Novara Band 2 – Österreicher im Pazifik II

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Der nachhaltige Erfolg des ersten Bandes der Schriftenreihe ,,Novara- Mitteilungen der Österreichisch-Südpazifischen Gesellschaft“ zum Thema ,,Österreicher im Pazifik“ hat diesem Thema Auftrieb gegeben und im Zuge von Anfragen und weiteren einlangenden Informationen eine Fülle neuer Erkenntnisse und Sichtweisen ergeben, die eine entsprechende Fortsetzung sinnvoll erscheinen ließen.

Die in diesem Band versammelten Beiträge geben ein vielgestaltiges Bild der Beziehungen österreichischer Forscher, Reisender und Emmigranten zu den Ländern des Südpazifiks, die sie bereisen und erleben konnten. Aus historischer und ethnologischer Sicht werden die Leistungen dieser Personen transparent gemacht und auf deren Bedeutung für die Gegenwart verwiesen.

Die AutorInnen stammen aus Österreich, Deutschland und Neuseeland und beleuchten die Themen aus ihren ethnologischen, naturwissenschaftlichen und politikwissenschaftlichen Blickwinkeln. Die unterschiedlichen Zugangsweisen zu den Themen stimulieren so das vielschichtige Bild interessanter Kontaktsituationen.

Inhalt

  1. Vorwort des Herausgebers
  2. Christa Riedl-Dorn – Ferdinand Lucas Bauer (1760-1826) – Erster österreichischer Maler in Australien
  3. James N. Bade – Ernst Plischke als Stadtplaner in Neuseeland
  4. Erich Kollig – Ferdinand von Hochstetter: Wahlösterreicher, Neuseelandforscher und Maorifreund
  5. Getraud Stoffel – „Reiche wissenschaftliche Beute“, Das Neuseelandbild in Berichten österreichischer Forschungsreisender im neunzehnten Jahrhundert
  6. Karl R. Wernhart – Eine Wienerin auf den Gesellschaftsinseln: Ida Pfeiffers Aufenthalt in Tahiti im Jahre 1847
  7. Thomas Theye – „Mathematische Racenmasken“ – Messen und Abbilden auf der Erdumseglung der K.K Fregatte „Novara“ in den Jahren 1857-1859
  8. Ingfried Schütz-Müller – Zwischen Staatsraison, Kooperation und Wettbewerb: Betrachtungen über Weltumsegler und Entdecker
  9. Hermann Mückler – Ethnologe, Photograph, Publizist – Ein Österreicher in Melanesien: Hugo A. Bernatzik

Abstracts

James N. Bade, Auckland – Ernst Plischke als Stadtplaner in Neuseeland 
The article highlights the importance of Ernst Plischke for contemporary New Zealand city planning. Emmigrating from Austria after the takeover through the Nazis, Plischke arrived in 1939 in New Zealand, where he immediately received a job at the ministry for development and housing. His designs for Mangakino and Kaingaroa as well as Naenae and Trentham opened new solutions to a practicable combination of traffic and pedestrian areas. With introducing solely pedestrian areas in town centres in his designs of the early forties, he clearly separated the thorough traffic from shopping and administration quarters. He therefore can be seen as the inventor of the pedestrian precinct in New Zealand and as a forerunner for European developments of the Post-WWII era.

Erich Kolig, Dunedin – Ferdinand von Hochstetter: Wahlösterreicher, Neuseelandforscher und Maorifreund 
This article highlights the ambivalent position of Ferdinand von Hochstetter, a leading geologist and expert in different fields of natural sciences at his times, in his interpretation of the Maori population. Citing from Hochstetters accounts of his visit to New Zealand, a vivid description and critic of Hochstetters material dealing with Maori prehistory and ethnography is given. Observing Maori life and custom Hochstetter expected, from his 19th century viewpoint, the soon extinction of the Maori race, caused by their weakness to adapt to changing conditions imposed by increasing numbers of white immigrants.

