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PK AS 6D

Other press marks:Pelliot Koutchéen Ancienne Série 6D; A 4

Provenience

Main find spot:Duldur-Akhur
Expedition code:DA 29
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Language:TB
Linguistic stage:Classical
Add. linguistic characteristics:None
Script:Classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānālaṅkāra
Passage:Cittavarga, 2.102c-107d
Parallel texts:Uv 31.27 (Bernhard 1965: 416)
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine
Verse/Prose:Verse

Object

Manuscript:Udānālaṅkāra PK AS 6 etc.
Leaf number:67
Material:Ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Size (h × w):8,3 × 19,7 cm
Number of lines:7
Interline spacing:1,3 cm

Images

PK AS 6D Recto PK AS 6D Verso

Images loaded from gallica.bnf.fr by courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Pelliot koutchéen.

Transliteration

a1lañcuwe : pūrpat\ nano[k]\ ñi yapoyne n[e]salyñe (– – – –) /// (12 syl.)
a2yapoy\ aiśi yāmtsi makte naus̝\ : nano māgatṣeṃ ypau(– –) /// (13 syl.)
a3pyapyaiṃ stāna sārmna ○ okonta ekṣalyäntsa km[e]n-me (– – –) /// (10 syl.)
a4kare ceu 103 n_anok śrāvasti ○ spe pūdñäkte jetava(·)[ne] maskīta[r](\) (– – – – – –)
a5(– – – – – –)re ñem\ śrāvastine ○ brāhmaṇe ṣeyä [ks]a (·)e(·) preke : /// (13 syl.)
a6weñentaṃts\ welyñe : kuce kca klyauṣi tuk\ klyeñci tu(··)e (–)[ki] (–)[ñ]i (–) /// (12 syl.)
a7– [ma]s[k‹‹e››]tar\ [tu]meṃ su te pals(·)a (–) yam\ ñiś\ [g]au(– – – – –) /// (11 syl.)
b1– lyñe : jetav(·)[nn](·) śem\ pūdñäk(·)[e]śca poyśy [aks](· – – – – – –) /// (12 syl.)
b2(–)ma istak\ past\ 105 vipratyanīke weñ(· – – –) [p](·)ñ\ (–) p(·)l(aikne – – – – – – –)
b3(–)meṃ pūdñäkte ślok\ wñā○-neś\ mā klaṅkalyñe [pr](·)(–)[n]ts(·) ola[ṅ](·) [ai](– – – – – – – – – – –)
b4ceu palskosa wat\ ○ airṣaitsaññecce : māka [ykne]sa wat\ [c]e (– – – – – – – – – – – –)
b5hmaṇe takā =ne(·) śärsā-ñ\ ○ palsko gautamñe takarṣkaññe(– –) /// (8 syl.)
b6(– –)te-n= ostmeṃ poyśi akṣā-ne ṣp\ pelaikne : masa ṣeske s(– – – – –) /// (9 syl.)
b7(– –)k= ārhānte ślokanmaṃ[t](–)\ weñā[w]= otpat(·)inta 10[7] ///

