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Other press marks:Pelliot Koutchéen Ancienne Série 6C; A 2


Main find spot:Duldur-Akhur
Expedition code:M 500
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:Classical
Add. linguistic characteristics:None

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānālaṅkāra
Passage:Cittavarga, 1.82c-88d
Parallel texts:Uv 31.17-22 (Bernhard 1965: 413-415)
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Manuscript:Udānālaṅkāra PK AS 6 etc.
Leaf number:(4)[6]
Preceding fragment:PK AS 6B
Material:Ink on paper
Size (h × w):8,5 × 31,3 cm
Number of lines:7
Interline spacing:1,3 cm
Remarks:PK AS 6B precedes immediately


PK AS 6C Recto PK AS 6C Verso

Images loaded from by courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Pelliot koutchéen.


(continues from PK AS 6B)

a1[p](·)yśints[e] yke-p(·)stn= akṣāre : nano poyśi śl[o]kanma ṣka[s] w[e]ña [na](– –)[l]k(·)[r]m[e](ṃ) 8(–) [mak]t(· –)[s]t\ ka
a2rtse aipos̝\ swese mā olypotse kaus̝aṃ : mantrākkak\ kartse yairos̝\ palskw eṅkal\ mā kauṣn= olypotse (–)
a3tek\ aścameṃ ponta○ntsa ākene te ka s̝pa wāki : ścono mā kauṣn= aknātsaṃñ= emāno maute yo
a4[k]īye 80-3 te śloka○nmaṃts\ utpatti ñake no wäntre s̝arpau-me : makte ost\ poṣiyantsa [w]a
a5wārpau papaikau ā○stre : ṣim mā prākre aipu no iścemtsa oṃṣmeṃ mā yāmu : wraṃtse stmānma
a6(··)[oṅka]nma palkowwa m= ānaiśai tākaṃ 80-4 śan[ma]ṃ swese kalyminmeṃ śtwāra toṃ swāsaṃ ṣimtsa ceu (–)
a7(– –) [o]st[n]e tsroriṃtsa mā wal(·)e kauṣän olypotse : mant\ se pals(·)o mā yairu tākaṃ kw[r]i śtwer wara
b1(– – – –)kc(·)w ra tsa indrīsa eṅkalṣe śanman-neś swese 80-5 su ceu palsko past\ k[au]s̝aṃ cämpamñe ma
b2(·)k(·)tarn= oṃṣap\ : snai-maktauñe eṅkaltse sporttotar(\) e(–)lymiññen[e] : wara[s̝a]lyñe krentaunamp= ākalye ya
b3malyñe [we]stra : krentau○na mā past\ arseṃ maim\ palsko [c]melane eṃṣke 80-6 makte wassi swarenaṃ we
b4r(··)mpa tattaṃ ksa walke ○ waipte ka(··)e werenmeṃ sū wassi ykāk\ swāre wars̝s̝aṃ : krentaunampa akal[y](·)
b5maṃt rano yāmtra ce ○ (·)[m]elne : ceu āklyisa cmelane ompostaṃ yneṃ-ne m= ārsen-ne 80-7 kart[sau]ññ[e]
b6mpa ket palsko mā tākaṃ yairu te-yknesa : wlāwalyñesa pals[k]oṣṣe meṅkītse kaskau wiṣainta : m[ai]m(·)
b7(··)entse mā yā[m](·) [o]s= tarkau wat\ ānts= ompal(··)o[ṣṣe :] wiṣainta[ṣ](·)[ai] yokai[sa] (–)[wā]rpau [m]ā ṣañ\ [e](–)l(··)i 80-8


