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Other press marks:Pelliot Koutchéen Ancienne Série 6B; A 1


Main find spot:Duldur-Akhur
Expedition code:M 500.2
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:Classical
Add. linguistic characteristics:None

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānālaṅkāra
Passage:Cittavarga, 1.76a-82c
Parallel texts:Uv 31.11-16 (Bernhard 1965: 411-413)
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Manuscript:Udānālaṅkāra PK AS 6 etc.
Leaf number:45
Following fragment:PK AS 6C
Material:Ink on paper
Size (h × w):8,5 × 31,2 cm
Number of lines:7
Interline spacing:1,3 cm
Remarks:PK AS 6C follows immediately


PK AS 6B recto PK AS 6B verso

Images loaded from by courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Pelliot koutchéen.


a1ṣṣe : śīlpa ṣesa ynūcantse sak\ śpālme(·) ñ[ä]kcye śaiṣṣeṣṣe : wa[r](·)ṣlyñ(· – –)tre[ntä pa]lsk(·)[nts](· –)k\ [k]s(·)
a2[lla]ññeṣṣe : po cmelaṣṣi pacera mā cämpmoñ toṃ skwanma aitsi 70-6 [p](·)pāṣṣorñe pāṣtar ksa indri(–)
a3tukastr anaiś[ai] : ka○lymis= eṅtra mā palsko laklentaṃts\ ā[k]e yāma(·) m[ā] : ma[kte] klyau[ṣtra] pūdñäkt(·)
a4śrāvasti rī spe maskī○tar\ : jetavaṃ saṃghārāmne piś-kante aklaṣlyemp= eṣe «†sa» 70-7 ceu
a5pre[k]ene nande ñem\ ○ poyśintse mātarsa procer : kektsenne ṣai olypotse tetreṅku yataṣṣ(·)
a6tar-ne : sonopitar\ likṣītar\ wästsanma krenta yäṣṣītar\ : alepāṃṣṣeṃ añcāṃṣṣeṃ raitwenta rīttau
a7(– ··)[ī]tar\ 70-8 maskemane tu-yknesa kleśa[n](·)a palsko melyyen-ne : ceu wäntare ṣamā[n]i poy[ś]i-
b1(–) au(·)ts(·)s= ākṣāre : nand[eṃ] ālts(·)ś\ pūdñäkte [ṣ](· –)neṃ mantrākk= [ā]lyeṅka(·) : werts[i]yaine orotsai wat\
b2w(·)ña ṣkas toṃ ślokanma 70-9 makte osta pakwāreṃ aipos̝a swese olypotse : kaus̝aṃ mant ra mā yai-
b3ro[ṣ] palsko no kauṣn= eṅkl= olypotse : tek\ aścameṃ pontaṃtsa ākene te «ka» s̝pa wāki : ścono kauṣ[n]= aknā-
b4tsaññe amāno mau○te yokīye 80 klyauṣa nande ñäś\ ṣarmmeṃ pūdñäkte ślokanma weña :
b5keklyauṣormeṃ mrauskā○te mamrauskau wlawāte palsko : caukate indrintaṣṣeṃ [t]were yarm\ śwāt[s]i
b6n= (·)ṅsate : nauṣ [p]āke postaṃ pāke iṣintse ritt= āksalyñempa 80-1 carka yetweṃ kektseñṣe(·) spelkke(·)[su]
b7ṣp yāmṣi etsarkle : mā s̝p\ cämpyāre kleśanma pals[k]o cwi lātsi(– –)[ṅkts](·) : cew [r]a wän(··)e [ṣ]amā(·)i

(continues on PK AS 6C)