Transcription

a1lañcuwe : pūrpat nänok ñi yapoyne nesalyñe (yāmtsi)(102) ///
a2yapoy aiśi yāmtsi mäkte nauṣ : nano māgatṣeṃ ypau(nane) ///
a3 pyapyaiṃ stāna sārmna okonta ekṣalyäntsa kmen-me – – – ///
a4-kare ceu 103 nänok śrāvasti spe pūdñäkte jetava(n)ne mäskītar – – – – – –
a5(– pipralīkasā)re ñem śrāvastine brāhmaṇe ṣeyä ksa (c)e(u) preke : ///
a6weñentaṃts welyñe : kuce kca klyauṣi tuk klyeñci tu(nts)e (nā)ki (we)ñi (104) ///
a7mäsktär tumeṃ su te pals(k)a (:) yam ñiś gau(tamñe parktsi –) ///
b1– lyñe : jetav(a)nn(e) śem pūdñäk(t)eśca poyśy aks(aṣṣeñcai) – – – – ///
b2(śa)ma istak päst 105 vipratyanīke weñ(ā-neś) (te) p(o)ñ (–) p(e)l(aikne) – – – – – ––
b3(tu)meṃ pūdñäkte ślok wñā-neś klaṅkälyñe pr(akre)nts(a) olaṅ(k) ai(śalle) tsa) (kartse ākṣu kleśanmacce)
b4ceu palskosa wat airṣaitsäññecce : māka yknesa wat ce (krent reki keklyauṣormeṃ 106 palska brā)-
b5-hmaṇe takā =ne(ṃ) śärsā-ñ palsko gautamñe takarṣkäññe(mp= eṣe) ///
b6 (sälkā)te-n= ostmeṃ poyśi akṣā-ne ṣp pelaikne : masa ṣeske s(nai airṣaitsäññe) ///
b7(: tā)k= ārhānte ślokanmaṃt(s) weñāw= otpat(t)inta 107 ///

Translation

a1... [102c] Accept to make a stay again in my country! ...
a2... in order to take care of the country, like before; [103a] again in the lands of Magadha [103b] ...
a3flowers, trees, seeds, [and] fruits came to them [again] according to the seasons. [103c]
a4... they (made) this ... [103d] Again indeed the Buddha lord was staying near Śrāvastī in the Jetavana grove. [104a] [The Buddha told a story to the assembly:]
a5In Śrāvastī there was at that time a certain brahmin named Pipralīkasāra. [104b] ...
a6... the speech of the speakers. [104c] Whatever he heard that for sure he would doubt [and] he would (te)ll (bla)me about it. [104d] ...
a7... remains. Thereupon this one thought [as follows]: [105a] “I, I will go to (question) the Gau(tamid).”
b1... [105b] He came to the Jetavana [grove] to the Buddha lord: “O Omniscient, O teach(er) ... [105c] (After having heard the brahmin, the Buddha lord)
b2suddenly (arose from his seat). [105d] The contradictor [= the brahmin] told him: “Tell (that)! (What is the) L(aw)? [106a] ...
b3Then the Buddha told him a stanza: [106b] “By someone whose fundament is contradiction, it is not easy to understand what has been well proclaimed, [= Uv 31.27a-b]
b4by this spirit which is full of passions or largely full of anger.” [106c] [= Uv 31.27c-d] After having heard this good saying, [106d] the
b5brahmin (thought): “For sure the Gautamid knew my inside thoughts with the help of his faith. [107a] ...
b6The omniscient drew him out of the house and revealed the Law to him. [107b] He [= the brahmin] went [away] alone without (anger). ... [107c]
b7(He becam)e an arhat. I have told the origins of the stanzas. [107d]

Philological commentary

The metre is 21/21/18/13: a-b = 8/7/6 or 8/6/7 (mostly 5+3 + 4+3 + 6), c = 9/9 (4-5/4-5 or 7-7-4), d = 7/6 or 6/7.

a1. The segmentation of the syllables before the end of the pāda remains uncertain. Based on the reading by Lévi, lañc has been interpreted as a verbal form followed by uwe ‘learned, smart’. Accordingly, lañc is registered by the handbooks as a subjunctive form of lä-n-t- with a 2. singular suffix pronoun lañ-c. But the connection with the following context, which contains a 2. plural imperative, is irrational. Therefore, one may conceive that the pāda ends with something like (śau)l añcuwe or (came)l añcuwe with añcuwe being an adjective matching the TA adverb āñc ‘below, inferior, down’. Be that as it may, it is relatively certain that this story illustrates the commentary of the stanza Uv 31.26, which is about the control of anger. Since in this story there is apparently a famine, no doubt caused by a drought, it can be attributed to the anger of nāgas (i.e., water spirits), who decided to abandon the country of Magadha. Most probably the Bodhisattva pacified them by telling this precise stanza causing them to come back.

