script

Inscription Transliteration Direction Language
AO·1.1 ]ap[ sinistroverse unknown
AO·1.2 ]aẹ?[ sinistroverse unknown
AO·2 ]?ele[ sinistroverse unknown
AS 3.1 mini mu[l]uvanike keivale sinistroverse Etruscan
BG·1 ]ṭume [ sinistroverse Lepontic
BG·2.1 ]p̣euesa sinistroverse unknown
BG·3 at sinistroverse unknown
BG·5 sinistroverse unknown
BG·7 pit sinistroverse unknown
BG·8 tou sinistroverse unknown
BG·11 kat sinistroverse unknown
BG·17 aịụṭ[ sinistroverse unknown
BG·18 piuot sinistroverse Cisalpine Gaulish
BG·21 riśoi ambiguous Lepontic
BG·23 aśuesa sinistroverse unknown
BG·24 art sinistroverse unknown
BG·25 art sinistroverse unknown
BG·26.2 ]p ambiguous unknown
BG·28.1 pit?? dextroverse unknown
BG·28.2 va sinistroverse unknown
BG·31 talu sinistroverse unknown
BG·34 ụitili dextroverse unknown
BI·1 lukios / sipionios dextroverse unknown
BI·2 ]aki??ios : matikios unknown unknown
BI·5 ]arsu / ]ionios dextroverse unknown
BI·6 uipios / iouiku dextroverse unknown
BS·1 piuon ta dextroverse unknown
BS·5 takos sinistroverse Lepontic
BS·7 kro ambiguous unknown
BS·9 rik dextroverse unknown
BS·11 rik dextroverse unknown
BS·12 aruki sinistroverse unknown
BS·13 aruki sinistroverse unknown
BS·15 iucui : atios sinistroverse unknown
BS·16 atlat/u dextroverse unknown
BS·17 koplutuṣ dextroverse unknown
BS·18 pisa sinistroverse unknown
BS·19 uasi sinistroverse unknown
BS·20 mi[t]a sinistroverse unknown
BS·23 uịru sinistroverse unknown
BS·24 a? sinistroverse unknown
CO·2 ]akụṛ[ sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·3 ]ouki?[ sinistroverse unknown
CO·4 ]ạklẹ[ sinistroverse unknown
CO·5 trị[ sinistroverse unknown
CO·6 ]p̣lioiso sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·8 ]ṇẹṛ[ sinistroverse unknown
CO·11 ]tiriṣ???v?[ sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·12 nap̣[ / ot[ sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·13 ]?rikimu[ sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·14 mei / va sinistroverse unknown
CO·15 [pli]oiṣ[o] sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·16 [plio]ịso sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·20 ]rpiạ [ sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·21 ]ṇ : ṣulọiḳei : [ sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·23.1 unknown sinistroverse unknown
CO·23.3 ti sinistroverse unknown
CO·24 ] ṃa[ sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·25 ]tias ambiguous Lepontic
CO·26 stụ[ dextroverse unknown
CO·30 al sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·32 a?[ dextroverse unknown
CO·34 ]ṃ[ sinistroverse unknown
CO·39 lu ambiguous unknown
CO·42 ]r dextroverse unknown
CO·44 ambiguous unknown
CO·47 pa dextroverse Lepontic
CO·48 uvamokozis : plialeθu : uvltiauiopos : ariuonepos : siteś : tetu sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·52 ]eu : o[ sinistroverse unknown
CO·53 aẹv [ sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·54 ]ạev [ dextroverse Lepontic
CO·55 ]ṇẹṛịọ?ọ[ sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·57 sekezos sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·58 ]ṣẹkezos sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·59 sekezoṣ sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·60 [sek]ezos unknown Lepontic
CO·61 aṣ[ sinistroverse unknown
CO·62 zv ośoris sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·64.1 kirati dextroverse Cisalpine Gaulish
CO·64.2 kur ambiguous Cisalpine Gaulish
CO·65 atiaki dextroverse unknown
