North Italic Script

From Lexicon Leponticum
Jump to: navigation, search

The North Italic Script is an alphabet system that has been widespread in northern Italy approximately between the 8th century BC and the 1st century AD. Several regional variants can be identified over this period of time.

Regional variants

Please note: In LexLep we do not distinguish between regional variants of the North Italic script as long as we have not defined significant formal criteria. Formerly established "alphabet areas" like those of Lugano, Sondrio, Bolzano, and so on (Pauli 1885, Lejeune 1971) seem to be inadequate since there are, with the one exception of Camunic alphabet around Sondrio, no graphic or orthographic borders between these areas. One may, though, recognise certain typical "Venetic", "Raetic" characteristics. The variation, for example, between the various sub-types of the Venetic script are more pronounced than are the differences between any of those variants and the Lepontic script. Only the "Camunic" script stands out very distinctly in the North-Italian area.

Comparison chart of North Italic alphabets by Morandi 2004

Supposed "Lepontic Alphabet"

This definition is mainly based on the definition of the "Lugano" alphabet by Lejeune 1971 (cf. p. 14, fig. 2).

Position Character Customary Name Transliteration Attestation in Lepontic inscriptions (61)
(all variants, including alternative reading variants)
1
A
alpha A 34 (show list) 55.73 %
2
E
e psilon E 24 (show list) 39.34 %
3
V
digamma, wau V 8 (show list) 13.11 %
4
Z
zeta Z 5 (show list) 8.19 %
5
Θ
theta Θ 3 (show list) 4.91 %
6
I
iota I 40 (show list) 65.57 %
7
K
kappa K 20 (show list) 32.78 %
8
L
lambda L 28 (show list) 45.90 %
9
M
mu M 11 (show list) 18.03 %
10
N
nu N 18 (show list) 29.50 %
11
P
pi P 26 (show list) 42.62 %
12
Ś
san, sade Ś 9 (show list) 14.75 %
13
Q
qoppa Q 0 (none) 0.00 %
14
R
rho R 18 (show list) 29.50 %
15
S
sigma S 26 (show list) 42.62 %
16
T
tau T 20 (show list) 32.78 %
17
U
y psilon U 31 (show list) 50.81 %
18
Φ
phi Φ 0 (none) 0.00 %
19
Χ
chi Χ 4 (show list) 6.55 %
20
O
o mikron O 33 (show list) 54.09 %
 
 
space
space, spatium space 6 (show list) 9.83 %
 
separator
separator : 20 (show list) 32.78 %

Abecedarial texts

A curious feature of Lepontic, which aligns it with the Venetic and Camunic writing traditions, is the inclination to 'abecedarial' writing. Even though no full alphabetic sequence has been found so far in the Lepontic region, there are a number of sequences consisting of the initial elements of the alphabetic sequence (aev, maybe zv with reversed order of the first two consonantal signs) which serve as abridged surrogate of the full series.

Character Variants

All the character variants of the North Italic Script are rendered by a special character.

Please note that the hitherto defined character variants represent an interim result. Not all variants are confirmed yet. The listed variants include all readings (including several variant readings), and therefore some variants are listed a number of times. We are still working on the evaluation. A chronological analysis has not yet been conducted.

Additional Literature

This list is not a comprehensive collection of relevant literature. It is a first result of the research work in progress.

North Italic Scripts

Alphabet of Lugano

  • Sign variants, chronology and phonology:

Lejeune 1974: 343 (alpha, theta), 373-375 (<z> / <ś>); regarding theta Θ2 s cf. Bermond Montanari 1988: 242 (Etruscan script), further to theta and alphabet variant from Chiusi cf. Maggiani & Prosdocimi 1976: 262, Briquel 1973 (in MEFRA 85): 75 ff., Cristofani 1974 (in REE 1974): n. 333, Tibiletti Bruno 1973-5: 47-57 (chronology and typology of sign-variants); Tibiletti Bruno 1978: 172-175 (phonetic value of χ, v, z, ś); Salzani & Solinas 1998: 143-148 and Verger 1998: 280 fn. 42, 284-287, fn. 58 (phonetic value of ś)


