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PK AS 7B

Other press marks:Pelliot Koutchéen Ancienne Série 7B; K 2

Provenience

Main find spot:Duldur-Akhur
Specific find spot:DA cour
Expedition code:M 500.3’; DA cour
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Language:TB
Linguistic stage:Classical
Add. linguistic characteristics:None
Script:Classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Karmavibhaṅga
Parallel texts:Mahākarmavibhaṅga §§ 20-22 (Lévi 1932: 47, 121) (line a1-a4); Mahākarmavibhaṅga §§ 30-32 (Lévi 1932: 50,123), §§ 27-28 (Lévi 1932: 48-49, 122) (after line a4)
Manuscript:Karmavibhaṅga β
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine
Verse/Prose:Verse

Object

Material:Ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Leaf number:32
Number of lines:6
Remarks:Fragment PK AS 7C immediately follows this one.

Images

PK AS 7B Recto PK AS 7B Verso

Images loaded from gallica.bnf.fr by courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Pelliot koutchéen.

Transliteration

a1/// – – – [ts]· śak s[o]lme – kakrau[pau]wwa mā maiyyā[ts](· – – – – –) (–)4 cey tanmaskentrakass iśelmecc(·)[ṃ] śaiṣṣenne : parinirmit(· –)[ś](·)w(·)[r]tt[i] warñai eṃṣke : kuse (–) ersnāssoñc(ä)\
a2(–)[kt](·) [kl](–)wontra om[p] ra ·o tona(·)[ts\ v](·)[ākṣepsa yāmaṃ-ne] (– –) ṣarm tūne 75 yāmwa ket tākaṃ kakraupauwwa ṣap yāmornta : śak po āstrona mā kek[l](·)[ut]kuwa kraketsts[e] : toṃ yāmornta-
a3sa ersnāssontanne [ñ](·)[kten]ne ○ cmelñe maske(·)[ra] mant weweñor ste poyśintse 76 tumeṃ oṃṣap no ñakti klyowontra snai ersna : ṣuk pel(·)knenta ompte cmellaññe spā-
a4rttaskeṃ : ompalskoññenta nesaṃ ○ ṣukt\ śpālmeṃ wrotsana : tū yairu tākaṃ sū ceṃ ñakteṃne tanmastra 77 || || arāḍentsa || weñau nanok yakne(·) yāmorntats tū paklyauṣso :
a5krenta yolainaṃts\ etrīwaitsānaṃts rano : te keklyauṣormeṃ epastyaññe yänmacer\ yāmornta yāmtsi mā ṣpa triścer makā-ykne : 1 nesaṃ sū yāmor\ nemcek cmetsiś\ sportotra [:] kuce te [ma]-
a6nt wñāwa tu ñke weñau anaiśai : makcew yāmor nta yama(··)e(–) [t](·)e [wn]o[l]mi : cm(·)laśc yuwäskeṃ ce mant akālk ñäskentra : 2 ce ñäś yāmorsa cew-cewä kca īkene : cmetsi kalloyma krent yāmo-
b1r tuśc yuwäṣṣaṃ : sū cew yāmorsa ompek ra tsa tanma(ske)tra (– – – –) yāmor nemcek cmetsiś tmasketra 3 intsu no yāmor mā nemcek tanmaṣṣeñca : iñcew yāmo(·)s(·) mā ṣpa cmetsiśc yu-
b2ṣṣaṃ : cmela [ai]wästra yāmtra krenta yāmornta [:] cew yāmorsa sū mā nemcek ṣpa tanmastra 4 kuse no sū yāmor\ alyek īne yāmtra : alyek ī(–)ne pkelñe tuntse yänmāṣṣaṃ :
b3makcwi yāmorntse śaktalye ālaṃ ○ ktowä alyek īkene ykuweṣepi pakṣtar-ne 5 kreñcepi wat no yolopi wat yāmorntse : taiknesa nesaṃ yakne oko-pkelñentse : ma-
b4kte maitrajñā karyortta[nt]e nauṣ tā○ka sū dṛṣ[ṭ]ā(–) tane karsanalle aurtsesa 6 maksū no yāmor makcewsa tne onolmi [:] nraintane cmentra solmen omte śau[l ś](·)yeṃ : mā
b5– [nau]ṣa[k cai] tsalpāllaññe [yä]nmā(·)[keṃ] : (–) [ra e]p[i]ṅkte srū(– –)[ññ](·) nesan-me 7 tane ksa ṣemi onolmi nraiyne cmetsiścä\ : yamantra yāmor\ kraup(·)[nta]r ṣpa po-yknesa : cey cew yā-
b6(– –) mā parskaṃ mā ykāṃṣñentra : mā kwipeññentra mā on[mi](· – – –)[n](tra) 8 kātkeṃ plontontra ṣpakka maiyya tsamsen-ne : makte yāmṣate de[v]a[d]atte yāmornta : nraiyne [t]etemoṣ caiy t[ai](– –)

