Work in progress
PK AS 7B
|Other press marks:||K 2|
|Main find spot:||Duldur-Akhur|
|Specific find spot:||DA cour|
|Expedition code:||M 500.3’; DA cour|
|Collection:||Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)|
Language and Script
|Add. linguistic characteristics:||None|
|Title of the work:||Karmavibhaṅga|
|Parallel texts:||Mahākarmavibhaṅga §§ 20-22 (Lévi 1932: 47, 121) (line a1-a4); Mahākarmavibhaṅga §§ 30-32 (Lévi 1932: 50,123), §§ 27-28 (Lévi 1932: 48-49, 122) (after line a4)|
|Material:||Ink on paper|
|Number of lines:||6|
|Remarks:||Fragment PK AS 7C immediately follows this one.|
|a1||/// – – – [ts]· śak s[o]lme – kakrau[pau]wwa mā maiyyā[ts](· – – – – –) (–)4 cey tanmaskentra ṣkass iśelmecc(·)[ṃ] śaiṣṣenne : parinirmit(· –)[ś](·)w(·)[r]tt[i] warñai eṃṣke : kuse (–) ersnāssoñc(ä)\|
|a2||(–)[kt](·) [kl](–)wontra om[p] ra ·o tona(·)[ts\ v](·)[ākṣepsa yāmaṃ-ne] (– –) ṣarm tūne 75 yāmwa ket tākaṃ kakraupauwwa ṣap yāmornta : śak po āstrona mā kek[l](·)[ut]kuwa kraketsts[e] : toṃ yāmornta-|
|a3||sa ersnāssontanne [ñ](·)[kten]ne ○ cmelñe maske(·)[ra] mant weweñor ste poyśintse 76 tumeṃ oṃṣap no ñakti klyowontra snai ersna : ṣuk pel(·)knenta ompte cmellaññe spā-|
|a4||rttaskeṃ : ompalskoññenta nesaṃ ○ ṣukt\ śpālmeṃ wrotsana : tū yairu tākaṃ sū ceṃ ñakteṃne tanmastra 77 || || arāḍentsa || weñau nanok yakne(·) yāmorntats tū paklyauṣso :|
|a5||krenta yolainaṃts\ etrīwaitsānaṃts rano : te keklyauṣormeṃ epastyaññe yänmacer\ yāmornta yāmtsi mā ṣpa triścer makā-ykne : 1 nesaṃ sū yāmor\ nemcek cmetsiś\ sportotra [:] kuce te [ma]-|
|a6||nt wñāwa tu ñke weñau anaiśai : makcew yāmor nta yama(··)e(–) [t](·)e [wn]o[l]mi : cm(·)laśc yuwäskeṃ ce mant akālk ñäskentra : 2 ce ñäś yāmorsa cew-cewä kca īkene : cmetsi kalloyma krent yāmo-|
|b1||r tuśc yuwäṣṣaṃ : sū cew yāmorsa ompek ra tsa tanma(ske)tra (– – – –) yāmor nemcek cmetsiś tmasketra 3 intsu no yāmor mā nemcek tanmaṣṣeñca : iñcew yāmo(·)s(·) mā ṣpa cmetsiśc yu-|
|b2||wäṣṣaṃ : cmela [ai]wästra yāmtra krenta yāmornta [:] cew yāmorsa sū mā nemcek ṣpa tanmastra 4 kuse no sū yāmor\ alyek īne yāmtra : alyek ī(–)ne pkelñe tuntse yänmāṣṣaṃ :|
|b3||makcwi yāmorntse śaktalye ālaṃ ○ ktowä alyek īkene ykuweṣepi pakṣtar-ne 5 kreñcepi wat no yolopi wat yāmorntse : taiknesa nesaṃ yakne oko-pkelñentse : ma-|
|b4||kte maitrajñā karyortta[nt]e nauṣ tā○ka sū dṛṣ[ṭ]ā(–) tane karsanalle aurtsesa 6 maksū no yāmor makcewsa tne onolmi [:] nraintane cmentra solmen omte śau[l ś](·)yeṃ : mā|
|b5||– [nau]ṣa[k cai] tsalpāllaññe [yä]nmā(·)[keṃ] : (–) [ra e]p[i]ṅkte srū(– –)[ññ](·) nesan-me 7 tane ksa ṣemi onolmi nraiyne cmetsiścä\ : yamantra yāmor\ kraup(·)[nta]r ṣpa po-yknesa : cey cew yā-|
|b6||(– –) mā parskaṃ mā ykāṃṣñentra : mā kwipeññentra mā on[mi](· – – –)[n](tra) 8 kātkeṃ plontontra ṣpakka maiyya tsamsen-ne : makte yāmṣate de[v]a[d]atte yāmornta : nraiyne [t]etemoṣ caiy t[ai](– –)|
|a1||... the ten (karmapatha) completely (done), [74c] because of the powerful deeds which have not been accumulated. [74d] They are reborn in the six worlds of desire [75a] until the Parinirmitavaśavarti [= gods related to magical enjoyments] etc. [75b] But even those who are there|
|a2||called the gods provided with form [75c], there even [if] they do it by negligence of those [deeds], [there is a] cause in that. [75d] By whom deeds have been done and accumulated, [76a] ten [deeds] entirely pure and not having become dirty, [76b] because of these deeds|
|a3||his rebirth will take place [76c] among the gods with form. Such is the saying of the omniscient [= Buddha]. [76d] But beyond that [there are] gods called without form; [77a] seven rules cause the rebirth to take place there. [77b]|