(continues from PK AS 6B)

a1 p(o)yśintse yke-p(o)stn= akṣāre : nano poyśi ślokanma ṣkas weña na(ndeṃ pä)lk(o)rme(ṃ) 8(2) mäkt(e o)st ka-
a2-rtse aipoṣ swese olypotse kauṣäṃ : mäntrākkak kartse yairoṣ palskw eṅkäl kauṣn= olypotse (:)
a3tek aścameṃ pontantsä ākene te ka ṣpä wāki : ścono kauṣn= aknātsaṃñ= emāno maute yo-
a4-kīye 83 te ślokanmaṃts utpatti ñake no wäntre ṣärpau-me : mäkte ost poṣiyantsa wa-
a5-wārpau papaikau āstre : ṣim prākre aipu no iścemtsa oṃṣmeṃ yāmu : wraṃtse stmānma
a6(tr)oṅkanma pälkowwa m= ānaiśai tākaṃ 84 śanmäṃ swese kälyminmeṃ śtwāra toṃ swāsaṃ ṣimtsa ceu (:)
a7(mäkte) ostne tsroriṃtsa wal(k)e kauṣän olypotse : mant se pals(k)o yairu tākaṃ kwri śtwer wara-
b1-(ṣlyñesa :) (mä)kc(e)w ra tsa indrīsa eṅkalṣe śänman-neś swese 85 su ceu palsko päst kauṣäṃ cämpamñe mä-
b2-(s)k(e)tärn= oṃṣap : snai mäktauñe eṅkaltse sporttotär e(ka)lymiññene : waräṣälyñe krentaunamp= ākalye ya-
b3-malyñe westrä : krentauna päst arseṃ maim palsko cmelane eṃṣke 86 mäkte wassi swarenäṃ we-
b4-r(eṃ)mpa tattaṃ ksa walke waipte ka(rts)e werenmeṃ wassi ykāk swāre warṣṣäṃ : krentaunampa akaly(e)
b5maṃt rano yāmträ ce (c)melne : ceu āklyisa cmelane ompostäṃ yneṃ-ne m= ārsen-ne 87 kärtsauññe-
b6-mpa ket palsko tākaṃ yairu te-yknesa : wlāwalyñesa pälskoṣṣe meṅkītse käskau wiṣainta : maim(a)-
b7-(ntsñ)entse yām(w) os= tärkau wat ānts= ompal(sk)oṣṣe : wiṣaintaṣ(ṣ)ai yokaisa (wa)wārpau ṣañ e(ṅkä)l (cw)i 88


(continues from PK AS 6B)

(This matter the monks)
a1recounted bit by bit to the Omniscient [= Buddha]. [82c] Looking at Nanda, the Omniscient told again six stanzas: [82d] “As the rain
a2does not seriously destroy a house that is well-covered, [83a] in the same manner passion does not seriously destroy a mind well-exercised.” [83b] [= Uv 31.17]
a3This [wording] precisely belongs to all [stanzas, i.e. Uv 31.17-22] from the beginning [i.e., pādas a-c] but for the end [of each stanza] there is a difference, namely this: [83c] hatred does not destroy, ignorance, excessive pride, cupidity,
a4desire. [83d] “This is the origin of the stanzas; now I will explain the matter to you: [84a] like [if] a house, surrounded by walls
a5[and] neatly [lit. purely] painted, [84b] but the roof [is] not firmly covered and not done with clay on top, [84c] [and] the water pipes
a6[and] holes have not been carefully looked at; [84d] [if] rain comes from the four cardinal points, [and] it rains on this roof,
a7so that [it] does serious damage before long through the openings in the house, [85a] likewise, if this spirit has not been exercised by the four [85b]
b1exercises—unto which one [= spirit] indeed also the rain of passion comes through the [holes of the] sense[s]—, [85d] then this [rain] utterly destroys the mind, [and] his power [i.e., of the rain] remains
b2superior; [86a] the passionate one turns around under subjection without refuge. [86b] Exercise
b3is called making studies in virtues; [86c] the virtues do definitely not leave thought [and] mind as long as [one remains] in the [circle of] rebirths. [86d] As [if] somebody puts a garment
b4together with sweet odors for a long time, [87a] even [when] separated from these odors, this garment still smells sweet, [87b] also likewise, [if] in this birth exercise with virtues
b5is done, [87c] because of this exercise, they [= the virtues] follow him in the rebirths and do not leave him. [87d] Who
b6has not exercised his mind with virtue in that way, [88a] lacking control over the mind he [is] torn apart [and hence open] to the sensual spheres [= Skt. viṣaya-]; [88b] [if] the thoughtfulness
b7has not built a house or deserted the stock of meditation, [88c] [even if one is] surrounded by craving for the sensual spheres, there [is] no passion [attached to] himself. [88d]