Images

Inscriptions in North Italic Script

InscriptionTransliterationDirectionLanguage
AO·1.1]ap[sinistroverseunknown
AO·1.2]aẹ?[sinistroverseunknown
AO·2]?ele[sinistroverseunknown
AS 3.1mini mu[l]uvanike keivalesinistroverseEtruscan
BG·1]ṭume [sinistroverseLepontic
BG·2.1]p̣euesasinistroverseunknown
BG·3atsinistroverseunknown
BG·5sinistroverseunknown
BG·7pitsinistroverseunknown
BG·8tousinistroverseunknown
BG·11katsinistroverseunknown
BG·17aịụṭ[sinistroverseunknown
BG·18piuotsinistroverseCisalpine Gaulish
BG·21riśoiambiguousLepontic
BG·23aśuesasinistroverseunknown
BG·24artsinistroverseunknown
BG·25artsinistroverseunknown
BG·26.2]pambiguousunknown
BG·28.1pit??dextroverseunknown
BG·28.2vasinistroverseunknown
BG·31talusinistroverseunknown
BG·34ụitilidextroverseunknown
BI·1lukios / sipioniosdextroverseunknown
BI·2]aki??ios : matikiosunknownunknown
BI·5]arsu / ]ioniosdextroverseunknown
BI·6uipios / iouikudextroverseunknown
BS·1piuon tadextroverseunknown
BS·5takossinistroverseLepontic
BS·7kroambiguousunknown
BS·9rikdextroverseunknown
BS·11rikdextroverseunknown
BS·12arukisinistroverseunknown
BS·13arukisinistroverseunknown
BS·15iucui : atiossinistroverseunknown
BS·16atlat/udextroverseunknown
BS·17koplutuṣdextroverseunknown
BS·18pisasinistroverseunknown
BS·19uasisinistroverseunknown
BS·20mi[t]asinistroverseunknown
BS·23uịrusinistroverseunknown
BS·24a?sinistroverseunknown
CO·2]akụṛ[sinistroverseLepontic
CO·3]ouki?[sinistroverseunknown
CO·4]ạklẹ[sinistroverseunknown
CO·5trị[sinistroverseunknown
CO·6]p̣lioisosinistroverseLepontic
CO·8]ṇẹṛ[sinistroverseunknown
CO·11]tiriṣ???v?[sinistroverseLepontic
CO·12nap̣[ / ot[sinistroverseLepontic
CO·13]?rikimu[sinistroverseLepontic
CO·14mei / vasinistroverseunknown
CO·15[pli]oiṣ[o]sinistroverseLepontic
CO·16[plio]ịsosinistroverseLepontic
CO·20]rpiạ [sinistroverseLepontic
CO·21]ṇ : ṣulọiḳei : [sinistroverseLepontic
CO·23.1unknownsinistroverseunknown
CO·23.3tisinistroverseunknown
CO·24] ṃa[sinistroverseLepontic
CO·25]tiasambiguousLepontic
CO·26stụ[dextroverseunknown
CO·30alsinistroverseLepontic
CO·32a?[dextroverseunknown
CO·34]ṃ[sinistroverseunknown
CO·39luambiguousunknown
CO·42]rdextroverseunknown
CO·44ambiguousunknown
CO·47padextroverseLepontic
CO·48uvamokozis : plialeθu : uvltiauiopos : ariuonepos : siteś : tetusinistroverseLepontic
CO·52]eu : o[sinistroverseunknown
CO·53aẹv [sinistroverseLepontic
CO·54]ạev [dextroverseLepontic
CO·55]ṇẹṛịọ?ọ[sinistroverseLepontic
CO·57sekezossinistroverseLepontic
CO·58]ṣẹkezossinistroverseLepontic
CO·59sekezoṣsinistroverseLepontic
CO·60[sek]ezosunknownLepontic
CO·61aṣ[sinistroverseunknown
CO·62zv ośorissinistroverseLepontic
CO·64.1kiratidextroverseCisalpine Gaulish
CO·64.2kurambiguousCisalpine Gaulish
CO·65atiakidextroverseunknown
CO·66kopiudextroverseunknown
CO·67kusinistroverseunknown
CO·68pelesị[dextroverseunknown
CO·69unknownambiguousLepontic
CO·71]ẹna / ]ones : ṃ[ / ]ẹị[sinistroverseLepontic
CO·72plioisosinistroverseLepontic