a1-ṣṣe : śīlpa ṣesa ynūcantse sak śpālme(ṃ) ñäkcye śaiṣṣeṣṣe : war(a)ṣlyñ(eṣṣe) (e)trentä pälsk(o)nts(e sa)k ks(e)-
a2-lläññeṣṣe : po cmelaṣṣi pacera cämpmoñ toṃ skwanma aitsi 76 p(a)pāṣṣorñe pāṣtär ksa indri(nta)
a3tukästr anaiśai : kalymis= eṅträ palsko läklentaṃts āke yāmṣä(ṃ) : mäkte klyauṣträ pūdñäkt(e)
a4śrāvasti spe mäskītär : jetavaṃ saṃghārāmne piś-känte aklaṣlyemp= eṣe 77 ceu
a5prekene nande ñem poyśintse mātärsa procer : kektsenne ṣai olypotse tetreṅku yatäṣṣ(i)-
a6-tär-ne : sonopitär likṣītär wästsanma krenta yäṣṣītär : alepāṃṣṣeṃ añcāṃṣṣeṃ raitwenta rīttau
a7(mäsk)ītär 78 mäskemane tu-yknesa kleśan(m)a palsko melyyen-ne : ceu wäntare ṣamāni poyśi-
b1-(ntse) au(r)ts(e)s= ākṣāre : nandeṃ ālts(i)ś pūdñäkte ṣ(amā)neṃ mäntrākk= ālyeṅkä(ṃ) : wertsiyaine orotsai wat
b2w(e)ña ṣkas toṃ ślokanma 79 mäkte ostä pakwāreṃ aipoṣä swese olypotse : kauṣäṃ mant ra yai-
b3-roṣ palsko no kauṣn= eṅkl= olypotse : tek aścameṃ pontaṃtsä ākene te ṣpä wāki : ścono kauṣn= aknā-
b4-tsaññe amāno maute yokīye 80 klyauṣa nande ñäś ṣarmmeṃ pūdñäkte ślokanma weña :
b5keklyauṣormeṃ mrauskāte mamrauskau wlawāte palsko : caukate indrintaṣṣeṃ twere«ṃ» yarm śwātsi
b6n= (e)ṅsate : nauṣ pāke postäṃ pāke iṣintse ritt= āksalyñempa 81 carka yetweṃ kektseñṣe(ṃ) spelkke(s)su
b7ṣp yāmṣi etsarkle : ṣp cämpyāre kleśanma palsko cwi l(k)ātsi(ṣṣe ta)ṅkts(i) : cew ra wän(tr)e ṣamā(n)i

(continues on PK AS 6C)


a1For the one conducting himself according to moral behavior, there is superior happiness belonging to the divine world [76b]. For the mind possessing the hero [which is] practice, there is happiness pertaining to extinction. [76c]
a2Parents belonging to the five births [are] not able to give those [two types of] happiness. [76d] [Even if] anyone observes the observance, [even if] he carefully
a3keeps the senses hidden, [77a] [but if] he does not put his mind onto the right course, he will not accomplish the end of the sufferings. [77b] As it has been heard: The Buddha lord
a4was staying near the city of Śrāvastī, [77c] in the monastery Jetavana together with five hundred disciples. [77d] At that
a5time the maternal brother of the Omniscient [= Buddha] named Nanda [78a] was very much fond of his body; he kept adorning
a6it, [78b] anointing himself, washing himself, [and] wearing beautiful clothes.[78c] He remained attached to attachments consisting of salves
a7[and] unguents. [78d] Being in that manner, the passions kept crushing his mind. [79a] The monks revealed this matter to the Omniscient
b1at length. [79b] In order to restrain Nanda, the Buddha lord told these six stanzas [79c] in the same manner
b2to other monks or in a large assembly: [79d] “As the rain seriously destroys a house which is badly covered, [80a] in the same manner also
b3the passion indeed seriously destroys the mind which is not exercised.” [80b] [= Uv 31.11] This [wording] precisely belongs to all [stanzas, i.e. Uv 31.11-16] from the beginning [i.e., pādas a-c] but for the end [of each stanza] there is a difference, namely this: [80c] hatred destroys,
b4ignorance, excessive pride, cupidity, desire. [80d] Nanda heard [that and thought]: “Because of me the Buddha lord told these stanzas.” [81a]
b5Having heard [that] he felt weary, and feeling weary he regained control over his mind. [81b] He hid the door(s) of the senses and took measure
b6in food. [81c] He attached [himself] to studying during the anterior part [and] the posterior part of the night. [81d] He rejected the ornaments of the body, and with zeal
b7he kept practicing self-castigation. [82a] And the passion could not (hinder) anymore his mind concerning the vision. [82b] This matter the monks
(recounted bit by bit to the Omniscient)

(continues on PK AS 6C)

Philological commentary

The metre is 4 x 7+8 (in principle 4+3 + 3+5).

a1. For the end of the form (e)tre[ntä] Lévi had the reading trewä, but this does not lead anywhere. The alternative reading gives a verse form of an oblique singular masc. of an adjective etreu* ‘provided with a hero’ presupposed by etreuññe ‘heroic’ (B 274 b 2).

a4. After eṣe the akṣara 〈sa〉 has been erased. Therefore the original writing was most probably °mpa ṣesa with the reinforcement of the comitative by an adverb, which is actually found in line a 1. But then the scribe realized that this sequence had one syllable too much for the metre and he corrected it by modifying ṣe to eṣe (the alternative adverb with the same meaning), which implied sandhi with the preceding vowel.