CO·66 kopiu dextroverse unknown
CO·67 ku sinistroverse unknown
CO·68 pelesị[ dextroverse unknown
CO·69 unknown ambiguous Lepontic
CO·71 ]ẹna / ]ones : ṃ[ / ]ẹị[ sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·72 plioiso sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·73 alios sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·74 prn sinistroverse Lepontic
CO·78 at sinistroverse unknown
CO·79 uitilios dextroverse Lepontic
CO·81 ]pa[ sinistroverse unknown
Cl 3.2 mine viku muluṿẹneke arpaś kamaia sinistroverse Etruscan
Cr 3.22 mi celθestra sinistroverse Etruscan
GR·1 ualaunal / raneni dextroverse Lepontic
JU·1 priś sinistroverse Celtic
Li 1.2 mi nemetieś sinistroverse Etruscan
MI·1 petu sinistroverse unknown
MI·2 atiil unknown unknown
MI·10.1 ṃeśiọlano XXIIỊỊ[ dextroverse Cisalpine Gaulish
MI·10.2 miliarios dextroverse Celtic
MI·10.5 oieplu dextroverse unknown
MI·10.6 śuro ambiguous unknown
MI·10.7 unknown unknown unknown
MI·10.8 ]rkịụ XIIII dextroverse unknown
MI·11 ratmon sinistroverse unknown
MI·14 ai?mi dextroverse unknown
MN·1 sekene·i· dextroverse Celtic
MS·1 vẹmetụvis dextroverse Celtic
MS·2 uṿezaṛụap̣us dextroverse Ligurian
NM·1 aeso unknown unknown
NM·2 anarekartọṣ sinistroverse Cisalpine Gaulish
NM·3 ka / ieikr unknown unknown
NM·4 pirakos sinistroverse unknown
NM·5 rikoi dextroverse unknown
NM·6.1 seχeθu dextroverse Lepontic
NM·6.2 ]eχeθ̣[ unknown Lepontic
NM·7 toutiopouos sinistroverse unknown
NM·8 natoris sinistroverse unknown
NM·9 ana / tikou sinistroverse unknown
NM·10.1 aśeś dextroverse unknown
NM·10.2 aśeś dextroverse unknown
NM·11 kasiloị dextroverse unknown
NM·12 kat sinistroverse unknown
NM·13 prikou dextroverse unknown
NM·14 ulkos dextroverse unknown
NM·15 .a.lkouesi dextroverse unknown
NM·16 iazus dextroverse unknown
NM·17 kasios dextroverse unknown
NO·1 § χosioiso v sinistroverse Lepontic
NO·2 § χut ambiguous Lepontic
NO·8 rikanas dextroverse unknown
NO·18 metelui : maeśilalui : uenia : metelikna : aśmina / krasanikna dextroverse unknown
NO·20 ]ọ[ / ]ṭọ[ ]iknos / matopokios / sola / nimoniknạ dextroverse unknown
NO·21.1 tanotaliknoi / kuitos / lekatos / anokopokios / setupokios / esanekoti / anareuiśeos / tanotalos / karnitus dextroverse Cisalpine Gaulish
NO·21.2 takoṣ : toutas : p̣ụ[ / ]ṇ?ḳ??tesaso : poikaṇị dextroverse Cisalpine Gaulish
NO·22 quormsklp dextroverse unknown
NO·26 ]ạuśi sinistroverse Celtic
PG·1.2 ]eknati : truti?ṇi / ]nitu : lokan : koisịs / ]utiknos dextroverse Cisalpine Gaulish
PG·1.4 ateknati : trut / ikni : karnitu / artuaś : koisis : t / ṛụṭịknos : dextroverse Cisalpine Gaulish
PV·1 esopnos kep i sinistroverse Celtic
PV·4 eripoχios sinistroverse Cisalpine Gaulish
SP·1 mezu nemuśus sinistroverse unknown
SP·2 enistale sinistroverse unknown
TI·2 koma sinistroverse unknown
TI·5 ariśai sinistroverse Celtic
TI·7 aśui sinistroverse Celtic
TI·8 atepu sinistroverse Celtic
TI·9 reśu dextroverse Celtic
TI·10 uenu dextroverse Celtic
TI·11 rupelos sinistroverse Celtic
TI·12 atilonei sinistroverse Celtic
TI·13 pirạṇịχeś sinistroverse Celtic
TI·14 plai p sinistroverse Celtic
TI·15 riol ambiguous unknown
TI·18.1 iakir sinistroverse unknown
TI·18.2 kop ambiguous unknown
TI·19 iiuioitove dextroverse unknown
TI·21 ateratos sinistroverse Celtic
TI·23 setupokios sinistroverse Celtic
TI·24 śium sinistroverse unknown
TI·25 anteśilu sinistroverse Celtic
TI·26 teromui : kualui sinistroverse Lepontic
TI·27.1 kuaśoni : pala : terialui sinistroverse Lepontic