CO·73aliossinistroverseLepontic
CO·74prnsinistroverseLepontic
CO·78atsinistroverseunknown
CO·79uitiliosdextroverseLepontic
CO·81]pa[sinistroverseunknown
Cl 3.2mine viku muluṿẹneke arpaś kamaiasinistroverseEtruscan
Cr 3.22mi celθestrasinistroverseEtruscan
GR·1ualaunal / ranenidextroverseLepontic
GR·3uecezusezt : aststaz : χusussinistroverseCeltic
JU·1priśsinistroverseCeltic
Li 1.2mi nemetieśsinistroverseEtruscan
MI·1petusinistroverseunknown
MI·2atiilunknownunknown
MI·10.1ṃeśiọlano XXIIỊỊ[dextroverseCisalpine Gaulish
MI·10.2miliariosdextroverseCeltic
MI·10.5oiepludextroverseunknown
MI·10.6śuroambiguousunknown
MI·10.7unknownunknownunknown
MI·10.8]rkịụ XIIIIdextroverseunknown
MI·11ratmonsinistroverseunknown
MI·14ai?midextroverseunknown
MN·1sekene·i·dextroverseCeltic
MS·1vẹmetụvisdextroverseLigurian
MS·2uṿezaṛụap̣usdextroverseLigurian
NM·2anarekartọṣsinistroverseCisalpine Gaulish
NM·4pirakossinistroverseunknown
NM·5rikoidextroverseunknown
NM·6.1seχeθudextroverseLepontic
NM·6.2]eχeθ̣[unknownLepontic
NM·7toutiopouossinistroverseunknown
NM·8natorissinistroverseunknown
NM·9ana / tikousinistroverseunknown
NM·10.1aśeśdextroverseunknown
NM·10.2aśeśdextroverseunknown
NM·11kasiloịdextroverseunknown
NM·12katsinistroverseunknown
NM·15.a.lkouesidextroverseunknown
NM·16iazusdextroverseunknown
NM·17kasiosdextroverseunknown
NO·1§ χosioiso vsinistroverseLepontic
NO·2§ χutambiguousLepontic
NO·8rikanasdextroverseunknown
NO·18metelui : maeśilalui : uenia : metelikna : aśmina / krasaniknadextroverseunknown
NO·20]ọ[ / ]ṭọ[ ]iknos / matopokios / sola / nimoniknạdextroverseunknown
NO·21.1tanotaliknoi / kuitos / lekatos / anokopokios / setupokios / esanekoti / anareuiśeos / tanotalos / karnitusdextroverseCisalpine Gaulish
NO·21.2takoṣ : toutas : p̣ụ[ / ]ṇ?ḳ??tesaso : poikaṇịdextroverseCisalpine Gaulish
NO·22quormsklpdextroverseunknown
NO·26]ạuśisinistroverseCeltic
PG·1.2]eknati : truti?ṇi / ]nitu : lokan : koisịs / ]utiknosdextroverseCisalpine Gaulish
PG·1.4ateknati : trut / ikni : karnitu / artuaś : koisis : t / ṛụṭịknos :dextroverseCisalpine Gaulish
PV·1esopnos kep isinistroverseCeltic
PV·4eripoχiossinistroverseCisalpine Gaulish
SP·1mezu nemuśussinistroverseunknown
SP·2enistalesinistroverseunknown
TI·2komasinistroverseunknown
TI·5ariśaisinistroverseCeltic
TI·7aśuisinistroverseCeltic
TI·8atepusinistroverseCeltic
TI·9reśudextroverseCeltic
TI·10uenudextroverseCeltic
TI·11rupelossinistroverseCeltic
TI·12atiloneisinistroverseCeltic
TI·13pirạṇịχeśsinistroverseCeltic
TI·14plai psinistroverseCeltic
TI·15riolambiguousunknown
TI·18.1iakirsinistroverseunknown
TI·18.2kopambiguousunknown
TI·19iiuioitovedextroverseunknown
TI·21ateratossinistroverseCeltic
TI·23setupokiossinistroverseCeltic
TI·24śiumsinistroverseunknown
TI·25anteśilusinistroverseCeltic
TI·26teromui : kualuisinistroverseLepontic
TI·27.1kuaśoni : pala : terialuisinistroverseLepontic
TI·27.2ạkịui p[i]uotialuisinistroverseLepontic
TI·28aierosinistroverseunknown