Transcription

a1/// ; – – – ts· śak solme – #74c kakraupauwwa ; maiyyāts(tsana yāmorntasa 7)4 cey tänmaskenträ ; ṣkäss iśelmecc(e)ṃ śaiṣṣenne : #75a parinirmit(avaśa);w(a)rtti warñai eṃṣke : #75b kuse (no) ersnāssoñc ;
a2(ña)kt(i) kl(yo)wonträ omp ra(n)o #75c tona(ṃ)ts v(y)ākṣepsa ; yāmaṃ-ne (nesäṃ) ṣarm tūne 75 yāmwa ket tākaṃ ; kakraupauwwa ṣäp yāmornta : #76a śak po āstrona ; kekl(y)utkuwa kraketstse : #76b toṃ yāmornta-
a3-sa ; ersnāssontänne ñ(ä)ktenne #76c cmelñe mäske(t)rä ; mant weweñor ste poyśintse 76 tumeṃ oṃṣäp no ; ñakti klyowonträ snai ersna : #77a ṣuk pel(ai)knenta ; ompte cmelläññe spā-
a4-rttaskeṃ : #77b ompalskoññenta ; nesäṃ ṣukt śpālmeṃ wrotsana : #77c yairu tākaṃ ; ceṃ ñakteṃne tänmasträ 77 || || arāḍentsa || weñau nänok yakne(ṃ) ; yāmorntats päklyauṣso : #1a
a5krenta yolainaṃts ; etrīwaitsānaṃts rano : #1b te keklyauṣormeṃ ; epastyaññe yänmacer #1c yāmornta yāmtsi ; ṣpä triścer makā-ykne : 1 nesäṃ yāmor ; nemcek cmetsiś sportoträ : #2a kuce te ma-
a6-nt wñāwa ; tu ñke weñau anaiśai : #2b mäkcew yāmor nta ; yama(sk)e(nträ) t(n)e wnolmi : #2c cm(e)laśc yuwäskeṃ ; ce mant akālk ñäskenträ : 2 ce ñäś yāmorsa ; cew-cewä kca īkene : #3a cmetsi källoymä ; krent yāmo-
b1-r tuśc yuwäṣṣäṃ : #3b cew yāmorsa ; ompek ra tsa tänma(ske)trä (: #3c sporttotär) yāmor ; nemcek cmetsiś tmäsketrä 3 intsu no yāmor ; nemcek tänmaṣṣeñca : #4a iñcew yāmo(r)s(a) ; ṣpä cmetsiśc yu-
b2-wäṣṣäṃ : #4b cmela aiwästrä ; yāmträ krenta yāmornta : #4c cew yāmorsa ; nemcek ṣpä tänmasträ 4 kuse no yāmor ; alyek ī〈ke〉ne yāmträ : #5a alyek ī(ke)ne ; pkelñe tuntse yänmāṣṣäṃ : #5b
b3mäkcwi yāmorntse ; śäktalye āläṃ ktowä #5c alyek īkene ; ykuweṣepi pakṣtär-ne 5 kreñcepi wat no ; yolopi wat yāmorntse : #6a taiknesa nesäṃ ; yakne oko pkelñentse : #6b mä-
b4-kte maitrajñā ; käryorttante nauṣ tāka #6c dṛṣṭā(nt) tane ; kärsanalle aurtsesa 6 mäksū no yāmor ; mäkcewsa tne onolmi : #7a nraintane cmenträ ; solmen omte śaul ś(ā)yeṃ : #7b
b5(ṣpä) nauṣäk cai ; tsälpālläññe yänmā(s)keṃ : #7c (te) ra epiṅkte ; srū(kallä)ññ(e) nesan-me 7 tane ksa ṣemi ; onolmi nraiyne cmetsiśc : #8a yamanträ yāmor ; kraup(a)ntär ṣpä po-yknesa : #8b cey cew yā-
b6-(morsa) ; parskaṃ ykāṃṣñenträ : #8c kwipeññenträ ; onmi(ṃ yamaske)n(trä) 8 kātkeṃ plontonträ ; ṣpäkka maiyya tsämsen-ne : #9a mäkte yāmṣate ; devadatte yāmornta : #9b nraiyne tetemoṣ ; caiy tai(knesa)