TI·27.2 ạkịui p[i]uotialui sinistroverse Lepontic
TI·28 aiero sinistroverse unknown
TI·29 ]aniui : p[ / ]kionei : p[ / ]ẹ ịọṇụ??[ sinistroverse Lepontic
TI·30 mationa[ sinistroverse Celtic
TI·31 ]ala[ sinistroverse Lepontic
TI·32 ]??ṇoṿị : p̣la[ sinistroverse Lepontic
TI·33 ]nialui : pala sinistroverse Lepontic
TI·34.1 aui : pala : sinistroverse Lepontic
TI·34.2 otiui : pala sinistroverse Lepontic
TI·34.3 ]rkomui : pal[a] sinistroverse Lepontic
TI·35 ]osik[ / ]?uka?[ sinistroverse unknown
TI·36.1 slaniai : uerkalai : pala sinistroverse Lepontic
TI·36.2 tisiui : piuotialui : pala : sinistroverse Lepontic
TI·36.3 ]ni : ṃetạlui [ dextroverse Lepontic
TI·37 sunaḷei : makọ[ sinistroverse Lepontic
TI·38 ]uisou : sọ?[ ambiguous Celtic
TI·39 piuonei : tekialui : lala sinistroverse Lepontic
TI·40 komoneos / uarsileos sinistroverse Celtic
TI·41 alkouinos / aśkoneti dextroverse Celtic
TI·42 minuku : komoneos sinistroverse Celtic
TI·43 ]ọni : kuimitrui : pạḷạ dextroverse Lepontic
TI·44 ]ọni : klanalui : p̣ala sinistroverse Lepontic
TI·45.1 ]e?e?? [...] ṭị[...]asui : pala sinistroverse Lepontic
TI·45.2 aṭaị : uesa?a[...]ai : pala sinistroverse Lepontic
TI·47 as sinistroverse unknown
TI·48.1 iap??i sinistroverse Celtic
TI·49 inutu sinistroverse Celtic
TV·1 pazros : / pompeteχuaios : / kaialoiso sinistroverse unknown
VA·1.1 kasiḳọs sinistroverse unknown
VA·2 atepa / to sinistroverse unknown
VA·3 ]iunθanaχa sinistroverse Lepontic
VA·6 pelkui : pruiam : teu : karite : iṣ́ọs : kalite : palaṃ[ sinistroverse Lepontic
VA·7 ateuloipitus dextroverse unknown
VA·8 anisa dextroverse unknown
VA·13 polios dextroverse unknown
VA·14 ẹt sinistroverse unknown
VA·16 akeśị dextroverse unknown
VA·20 ](?)naśiọụị?ọị § sinistroverse unknown
VA·21 ilauki dextroverse unknown
VA·23 etu dextroverse unknown
VA·24 ka dextroverse unknown
VA·27 ḳạiọ dextroverse unknown
VA·28.1 aśoip ambiguous unknown
VA·28.2 sa sinistroverse unknown
VB·1 ṣasamos sinistroverse unknown
VB·2 oletu amaśilu t sinistroverse unknown
VB·3.1 § latumarui : sapsutai : pe : uinom : natom sinistroverse Lepontic
VB·3.2 mou : ea sinistroverse unknown
VB·3.3 lutou : iiii sinistroverse unknown
VB·3.4 tu?? sinistroverse unknown
VB·3.5 enu sinistroverse unknown
VB·4 atios sinistroverse unknown
VB·5 pou dextroverse unknown
VB·6 kia dextroverse unknown
VB·7 kri sinistroverse unknown
VB·8 sa dextroverse unknown
VB·16 uasekia sinistroverse unknown
VB·19 lutu dextroverse unknown
VB·22 aśkonetio / pianu sinistroverse unknown
VB·23 kiketu / ṛẹtalos dextroverse unknown
VB·27 atekua / aśouni dextroverse Lepontic
VC·1.2 akisios : arkatokok / materekos : tośo / kote : atom : teuoχ / tom : koneu dextroverse Cisalpine Gaulish
VR·1 komono[s sinistroverse unknown
VR·3.2 utme dextroverse unknown
VR·5 kulsius sinistroverse unknown
VR-5 ko liu : etu sinistroverse unknown
VR·8 uiro dextroverse unknown
VR·10 p̣ịretos sinistroverse unknown
VR·13 kulopouị sinistroverse unknown
VR·14 keleśu sinistroverse Lepontic
VR·15 kośio sinistroverse Lepontic
VR·18 tokua sinistroverse unknown
VR·20 apios sinistroverse unknown
VR·21 pọχ̣ sinistroverse unknown
VR·22 ẹṛị???es : sa??os sinistroverse unknown
VR·23 ma sinistroverse unknown
VS·1 ritili?[ / ]ipoś[a] boustrophedon unknown
VS·2 poenino / ieu??? sinistroverse unknown
Vs 1.87 ] vercenas sinistroverse Etruscan
Vs 1.165 mi aviles katacinas sinistroverse Etruscan


Bermond Montanari 1988 Giovanna Bermond Montanari, "I Cippi di Rubiera", Studi Etruschi 54 (1988), 239-245.