Philological commentary

The metre is 4 x 7+8 (in principle 4+3 + 3+5).

a3. The phrase aknātsaṃñ=emāno shows vowel sandhi over the colon boundary, which is caused by the addition of a supplementary syllable in the colon in contrast to the similar sequence in PK AS 6B b3-4. In addition, the redactor has opted for the contraction product e instead of a. A similar discrepancy between meter and sandhi we find in b2: krentaunamp= ; ākalye, and consonant sandhi in b7: os= ; tärkau. For the reading maute, see PK AS 6B b4.

a7. At the beginning of this line one may restore swese ‘rain’, which would make good sense as subject of the sentence; however, since it is already found as subject of the preceding clause, this repetition seems unlikely. One may also consider a demonstrative pronoun followed by a particle like su tsa, or rather a demonstrative determining following ostne. But the best restoration would be the comparative conjunction mäkte that would reinforce the parallelism with the apodosis that starts at the beginning of the next pāda.

Linguistic commentary

a3. Colon-final pontantsä shows preservation of final , which is the regular place for this kind of preservation and also found in the preceding leaf PK AS 6B b3.

a6. The word order is wrong; it should read toṃ śtwāra kälyminmeṃ instead. The feminine PPt pälkowwa for standard pälkauwa shows a variant usually found in the masculine -ow (with variant spellings), which represents the older form beside standard -au. Note that in PK AS 6A b6 we find the standard form kätkauwa.

b1. In pāda 85d the relative pronoun mäkcew is referred to by the suffix pronoun -neś. The singular indrīsa is unexpected because the senses are always plural, also in this text (cf. PK AS 6B b5). The singular is probably caused by the meter, which requires only three syllables at the end of the first colon.

b2. The compound snai-mäktauñe ought to be interpreted as an adverb, while eṅkaltse is the nominative singular of a derivative of eṅkäl ‘passion’. It corresponds to Skt. aparāyaṇa- ‘without ultimate goal, without refuge’.

b6. The oblique plural of wiṣai, a loan word from Skt. viṣaya- ‘domain, sphere of the senses’, can only be understood as an accusative of extension depending on the verb käsk(ā)- ‘to scatter’. Accordingly, the PPt käskau describes the state of mind of the person subjected to the senses, which is attracted by all sorts of external objects.


Edition: Lévi 1933: 73, 74-75.
Translation: a4–5 Meunier 2013: 130; a4-b3 Peyrot, ToSu: 677; b2-3 Meunier 2013: 175; b3-5 Peyrot, ToSu: 679; b4 Peyrot, ToSu: 821; b4-5 Meunier 2013: 175.


Georges-Jean Pinault (in collaboration with Melanie Malzahn and Michaël Peyrot)

Date of online publication: February 2012


Bernhard 1965

Bernhard, Franz (1965) Udānavarga. Band I, Einleitung, Beschreibung der Handschriften, Textausgabe, Bibliographie. Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht: Göttingen (Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden X).

Lévi 1933

Lévi, Sylvain (1933) Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien» par M. Sylvain Lévi. Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny (2013) Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien. Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14, 123-185.

Peyrot, ToSu

Peyrot, Michaël (2013) The Tocharian subjunctive, A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Brill: Leiden/Boston (Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics 8). AS 6C
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