Translation

a1... the ten (karmapatha) completely (done), [74c] because of the powerful deeds which have not been accumulated. [74d] They are reborn in the six worlds of desire [75a] until the Parinirmitavaśavarti [= gods related to magical enjoyments] etc. [75b] But even those who are there
a2called the gods provided with form [75c], there even [if] they do it by negligence of those [deeds], [there is a] cause in that. [75d] By whom deeds have been done and accumulated, [76a] ten [deeds] entirely pure and not having become dirty, [76b] because of these deeds
a3his rebirth will take place [76c] among the gods with form. Such is the saying of the omniscient [= Buddha]. [76d] But beyond that [there are] gods called without form; [77a] seven rules cause the rebirth to take place there. [77b]
a4These are the seven great [and] excellent meditations [= stages of meditation]. [77c] [If] one has practiced that one will be reborn among these gods. [77d] According to the Arāḍa [tune]. I will further tell the ways of the deeds. Listen (pl.) to it! [1a]
a5Of the deeds [which are] good, bad, [and] mixed also, [1b] after having heard this, you will obtain the skill [1c] to do deeds, and you will not err in many ways. [1d] There is such a deed [that] evolves into a specific rebirth. [2a] What I said
a6in this [short] manner, I will now clarify [lit. say clearly]: [2b] Whichever is the deed [that] the beings here do, [2c] [when] they transform for rebirths? They seek for the following wish: [2d] Through this deed may I obtain at this and that place [3a] to be reborn.
b1He transforms the good deed for that [= rebirth]. [3b] Through that deed this one will be reborn precisely there, wherever indeed [that may be]. [3c] The deed (evolves) to a specific rebirth [and] one will be reborn. [3d] But which [is] the deed, [by which] one does not [become someone who is] reborn specifically? [4a] And through which deed does one not transform for
b2rebirth? [4b] One is turned towards rebirths, [when] one does good deeds, [4c] but through such a deed [alone], one is not reborn [at a] specific [place]. [4d] But what deed [is] it, [if] one does [it] in a different place, [5a] [and] from which one obtains the ripening at a different place? [5b]
b3From which deed the seed [has been] sown elsewhere, [5c] it becomes ripe for the one who has gone to a different place. [5d] So for a good deed as well as for a bad deed [6a] the way of making the fruit ripe is in such a manner. [6b]
b4As it happened before for the merchant Maitrajña. [6c] This parable is to be known at length here. [6d] But which [is] the deed through which the beings here, [7a] [if] they are reborn in hells, live the whole life there, [7b] and
b5do not previously obtain redemption, [7c] and in the meantime death happens to them? [7d] [If] here some beings do a deed leading to rebirth in hell, [8a] they will accumulate [it] in every manner. [8b] They are not afraid of this deed, [and] they are not disgusted, [8c] they
b6are not ashamed, they do not show remorse. [8d] They are glad [and] they rejoice, [and] even more they increase its power [i.e., of the bad deed]. [9a] As Devadatta did his deeds. [9b] Being reborn in hell, these (beings live) in that manner [= PK AS 7C a1]

Philological commentary

Until a4 the meter is 4 x 13 (5/8); afterwards 4 x 12 (5/7).

a1 The colon break falls in to the compound parinirmitavaśa-wartti borrowed from Skt. pari-nirmita-vaśa-vartin-, which refers to the highest class of gods of the realm of desire (Edgerton BHSD: 319a; SWTF: s.v. paranirmitavaśavartin-).

b2 The scribe forgot the akṣara ‹ke›.

b4 The form maitrajñā is a wrong re-sanskritization of a corrupted form of the proper name maitrayajña- or maitrāyajña-, which is itself an interpretation of a Middle Indic original, cf. Lévi 1933: 51, note 10. Pace Sieg 1938: 9, one cannot read and restore māträdṛṣṭā(ntne), which was based only on the correction of Lévi's edition without autopsy of the manuscript. One has here a colon of five syllables, the two last ones are clearly tane. It is then impossible to read the loc.pl. of the borrowing of Skt. dṛṣṭānta- "parable, comparison"; the remaining alternative is to restore dṛṣṭā(nt) as nom.sg. agreeing with the preceding demonstrative pronoun.