De Marinis & Motta 1990-1 Raffaele Carlo De Marinis, Filippo Motta, "Una Nuova Iscrizione Lepontica su Pietra da Mezzovico (Lugano). Aspetti Epigrafici e Inquadramento Cronologico", Sibrium 21 (1990-1991), 201-225.
De Marinis 1986 Raffaele Carlo De Marinis, "Lingua e alfabeto", in: Raffaele Carlo De Marinis et al. (Eds.), Como fra gli Etruschi e Celti. La città preromana e il suo ruolo, Como: 1986. (catalogo della mostra), 73-76.
De Marinis 1988 Raffaele Carlo De Marinis, "Liguri e Celto-Liguri", in: Anna Maria Chieco Bianchi et al. (Eds.), Italia Omnium terrarum alunna. La civilta' dei Veneti, Reti, Liguri, Celti, Piceni, Umbri, Latini, Campani e Lapigi, Milano: Scheiwiller 1988, 159-259.
Eska 1998c Josef Francis Eska, "PIE *p (doesn't become) Ø in proto Celtic", Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 58 (1998), 63-80.
Gambari & Colonna 1986 Filippo Maria Gambari, Giovanni Colonna, "Il Bicchiere con Iscrizione Arcaica da Castelletto Ticino", Studi Etruschi 54 (1986 [1988]), 119-164.
Giussani 1902 Antonio Giussani, "L' Iscrizione Nord-Etrusca di Tesserete e le Altre Iscrizioni Preromane del Nostro Territorio", Rivista Archeologica della Provincia di Como 46 (1902), 25-67.
Granucci 1975 Fiorenza Granucci, "Leponzio", Studi Etruschi 43/3 (1975), 224-248.
Krahe 1936 Hans Krahe, "Ligurisch und Indogermanisch", in: Helmut Arntz (Ed.), Germanen und Indogermanen, Festschrift für Hermann Hirt, Wiesbaden: Helmut Arntz 1936. (3 volumes), Vol. 2, 241-255.
Lattes 1901 Elia Lattes, "Iscrizioni Inedite Venete e Etrusche dell'Italia Settentrionale", Rendiconti dell' Istituto Lombardo di Scienza e Letteratura 2/34 (1901), 1131-1142.
Lejeune 1957 Michel Lejeune, "Sur les adaptations de l'alphabet étrusque aux langues indo-européennes d'Italie", Revue des Études Latines 35 (1957), 88-105.
Lejeune 1957b Michel Lejeune, "Observations générales sur l'alphabet lépontique", in: Istituto Lombardo, Accademia di Scienza e Lettere, Tyrrhenica. Saggi di Studi Etruschi, Milano: Istituto Lombardo, Accademia di Scienze e Lettere 1957, 173-180.
Lejeune 1971 Michel Lejeune, Lepontica, Paris: Société d'Édition "Les Belles Lettres" 1971. (reprint of the article "Documents gaulois et para-gaulois de Cisalpine", Études Celtiques 12/2, 1970-1, pp. 357-500)
Lejeune 1974 Michel Lejeune, Manuel de la langue vénète, Heidelberg: Winter Verlag 1974.
Lejeune 1977 Michel Lejeune, "Une bilingue gauloise latine a Vercelli", Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres. Comptes rendus des séances de l'année 1977 (1977), 582-610.
Lejeune 1987 Michel Lejeune, "Le vase de Latumaros. (Discussions sur l'alphabet de Lugano)", Latomus 46 (1987), 493-509.
Maggiani & Prosdocimi 1976 Adriano Maggiani, Aldo Luigi Prosdocimi, "Leponzio-Ligure", Studi Etruschi 44 (1976), 258-266.
