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Attestation: TI·13 (pirạṇịχeś) (1)
Status: uncertain
Language: Lepontic
Word Type: proper noun
Semantic Field: personal name

Grammatical Categories:

Case: nom.
Number: sg.
Gender: animate
Stem Class: nt

Morphemic Analysis: Pira-?u̯ik-nt-s
Phonemic Analysis: /biraikents/
Cognates: pirakos
Meaning: Pirauikents


Morphologically the -eś would suggest an acc. pl. ending like in siteś. But on TI·13 it is more probable that it is a nom. sg. ending -ent-s (Motta 2000: 214, Solinas 1994: 324). *‑u̯ikents "fighting" (< Celt. *u̯ik- "fight"), etymology not satisfying. For a possible formation not with the suffix -nt-, but -et-, cp. the name of the town Οὐικέτια. De Bernardo Stempel 2000: 94 translates it as "'the Fighting town'" and says that "the spurious n in the later form of the name (Lat. Vicentia > modern Vicenza) is analogical to the many nt-participles used in Romance toponymy". The same root may be present in viχu on VA·4.2.

The explanation of the first segment is unclear (< *birro- "short" seems not suitable; Stifter 2010: 370, cf. Motta 2000: 214, Lejeune 1971: 127, Tibiletti Bruno 1981: 199, Holder 1896-1907: I 424-425, GPN: 311-314, Morandi 1999: 164 (Pirako-)).

Cp. the placename Βιρακελλον in Ptolemy 3,1 (De Bernardo Stempel 2000: 92), which she interprets as "*Bir(r)-āk-ellom 'the place of the Short-cape-wearing people'".


De Bernardo Stempel 2000 Patrizia de Bernardo Stempel, "Ptolemy's Celtic Italy and Ireland: a Linguistic Analysis", in: David N. Parsons, Patrick Sims-Williams (Eds.), Ptolemy. Towards a linguistic atlas of the earliest Celtic place-names of Europe. Papers from a workshop, sponsored by the British Academy, in the Department of Welsh, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, 11-12 April 1999, Aberystwyth: CMCS 2000, 83-112.
GPN David Ellis Evans, Gaulish Personal Names. A Study of Continental Celtic Formations., Oxford: Clarendon Press 1967.
Holder 1896-1907 Alfred Holder, Alt-Celtischer Sprachschatz, Leipzig: Teubner 1896-1907. (3 volumes)
Lejeune 1971 Michel Lejeune, Lepontica, Paris: Société d'Édition "Les Belles Lettres" 1971. (reprint of the article "Documents gaulois et para-gaulois de Cisalpine", Études Celtiques 12/2, 1970-1, pp. 357-500)
Morandi 1999 Alessandro Morandi, "Epigrafia vascolare celtica fra Ticino e Como", Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire 77 (1999), 151-204.
Motta 2000 Filippo Motta, "La documentazione epigrafica e linguistica", in: Raffaele Carlo De Marinis, Simonetta Biaggio Simona (Eds.), I Leponti tra mito e realtà, Locarno: Gruppo Archeologia Ticino 2000, 181–222.
Solinas 1994 Patrizia Solinas, "Il Celtico in Italia", Studi Etruschi 60 (1994 [1995]), 311-408.
Stifter 2010 David Stifter, "Lepontische Studien: Lexicon Leponticum und die Funktion von san im Lepontischen", in: Karin Stüber, Thomas Zehnder, Dieter Bachmann (Eds.), Akten des 5. Deutschsprachigen Keltologensymposiums. Zürich, 7.–10. September 2009 [= Keltische Forschungen. Allgemeine Reihe 1], Wien: Praesens Verlag 2010, 361-376.
Tibiletti Bruno 1981 Maria Grazia Tibiletti Bruno, "Le iscrizioni celtiche d'Italia", in: Enrico Campanile (Ed.), I Celti d'Italia, Pisa: Giardini 1981, 157-207.