Linguistic commentary

The text shows some preservations of final or its classical form o-mobile; all instances are placed at the usual positions (i.e., colon- and pāda-finally, as well as preceding a clitic). Sometimes we find incorrect vowels such as yāmaṃ-ne (a2), oṃṣäp (a3), ñakteṃne (a4), yänmacer (a5).

a3/4 Note that the simplified numeral ṣuk is used in a3, but the standard form ṣukt in a4.

a5 The privative etrīwaitstse* designates a category of deeds supplementary to good (Skt. kuśala-) and bad (Skt. akuśala-), i.e., Skt. avyākṛta- ‘not distinguished’.

a6 yuwäskeṃ in a 6 and yuwäṣṣäṃ in b 1 were interpreted by Sieg 1938: 7 as causative of yu- ‘to ripen’ in the meaning “reif machen zu” + allative., since it corresponds to Skt. pariṇāmayati ‘ripen, mature, develop towards, change into’ (Edgerton BHSD: 323b) in the Sanskrit Mahākarmavibhaṅga 30 (Lévi 1932: 50). However, due to morphological reasons, it was analyzed as a form of yu- ‘to seek, inspire, incline towards’ by Malzahn 2010: 806. This assumption can now be confirmed by the text, because the notion of ripening, maturing is here expressed by derivatives of the root päk- ‘to cook, ripen’. On the other hand, the same phrase with cmela ‘births’ but another root with the meaning ‘to turn towards’ has to be read in b 2 as well; see below.

b1 Pace Sieg 1938: 8, Lévi’s reading tänmaṣṣeñca is certain, and there is no need to correct the text in order to get a causative form. tänmaṣṣeñca refers to an agent, lit. ‘reborner’.

b2 One has to read [ai]wästrä ‘turns towards’; the semantically induced reading [yu]wästrä by Lévi and Sieg 1938: 9 is not warranted.

b4 solme is here (and also in PK AS 7C a1) used as an adjective (epithet of śaul) and shows the inflection of the type astare with an oblique singular masc. in -n.

References

Lévi 1933: 84-86, 99-100; Sieg 1938: 4-10; Couvreur 1949b: 77
Translation: a1-2 Peyrot 2013: 715; a2-3 Peyrot 2013: 715; a3-4 Peyrot 2013: 346; a4-5 Peyrot 2013: 660; a5-6 Peyrot 2013: 372; b2 Peyrot 2013: 684, 689; b4-5 Peyrot 2013: 684; b5-6 Peyrot 2013: 685

Editor

Georges-Jean Pinault (in collaboration with Melanie Malzahn and Michaël Peyrot)

Bibliography

Couvreur 1949b

Couvreur, Walter, 1949b: "De Tochaarse Karmavibhaṅga en de Baraboedoer", Handelingen van het Achttiende Vlaamse Filologencongres, Gent, 19-21 April 1949, 74-80.

Edgerton BHSD

Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit grammar and dictionary, by Franklin Edgerton, New Haven: Yale Univ. Press 1953 (several reprints).

Lévi 1932

Lévi, Sylvain, 1932: Mahākarmavibhaṅga (La grande classification des actes) et Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa (Discussion sur le Mahā Karmavibhaṅga), Paris: Ernest Leroux.

Lévi 1933

Lévi, Sylvain, 1933: Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien» par M. Sylvain Lévi, Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

Malzahn 2010

Malzahn, Melanie, 2010: The Tocharian Verbal System. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Peyrot 2013

Peyrot, Michaël, 2013: The Tocharian subjunctive, A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. (Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics 8.) Leiden / Boston: Brill.

Sieg 1938

Sieg, Emil, 1938: "Die Kutschischen Karmavibhaṅga-Texte der Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris", Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 65, 1-54.

SWTF

Sanskrit-Wörterbuch der buddhistischen Texte aus den Turfan-Funden, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1973-.

http://www.univie.ac.at/tocharian/?PK AS 7B
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