a2. At the end of the pāda 103a the colon aiśi yāmtsi mäkte nauṣ has seven syllables instead of the usual six. This does not mean, however, that this line is incorrect because the preceding colon could have six syllables.

a4. One can see erased text below the present one from the beginning down to spe. The number 103 is still readable right in front of the schnurloch. Because of that one may assume that the scribe has corrected a previous incorrect line (either miscopied or a false redaction with respect to the meter).

a5. In the commentary to the Udānavarga quoted by Rockhill 1883: 167, note 1 it is mentioned that the following stanza was told by the Buddha in order to convert the brahmin Pipralīkasāra. Later in line b2 he is referred to by the epithet Skt. vipratyanīka-, a reinforced variant of Skt. pratyanīka- ‘hostile, opposed, withstanding’. This epithet has been chosen because the Udānavarga stanza in question contains the form Skt. pratyanīkasāra- referring to a person resisting to the teaching of the Law. The story is based on the capacity of the Buddha to read minds and to know in advance the intention of his questioners.

a7. In the second syllable of mäsketrä the vowel was originally written as 〈ī〉 as in the previous occurrence in a 4 and later corrected. The suggested restoration of the infinitive parktsi leaves us with one missing syllable. In any case, one may imagine that the original text had something like: “I will go in the presence of the Buddha and I will try to ask him questions in mind only.”

b3. Skt. subhāṣitam (Uv 31.27b) is translated elsewhere by TB kartse weweñu, see, e.g., B 20 b 1 (= Uv 8.11a), but here it would not fit the meter. Therefore, kartse ākṣu seems possible.

b4. The translator has used the conjunction wat twice in contrast to a single occurrence of Skt. in Uv 31.27d. Apart from metrical considerations, this repetition is probably used in order to ascertain the cohesion of the nominal clause.

Linguistic commentary

a2. Due to metrical considerations, in the syntagma māgatṣeṃ ypaunane the adjective is masculine instead of feminine.

a4. At the beginning of the line kare is certainly the end of a 3.pl. active preterite verb form followed by a demonstrative. Very tentatively one may restore a complete colon (lakle yai)kare ceu “they drove away this suffering”.

b1. The allative pūdñäkteśca shows preservation of the final vowel , which is here written as -a as sometimes happens in the case of graphemes without fremdzeichen; such preservation in front of a colon boundary is not uncommon even in classical texts. All other allative forms in this text are written as showing simplification of the cluster common to classical texts. In addition, this in virāma position is written with non-fremdzeichen, which is actually also quite common for any final in virāma position in standard texts.

b3. The Skt. compound pratyanīkasāra- ‘being hostile on principle’ has been literally translated by klaṅkälyñe-prakre ‘having doubt as fundament’; note that the second member is not the abstract prakrauñe ‘essence, substance’, which is used elsewhere to match Skt. sāra-, because of metrical requirements.

References

Lévi 1933: 76-77.

Editor

Georges-Jean Pinault (in collaboration with Melanie Malzahn and Michaël Peyrot)

Date of online publication: February 2012

Bibliography

Bernhard 1965

Bernhard, Franz, 1965: Udānavarga. Band I, Einleitung, Beschreibung der Handschriften, Textausgabe, Bibliographie, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht (Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden X).

Lévi 1933

Lévi, Sylvain, 1933: Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien» par M. Sylvain Lévi, Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

Rockhill 1883

Rockhill, W. Woodville: Udânavarga. A collection of verses from the Buddhist canon. Compiled by Dharmatrâta. Being the Northern Buddhist Version of Dhammapada. Translated from the Tibetan of the Bkah-hgyur. With notes and extracts from the commentary of Pradjnavârman, London: Trübner.

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