Gertraut Stoffel, Auckland – „Reiche wissenschaftliche Beute“: Das Neuseelandbild in Berichten österreichischer Forschungsreisender im neunzehnten Jahrhundert 
Among the European explorers who visited New Zealand in the second half of the nineteenth century, we find a number of Austrians such as Karl von Scherzer, Andreas Reischek, Robert von Lendenfeld and Joseph Alexander von Hübner. Their reports, although sympathetic, portray New Zealand from a point of view that is both detached and strongly affected by their own cultural conditioning. This article outlines their contact with New Zealand and traces common themes in their reports, such as their overriding desire to contribute to knowledge and science.

Karl R. Wernhart, Wien – Eine Wienerin auf den Gesellschaftsinseln: Ida Pfeiffers Aufenthalt in Tahiti im Jahre 1847 
Ida Pfeiffer was one of the great travellers of the 19th century who wrote down their impressions and so made them accessible to the public. The Viennese visited not only the Holy Land and the Scandinavian states, but also undertook two round-the-world trips. She published all her impressions in books; her publications belonged to the literature specially favoured by the upper middle class of the 19th century.

On her first round-the-world trip Ida Pfeiffer visited Tahiti (Society Islands) in 1847 and stayed there for some weeks. Her impressions of the landscape, the habits and customs of the natives are described very extensively in her journal. Comparing these with former sources (e.g. Cook) or with literature on the subject, one must recognise, that her statements and observations represent valuable sources. She describes the people of Tahiti and their culture in a phase of a great process of acculturation that began with the arrival of the first Europeans and lasted until the present.

Thomas Theye, Bremen – „Mathematische Racenmasken“: Vermessen und Abbilden auf der Erdumsegelung der Fregatte „Novara“ in den Jahren 1857-1859 
As a result of the preparations for the first Austrian circumnavigation of the world by the Imperial and Royal frigate „Novara“ (1857-1859) a booklet was published in 1857 bearing the title: ,,Bemerkungen und Anweisungen für die Naturforscher, welche die Expedition […] begleiten“. Being a predecessor of modern questionnaires, this publication was the first manual of scientific observation and enquiry in the German speaking countries which recommended photography as a scientific tool of observation.

Although one of the scientists joining the expedition, the geologist Ferdinand von Hochstetter, had been specially trained to master the photographic process, no photographs have remained, taken by him or any other crew members. In contrary, the main visual documentation of the circumnavigation and the illustrations of the travel account is coming down to us in the painter’s, Joseph Selenny’s, extensive oeuvre.

During the circumnavigation both the director of the scientific commission, Karl von Scherzer and the ship’s doctor Eduard Schwarz elaborated a scheme for anthropometrical measurements. This scheme was one of the earliest attempts to standardize the various anthropological endeavours in search for human races. Besides this and in opposition to the visual representation only of „typical“ individuals Scherzer and Schwarz presented a mode of transforming statistical data into a graphic representation.

The text is examining the pros and cons of the scientific use of photography stated during the circumnavigation. Furtheron the pre-evolutionary intentions of Scherzer’s and Schwarz’s anthropometrical measurement scheme and the way of constructing and visualizing average types are discussed.

Ingfrid Schütz-Müller, Wien – Zwischen Staatsraison, Kooperation und Wettbewerb: Betrachtungen über Weltumsegler und Entdecker 
This article focuses on selected explorers and discoverers of the Pacific Islands from the end of the eighteenth to the mid nineteenth century, who took part in the development of a new scientific ethos. Despite power political aspirations of the European nations involved in the discovery of the Pacific and even wars between the protagonists, step by step an new scientific approach emerged – characterized by the shared desire to answer geographical and anthropological questions about unknown islands, flora and fauna of the newly discovered regions and proving the inexistence of Terra Australis Incognita. The international search for the lost French expedition of La Pérouse mirrors these efforts, as well as George Ansons published report of his voyage, which reached a broad audience and marks the end of the period of hiding geographical details and scientific results. The Austrian geologist Ferdinand v. Hochstetter who explored significant parts of New Zealand also adopted these ethic principles.

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