|a4||These are the seven great [and] excellent meditations [= stages of meditation]. [77c] [If] one has practiced that one will be reborn among these gods. [77d] According to the Arāḍa [tune]. I will further tell the ways of the deeds. Listen (pl.) to it! [1a]|
|a5||Of the deeds [which are] good, bad, [and] mixed also, [1b] after having heard this, you will obtain the skill [1c] to do deeds, and you will not err in many ways. [1d] There is such a deed [that] evolves into a specific rebirth. [2a] What I said|
|a6||in this [short] manner, I will now clarify [lit. say clearly]: [2b] Whichever is the deed [that] the beings here do, [2c] [when] they transform for rebirths? They seek for the following wish: [2d] Through this deed may I obtain at this and that place [3a] to be reborn.|
|b1||He transforms the good deed for that [= rebirth]. [3b] Through that deed this one will be reborn precisely there, wherever indeed [that may be]. [3c] The deed (evolves) to a specific rebirth [and] one will be reborn. [3d] But which [is] the deed, [by which] one does not [become someone who is] reborn specifically? [4a] And through which deed does one not transform for|
|b2||rebirth? [4b] One is turned towards rebirths, [when] one does good deeds, [4c] but through such a deed [alone], one is not reborn [at a] specific [place]. [4d] But what deed [is] it, [if] one does [it] in a different place, [5a] [and] from which one obtains the ripening at a different place? [5b]|
|b3||From which deed the seed [has been] sown elsewhere, [5c] it becomes ripe for the one who has gone to a different place. [5d] So for a good deed as well as for a bad deed [6a] the way of making the fruit ripe is in such a manner. [6b]|
|b4||As it happened before for the merchant Maitrajña. [6c] This parable is to be known at length here. [6d] But which [is] the deed through which the beings here, [7a] [if] they are reborn in hells, live the whole life there, [7b] and|
|b5||do not previously obtain redemption, [7c] and in the meantime death happens to them? [7d] [If] here some beings do a deed leading to rebirth in hell, [8a] they will accumulate [it] in every manner. [8b] They are not afraid of this deed, [and] they are not disgusted, [8c] they|
|b6||are not ashamed, they do not show remorse. [8d] They are glad [and] they rejoice, [and] even more they increase its power [i.e., of the bad deed]. [9a] As Devadatta did his deeds. [9b] Being reborn in hell, these (beings live) in that manner [= PK AS 7C a1]|
Until a4 the meter is 4 x 13 (5/8); afterwards 4 x 12 (5/7).
a1 The colon break falls in to the compound parinirmitavaśa-wartti borrowed from Skt. pari-nirmita-vaśa-vartin-, which refers to the highest class of gods of the realm of desire (Edgerton BHSD: 319a; SWTF: s.v. paranirmitavaśavartin-).
b2 The scribe forgot the akṣara ‹ke›.
b4 The form maitrajñā is a wrong re-sanskritization of a corrupted form of the proper name maitrayajña- or maitrāyajña-, which is itself an interpretation of a Middle Indic original, cf. Lévi 1933: 51, note 10. Pace Sieg 1938: 9, one cannot read and restore māträdṛṣṭā(ntne), which was based only on the correction of Lévi's edition without autopsy of the manuscript. One has here a colon of five syllables, the two last ones are clearly tane. It is then impossible to read the loc.pl. of the borrowing of Skt. dṛṣṭānta- "parable, comparison"; the remaining alternative is to restore dṛṣṭā(nt) as nom.sg. agreeing with the preceding demonstrative pronoun.