Markey & Mees 2003 Thomas L. Markey, Bernard Mees, "Prestino, patrimony and the Plinys", Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie 53 (2003), 116-167.
Mommsen 1853 Theodor Mommsen, "Die nordetruskischen Alphabete auf Inschriften und Münzen", Mittheilungen der Antiquarischen Gesellschaft in Zürich 7 (1853), 197-260.
Motta 2000 Filippo Motta, "La documentazione epigrafica e linguistica", in: Raffaele Carlo De Marinis, Simonetta Biaggio Simona (Eds.), I Leponti tra mito e realtà, Locarno: Gruppo Archeologia Ticino 2000, 181–222.
Pauli 1885 Carl Eugen Pauli, Die Inschriften nordetruskischen Alphabets [= Altitalische Forschungen 1], Leipzig: Hannover Hahn 1885.
Pellegrini 1957 Giovan Battista Pellegrini, "Origini e Diffusione degli Alfabeti Preromani dell'Italia Superiore", Studi Etruschi 25 (1957). (Supplemento)
Prosdocimi 1967 Aldo Luigi Prosdocimi, "L'Iscrizione di Prestino", Studi Etruschi 35 (1967), 199-222.
Prosdocimi 1990 Aldo Luigi Prosdocimi, "Insegnamento e Apprendimento della Scrittura nell'Italia Antica", in: Maristella Pandolfini, Aldo Luigi Prosdocimi (Ed.), Alfabetari e Insegnamento della Scrittura in Etruria e nell'Italia Antica, Firenze: Olschki 1990, 157-301.
Prosdocimi 1991 Aldo Luigi Prosdocimi, "Note sul Celtico in Italia", Studi Etruschi 57 (1991), 139-177.
Rhŷs 1913 Sir John Rhŷs, The Celtic inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul [= Proceedings of the British Academy 6], London: British Academy 1913.
Salzani & Solinas 1998 Luciano Salzani, Patrizia Solinas, La Necropoli Gallica di Casalandri a Isola Rizza (Verona), Mantova: SAP Società Archeologica S.r.l. 1998.
Solinas 2002c Patrizia Solinas, "Iscrizioni Leponzie", in: Elga Tomaello (Ed.), AKEO: un Viaggio tra Antiche Scritture, Canova -Bragaggia: Museo di Montebelluno 2002, 192-194. Schede 23, 24, 25
Tibiletti Bruno 1970 Maria Grazia Tibiletti Bruno, "Problemi Gallo-Liguri", in: Guido Mansuelli (Ed.), Studi sulla città antica. Atti del Convegno di Studi sulla Città Etrusca e Italica Preromana, Bologna: Istituto per la Storia di Bologna 1970.
Tibiletti Bruno 1973-5 Maria Grazia Tibiletti Bruno, "Problemi Epigrafico-Linguistici del Ticino e della Lombardia Preromani", Sibrium 12 (1973-1975), 47-57.
Tibiletti Bruno 1978 Maria Grazia Tibiletti Bruno, "Ligure Leponzio e Gallico", in: Aldo Luigi Prosdocimi (Ed.), Lingue e dialetti dell'Italia antica [= Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica 6/1], Roma: Biblioteca di Storia Patria 1978, 131-208.
Tibiletti Bruno 1997 Maria Grazia Tibiletti Bruno, "A proposito di una nuova iscrizione in grafia "leponzia" (et repetita iuvant)", in: Riccardo Ambrosini, Maria Patrizia Bologna, Filippo Motta, Chatia Orlandi (Eds.), Scríbthair a ainm n-ogaim. Scritti in Memoria di Enrico Campanile, Pisa: Pacini Editore 1997. (2 volumes), 1003-1022.
Tomaello 2002 Elga Tomaello (Ed.), AKEO: un Viaggio tra Antiche Scritture, Canova -Bragaggia: Museo di Montebelluno 2002.
Verger 1998 Stéphane Verger, "Un graffite archaïque dans l'habitat hallstattien de Montmorot (Jura, France)", Studi Etruschi 64 (1998 (2001)), 265-316.
Whatmough 1933 Joshua Whatmough, The Prae-Italic Dialects of Italy. Vol. 2, Part 3: The Raetic, Lepontic, Gallic, East-Italic, Messapic and Sicel inscriptions, Cambridge/Mass.: Harvard University Press 1933.
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