TI·29]aniui : p[ / ]kionei : p[ / ]ẹ ịọṇụ??[sinistroverseLepontic
TI·30mationa[sinistroverseCeltic
TI·31]ala[sinistroverseLepontic
TI·32]??ṇoṿị : p̣la[sinistroverseLepontic
TI·33]nialui : palasinistroverseLepontic
TI·34.1aui : pala :sinistroverseLepontic
TI·34.2otiui : palasinistroverseLepontic
TI·34.3]rkomui : pal[a]sinistroverseLepontic
TI·35]osik[ / ]?uka?[sinistroverseunknown
TI·36.1slaniai : uerkalai : palasinistroverseLepontic
TI·36.2tisiui : piuotialui : pala :sinistroverseLepontic
TI·36.3]ni : ṃetạlui [dextroverseLepontic
TI·37sunaḷei : makọ[sinistroverseLepontic
TI·38]uisou : sọ?[ambiguousCeltic
TI·39piuonei : tekialui : lalasinistroverseLepontic
TI·40komoneos / uarsileossinistroverseCeltic
TI·41alkouinos / aśkonetidextroverseCeltic
TI·42minuku : komoneossinistroverseCeltic
TI·43]ọni : kuimitrui : pạḷạdextroverseLepontic
TI·44]ọni : klanalui : p̣alasinistroverseLepontic
TI·45.1]e?e?? [...] ṭị[...]asui : palasinistroverseLepontic
TI·45.2aṭaị : uesa?a[...]ai : palasinistroverseLepontic
TI·47assinistroverseunknown
TI·48.1iap??isinistroverseCeltic
TI·49inutusinistroverseCeltic
TV·1pazros : / pompeteχuaios : / kaialoisosinistroverseunknown
VA·1.1kasiḳọssinistroverseunknown
VA·2atepa / tosinistroverseunknown
VA·3]iunθanaχasinistroverseLepontic
VA·6pelkui : pruiam : teu : karite : iṣ́ọs : kalite : palaṃ[sinistroverseLepontic
VA·7ateuloipitusdextroverseunknown
VA·8anisadextroverseunknown
VA·13poliosdextroverseunknown
VA·14ẹtsinistroverseunknown
VA·16akeśịdextroverseunknown
VA·20](?)naśiọụị?ọị §sinistroverseunknown
VA·21ilaukidextroverseunknown
VA·23etudextroverseunknown
VA·24kadextroverseunknown
VA·27ḳạiọdextroverseunknown
VA·28.1aśoipambiguousunknown
VA·28.2sasinistroverseunknown
VB·1ṣasamossinistroverseunknown
VB·2oletu amaśilu tsinistroverseunknown
VB·3.1§ latumarui : sapsutai : pe : uinom : natomsinistroverseLepontic
VB·3.2mou : easinistroverseunknown
VB·3.3lutou : iiiisinistroverseunknown
VB·3.4tu??sinistroverseunknown
VB·3.5enusinistroverseunknown
VB·4atiossinistroverseunknown
VB·5poudextroverseunknown
VB·6kiadextroverseunknown
VB·7krisinistroverseunknown
VB·8sadextroverseunknown
VB·16uasekiasinistroverseunknown
VB·19lutudextroverseunknown
VB·22aśkonetio / pianusinistroverseunknown
VB·23kiketu / ṛẹtalosdextroverseunknown
VB·27atekua / aśounidextroverseLepontic
VC·1.2akisios : arkatokok / materekos : tośo / kote : atom : teuoχ / tom : koneudextroverseCisalpine Gaulish
VR·5kulsiussinistroverseunknown
VR-5ko liu : etusinistroverseunknown
VR·8uirodextroverseunknown
VR·13kulopouịsinistroverseunknown
VR·14keleśusinistroverseLepontic
VR·15kośiosinistroverseLepontic
VR·18tokuasinistroverseunknown
VR·20apiossinistroverseunknown
VR·21pọχ̣sinistroverseunknown
VR·22ẹṛị???es : sa??ossinistroverseunknown
VR·23masinistroverseunknown
VS·1ritili?[ / ]ipoś[a]boustrophedonunknown
VS·2poenino / ieu???sinistroverseunknown
Vs 1.87] vercenassinistroverseEtruscan
Vs 1.165mi aviles katacinassinistroverseEtruscan