b3. The akṣara 〈ka〉 has been added below the line in a smaller writing, apparently by the same hand that added the double dot at the end of pāda 80b and also the leaf number on the margin.

b4. The reading maute is certain and confirmed by a second occurrence in the following leaf (PK AS 6C a3), because the scribe distinguishes carefully between 〈n〉 and 〈ta〉. However, there is also a form mauṃ in 20 b 3, archaic meu(-) in broken context in 145 a8, which is supposed to mean ‘avarice’ (Adams, DoT: 477; Peyrot 2008: 47). Pace Adams, our maute should not be read as maune and hence taken as the beside the mauṃ, all the less so since such an inflection is without parallels.

b5. Apparently, one would expect the oblique plural of the noun twere ‘door’, since the senses are conceived as (many) openings, and the preceding adjective is an oblique plural masc. as well. Therefore, one may surmise the omission of an anusvāra.

b6. The ligatura 〈ṣpa〉 in nauṣ pāke was written carelessly.

b7. It does not seem possible to construct l(k)ātsi as an infinitive depending on the verb cämp- ‘to be able’. Since the meter often causes deviation from normal word order, one may restore an adjective l(k)ātsi(ṣṣe) as epithet of the preceding noun palsko. It presupposes that lkātsi has been substantivized in order to provide a calque of Skt. darśana- ‘vision’, which designates a progressive stage in the religious development, cf. Edgerton BHSD: 411a. The sentence as restored states clearly the opposite behavior to the previous status of Nanda as described in line a7.

Linguistic commentary

a1. The standard form of the comitative sg. of śīl, a loan word from Skt. śīla- is actually śīlmpa; one may assume either simplification of the cluster, or ligatura, or the usage of the older form -pa of the comitative affix. If one restores a secondary adjective war(a)ṣlyñ(eṣṣe) one gets a relatively common expression combining an adjective in -ṣṣe (TA -ṣi) with a metaphorical term, in our case ‘hero’ (of the type pelaikneṣṣe naumiye ‘the jewel of the Law’ = “the Law [which is] a jewel”). According to parallels, TB waraṣlyñe (TA wrāṣlune) translates Skt. bhāvanā- ‘contemplation, reflection, development of the mind’.

b2. The forms ostä and aipoṣä in pāda 80a show preservation of the final due to the metre, even though they are colon-internal; in b3 we have colon-final pontaṃtsä, which is the more regular place for this kind of preservation. In the first case it is certainly an archaism preserved in a direct quote from the Udānavarga.

b4. TB amāno, a loan word from Iranian *āmāna-, shows o-mobile like many other loan words from Indian or Iranian.

b6. The phrase TB nauṣ pāke postäṃ pāke iṣintse seems to render the Sanskrit adverb pūrvarātrāpararātram ‘during the first and the second half of the night’ (SWTF: s.v.). Note that the oblique here is used in temporal function.

b7. The form etsarkle has to be taken as a direct object of the preceding verb; pace Adams, DoT: 99 it is not an adverb but the substantivized adjective, being the calque of Skt. ātāpana- ‘self-castigation’ (Edgerton BHSD: 91b) based on tsärk(ā)- ‘to burn, torment’.


Edition: Lévi 1933: 72, 73-74.
Translation: a2-3 Meunier 2013: 167, Peyrot, ToSu: 679; b5 Peyrot, ToSu: 679.


Georges-Jean Pinault (in collaboration with Melanie Malzahn and Michaël Peyrot)

Date of online publication: February 2012


Adams, DoT

Adams, Douglas Quentin (1999) A Dictionary of Tocharian B. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi (Leiden Studies in Indo-European 10).

Bernhard 1965

Bernhard, Franz (1965) Udānavarga. Band I, Einleitung, Beschreibung der Handschriften, Textausgabe, Bibliographie. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht (Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden X).

Edgerton BHSD

Edgerton, Franklin (1953) Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit grammar and dictionary. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press (several reprints).

Lévi 1933

Lévi, Sylvain (1933) Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien» par M. Sylvain Lévi. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny (2013) Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien. Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14, 123-185.

Peyrot 2008

Peyrot, Michaël (2008) Variation and change in Tocharian B. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi (Leiden Studies in Indo-European 15).

Peyrot, ToSu

Peyrot, Michaël (2013) The Tocharian subjunctive, A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Leiden/Boston: Brill (Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics 8).


(1973-) Sanskrit-Wörterbuch der buddhistischen Texte aus den Turfan-Funden. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. AS 6B
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