The text shows some preservations of final -ä or its classical form o-mobile; all instances are placed at the usual positions (i.e., colon- and pāda-finally, as well as preceding a clitic). Sometimes we find incorrect vowels such as yāmaṃ-ne (a2), oṃṣäp (a3), ñakteṃne (a4), yänmacer (a5).
a3/4 Note that the simplified numeral ṣuk is used in a3, but the standard form ṣukt in a4.
a5 The privative etrīwaitstse* designates a category of deeds supplementary to good (Skt. kuśala-) and bad (Skt. akuśala-), i.e., Skt. avyākṛta- ‘not distinguished’.
a6 yuwäskeṃ in a 6 and yuwäṣṣäṃ in b 1 were interpreted by Sieg 1938: 7 as causative of yu- ‘to ripen’ in the meaning “reif machen zu” + allative., since it corresponds to Skt. pariṇāmayati ‘ripen, mature, develop towards, change into’ (Edgerton BHSD: 323b) in the Sanskrit Mahākarmavibhaṅga 30 (Lévi 1932: 50). However, due to morphological reasons, it was analyzed as a form of yu- ‘to seek, inspire, incline towards’ by Malzahn 2010: 806. This assumption can now be confirmed by the text, because the notion of ripening, maturing is here expressed by derivatives of the root päk- ‘to cook, ripen’. On the other hand, the same phrase with cmela ‘births’ but another root with the meaning ‘to turn towards’ has to be read in b 2 as well; see below.
b1 Pace Sieg 1938: 8, Lévi’s reading tänmaṣṣeñca is certain, and there is no need to correct the text in order to get a causative form. tänmaṣṣeñca refers to an agent, lit. ‘reborner’.
b2 One has to read [ai]wästrä ‘turns towards’; the semantically induced reading [yu]wästrä by Lévi and Sieg 1938: 9 is not warranted.
b4 solme is here (and also in PK AS 7C a1) used as an adjective (epithet of śaul) and shows the inflection of the type astare with an oblique singular masc. in -n.
Lévi 1933: 84-86, 99-100; Sieg 1938: 4-10; Couvreur 1949b: 77
Translation: a1-2 Peyrot 2013: 715; a2-3 Peyrot 2013: 715; a3-4 Peyrot 2013: 346; a4-5 Peyrot 2013: 660; a5-6 Peyrot 2013: 372; b2 Peyrot 2013: 684, 689; b4-5 Peyrot 2013: 684; b5-6 Peyrot 2013: 685
Georges-Jean Pinault (in collaboration with Melanie Malzahn and Michaël Peyrot)
Couvreur, Walter, 1949b: "De Tochaarse Karmavibhaṅga en de Baraboedoer", Handelingen van het Achttiende Vlaamse Filologencongres, Gent, 19-21 April 1949, 74-80.
Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit grammar and dictionary, by Franklin Edgerton, New Haven: Yale Univ. Press 1953 (several reprints).
Lévi, Sylvain, 1932: Mahākarmavibhaṅga (La grande classification des actes) et Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa (Discussion sur le Mahā Karmavibhaṅga), Paris: Ernest Leroux.
Lévi, Sylvain, 1933: Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien» par M. Sylvain Lévi, Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.
Malzahn, Melanie, 2010: The Tocharian Verbal System. Leiden/Boston: Brill.
Peyrot, Michaël, 2013: The Tocharian subjunctive, A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. (Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics 8.) Leiden / Boston: Brill.
Sieg, Emil, 1938: "Die Kutschischen Karmavibhaṅga-Texte der Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris", Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 65, 1-54.
Sanskrit-Wörterbuch der buddhistischen Texte aus den Turfan-Funden, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1973-.