Bibliography

Bermond Montanari 1988 Giovanna Bermond Montanari, "I Cippi di Rubiera", Studi Etruschi 54 (1988), 239-245.
De Marinis & Motta 1990-1 Raffaele Carlo De Marinis, Filippo Motta, "Una Nuova Iscrizione Lepontica su Pietra da Mezzovico (Lugano). Aspetti Epigrafici e Inquadramento Cronologico", Sibrium 21 (1990-1991), 201-225.
De Marinis 1986 Raffaele Carlo De Marinis, "Lingua e alfabeto", in: Raffaele Carlo De Marinis et al. (Eds.), Como fra gli Etruschi e Celti. La città preromana e il suo ruolo, Como: 1986. (catalogo della mostra), 73-76.
De Marinis 1988 Raffaele Carlo De Marinis, "Liguri e Celto-Liguri", in: Anna Maria Chieco Bianchi et al. (Eds.), Italia Omnium terrarum alunna. La civilta' dei Veneti, Reti, Liguri, Celti, Piceni, Umbri, Latini, Campani e Lapigi, Milano: Scheiwiller 1988, 159-259.
Eska 1998c Josef Francis Eska, "PIE *p (doesn't become) Ø in proto Celtic", Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 58 (1998), 63-80.
Gambari & Colonna 1986 Filippo Maria Gambari, Giovanni Colonna, "Il Bicchiere con Iscrizione Arcaica da Castelletto Ticino", Studi Etruschi 54 (1986 [1988]), 119-164.
Giussani 1902 Antonio Giussani, "L' Iscrizione Nord-Etrusca di Tesserete e le Altre Iscrizioni Preromane del Nostro Territorio", Rivista Archeologica della Provincia di Como 46 (1902), 25-67.
Granucci 1975 Fiorenza Granucci, "Leponzio", Studi Etruschi 43/3 (1975), 224-248.
Krahe 1936 Hans Krahe, "Ligurisch und Indogermanisch", in: Helmut Arntz (Ed.), Germanen und Indogermanen, Festschrift für Hermann Hirt, Wiesbaden: Helmut Arntz 1936. (3 volumes), Vol. 2, 241-255.
Lattes 1901 Elia Lattes, "Iscrizioni Inedite Venete e Etrusche dell'Italia Settentrionale", Rendiconti dell' Istituto Lombardo di Scienza e Letteratura 2/34 (1901), 1131-1142.
Lejeune 1957 Michel Lejeune, "Sur les adaptations de l'alphabet étrusque aux langues indo-européennes d'Italie", Revue des Études Latines 35 (1957), 88-105.
Lejeune 1957b Michel Lejeune, "Observations générales sur l'alphabet lépontique", in: Istituto Lombardo, Accademia di Scienza e Lettere, Tyrrhenica. Saggi di Studi Etruschi, Milano: Istituto Lombardo, Accademia di Scienze e Lettere 1957, 173-180.
Lejeune 1971 Michel Lejeune, Lepontica, Paris: Société d'Édition "Les Belles Lettres" 1971. (reprint of the article "Documents gaulois et para-gaulois de Cisalpine", Études Celtiques 12/2, 1970-1, pp. 357-500)
Lejeune 1974 Michel Lejeune, Manuel de la langue vénète, Heidelberg: Winter Verlag 1974.
Lejeune 1977 Michel Lejeune, "Une bilingue gauloise latine a Vercelli", Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres. Comptes rendus des séances de l'année 1977 (1977), 582-610.
Lejeune 1987 Michel Lejeune, "Le vase de Latumaros. (Discussions sur l'alphabet de Lugano)", Latomus 46 (1987), 493-509.
Maggiani & Prosdocimi 1976 Adriano Maggiani, Aldo Luigi Prosdocimi, "Leponzio-Ligure", Studi Etruschi 44 (1976), 258-266.
Markey & Mees 2003 Thomas L. Markey, Bernard Mees, "Prestino, patrimony and the Plinys", Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie 53 (2003), 116-167.
Mommsen 1853 Theodor Mommsen, "Die nordetruskischen Alphabete auf Inschriften und Münzen", Mittheilungen der Antiquarischen Gesellschaft in Zürich 7 (1853), 197-260.
Motta 2000 Filippo Motta, "La documentazione epigrafica e linguistica", in: Raffaele Carlo De Marinis, Simonetta Biaggio Simona (Eds.), I Leponti tra mito e realtà, Locarno: Gruppo Archeologia Ticino 2000, 181–222.
Pauli 1885 Carl Eugen Pauli, Die Inschriften nordetruskischen Alphabets [= Altitalische Forschungen 1], Leipzig: Hannover Hahn 1885.
Pellegrini 1957 Giovan Battista Pellegrini, "Origini e Diffusione degli Alfabeti Preromani dell'Italia Superiore", Studi Etruschi 25 (1957). (Supplemento)
Prosdocimi 1967 Aldo Luigi Prosdocimi, "L'Iscrizione di Prestino", Studi Etruschi 35 (1967), 199-222.
Prosdocimi 1990 Aldo Luigi Prosdocimi, "Insegnamento e Apprendimento della Scrittura nell'Italia Antica", in: Maristella Pandolfini, Aldo Luigi Prosdocimi (Ed.), Alfabetari e Insegnamento della Scrittura in Etruria e nell'Italia Antica, Firenze: Olschki 1990, 157-301.
Prosdocimi 1991 Aldo Luigi Prosdocimi, "Note sul Celtico in Italia", Studi Etruschi 57 (1991), 139-177.
Rhŷs 1913 Sir John Rhŷs, The Celtic inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul [= Proceedings of the British Academy 6], London: British Academy 1913.
Salzani & Solinas 1998 Luciano Salzani, Patrizia Solinas, La Necropoli Gallica di Casalandri a Isola Rizza (Verona), Mantova: SAP Società Archeologica S.r.l. 1998.
Solinas 2002c Patrizia Solinas, "Iscrizioni Leponzie", in: Elga Tomaello (Ed.), AKEO: un Viaggio tra Antiche Scritture, Canova -Bragaggia: Museo di Montebelluno 2002, 192-194. Schede 23, 24, 25
Tibiletti Bruno 1970 Maria Grazia Tibiletti Bruno, "Problemi Gallo-Liguri", in: Guido Mansuelli (Ed.), Studi sulla città antica. Atti del Convegno di Studi sulla Città Etrusca e Italica Preromana, Bologna: Istituto per la Storia di Bologna 1970.
Tibiletti Bruno 1973-5 Maria Grazia Tibiletti Bruno, "Problemi Epigrafico-Linguistici del Ticino e della Lombardia Preromani", Sibrium 12 (1973-1975), 47-57.
Tibiletti Bruno 1978 Maria Grazia Tibiletti Bruno, "Ligure Leponzio e Gallico", in: Aldo Luigi Prosdocimi (Ed.), Lingue e dialetti dell'Italia antica [= Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica 6/1], Roma: Biblioteca di Storia Patria 1978, 131-208.
Tibiletti Bruno 1997 Maria Grazia Tibiletti Bruno, "A proposito di una nuova iscrizione in grafia "leponzia" (et repetita iuvant)", in: Riccardo Ambrosini, Maria Patrizia Bologna, Filippo Motta, Chatia Orlandi (Eds.), Scríbthair a ainm n-ogaim. Scritti in Memoria di Enrico Campanile, Pisa: Pacini Editore 1997. (2 volumes), 1003-1022.
Tomaello 2002 Elga Tomaello (Ed.), AKEO: un Viaggio tra Antiche Scritture, Canova -Bragaggia: Museo di Montebelluno 2002.
Verger 1998 Stéphane Verger, "Un graffite archaïque dans l'habitat hallstattien de Montmorot (Jura, France)", Studi Etruschi 64 (1998 (2001)), 265-316.
Whatmough 1933 Joshua Whatmough, The Prae-Italic Dialects of Italy. Vol. 2, Part 3: The Raetic, Lepontic, Gallic, East-Italic, Messapic and Sicel inscriptions, Cambridge/Mass.: Harvard University Press 1933.