Work in progress
PK AS 7C
|Other press marks:||K 3|
|Main find spot:||Duldur-Akhur|
|Specific find spot:||DA cour|
|Expedition code:||882; DA cour; M 500.2’|
|Collection:||Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)|
Language and Script
|Add. linguistic characteristics:||With hypercorrect forms|
|Title of the work:||Karmavibhaṅga|
|Parallel texts:||Mahākarmavibhaṅga § 29 (Lévi 1932: 49, 122), § 23 (Lévi 1932: 47-48, 121)|
|Material:||Ink on paper|
|Size (w x h):||44,8 x 8,2 cm|
|Number of lines:||6|
|Interline spacing:||1,3 cm|
|Remarks:||PK AS 7B immediately precedes this leaf, PK AS 7D follows it.|
|a1||knesa onolmi : solmeṃ śaul śāyeṃ taka nta kca tsalpentra 9 maksu n[o] yāmor makcewsa tne onolmi : nraiyne cmetra ywārtsa omte ś(·)[l] ś(·)[y](·)[ṃ] : tsalpentre nauṣak\ laklentameṃ nre-|
|a2||yṣṣana : mā solme lakle klinaṣṣan-me warpatsi 10 ṣemi ksa wnolmi yolain yāmor yamantra : kraupentar-ne ṣpa makte yāmor\ kraupalle : cey cew (·)ā[mo]rsa ṣñikek parskaṃ ykāṣñentra (:)|
|a3||yamaskentr onmiṃ [kw](·)peññentra ā○ñmne ka 11 mā no deśit pest yamaskentra mā rano : tarkanaṃ ārtte mā ra rintsi cämpen-ne : cmentra nreyne cey cpī yāmorntse okosa : ywā-|
|a4||rtsa śaul śāyeṃ (–)m(·)ṃ n(·)aimeṃ laito○ntra 12 maksu no yāmor\ makcewsa tne onolmi : cmentra nraiyntane istak entwe laitontra : tane ṣemi ksa onolmi yām[o]r yāmos̝\ :|
|a5||nraiyne cmel[y]esa ka(–)p[au] ṣpa tākan-me 13 cey cew yāmorsa parskaṃ onmiṃ yamantra : kwipeññentra ṣpa ykāṃṣaṃññentra mrauskantra : ratkware ṣpa ceṃts\ nano-nano onmiṃ tākaṃ kwri :|
|a6||mā no yāmor ceu a(– –)[mpe[ṃ] nautassi 14 ma[k](·)e (·)ā(– ·) nau[s̝\] ajātaśatruñ lānte : kowsa ra pātra pelaikneṣṣe lānt wrocce : empele rano yāmu ṣey-ne yāmor su : onmin no|
|b1||postaṃ ; yamaṣate mrau(– –) 5 weña pūdñäkt[e] (·)[p](·) (·)r(·) (– –) [s̝](\) [ka]ntwasa : brahmasvar weksa weñentanne posa śpālmeṃ : walo rṣākeṃtsa taṅwaññeñca po śaiṣṣe : śaiṣṣe taṅwantsiśä\|
|b2||ślokne ṣerpsa ce arthä (–) empelona ra yāmwa tākaṃ yāmornta : āñm n(·)kalñesa nuttsāna pest\ klautkontra : pākri yāmorsa wlāwalñesa tumeṃ ṣpa : eṃṣketse witskai rassalñe|
|b3||tuntse weskau :  s[e](·) t(·)-yäkne○sa yāmor yāmu ket tākaṃ : cmetar ra nraiyne ramer no pesta tsalpetra : tusāksa aikne ṣañ yolaina yāmornta : nāktsy aiśaumy[e]pi putkalñe|
|b4||tumeṃ yāmtsi 18 intsu no yā○mor yāmu mā no kakraupau : cew rano weñau ṣeme-palsko paklyauṣso : tane ksa wnolme kektsentsa yolo yāmaṃ : reki palskosa yāmtar yāmor yo-|
|b5||lainä 19 sū ce[w y]āmorsa prāskaṃ māka kwipentra : onmiṃ yamastra ykāṃṣantra pest\ tarkanaṃ : se yāmor yāmu mā kakkraupau masketra : ktow ramt\ śakt(a)lye mā postaṃ aiśai yāmu : 20 [k](··)e|
|b6||no sū yāmor kakraupau mā no yāmu ma[k](·)e yäknesa karsanalle tū weñau : tane kuse wol[m]e mamāntaṣ cew [p]alskosa : reki kca weṣṣaṃ yolo yāmtsi ñewetra 21 mā no yamaṣaṃ m(·) tu|
|a1||(Being reborn in hell, these) [= PK AS 7B b7] beings live in that manner [9c] their whole life, then somehow they are redeemed. [9d] But what [is] the deed through which the beings here, [10a] [when] they are reborn in hell, live there half of their life? [10b] They are redeemed earlier to be sure from the hellish sufferings, [10c]|
|a2||[and] it is not necessary for them to endure the whole suffering. [10d] [If] some beings do a bad deed [11a] and they accumulate it — how [is] the deed to be accumulated? — [11b] they are for sure afraid of this deed, they are disgusted, [11c]|
|a3||they show remorse [and] feel shame inside themselves. [11d] But they do not entirely make a confession, they do not even [12a] behave indifferently, they cannot even get rid of it [= the deed]. [12b] [When] they are reborn in hell, because of the fruit of that deed, [12c]|
|a4||they live half of their life [there], thereupon they fall out of hell. [12d] But what [is] the deed the beings here [13a] [when] they are reborn in hells fall out immediately after? [14b] [There are] some beings who have done a deed, [13c]|
|a5||and by being reborn in hell it will be further accumulated by them. [13d] These ones are afraid because of this deed [and when] they feel remorse, [14a] they are also ashamed, are disgusted, feel revulsion; [14b] and even when their remorse become everyday more stinging, [14c]|
|a6||they will not be able to definitely destroy that deed. [14d] Like in former times the d(eed) of king Ajātaśatru: [15a] He for sure killed [his] father, the great righteous king, [15b] [and] although such a horrible deed had been done by him, [15c] nevertheless|
|b1||he felt remorse afterwards [and] felt revulsion. [15d] He spoke to the Buddha lord in a language [lit. tongue] making clear [his] cr(ime). [16a] With Brahmasvara voice [the Buddha] the best of all among the speakers [i.e., teachers], [16b] the king of the sages, the one who loves the whole world, [16c] in order to show love to the world,|
|b2||he revealed this lesson in a stanza: [16d] “Even [if] horrible deeds have been done, [17a] by self reproach they become entirely annihilated, [17b] [and] by making [them] public [and] by restrain. And because of that [17c] I tell the pulling-out of it|
|b3||until the root.” [17d] By whom a deed of this kind may have been done, [18a] even [if] he is reborn in hell, quickly he will be redeemed completely. [18b] Therefore it [is] the duty of the wise one to reproach his own bad deeds, [18c] [and] to dissociate [oneself]|
|b4||from that. [18d] But what [is] the deed done but not accumulated? [19a] This also I will tell. Listen (pl.) attentively [lit. with unified mind]! [19b] [If] some being here does evil with the body, [19c] [understood that] with word [and] mind he does do|
|b5||a bad deed on his behalf, [19d] [if] he is afraid because of this deed [and] much ashamed, [20a] [if] he feels remorse, feels disgusted, [and] gets rid of it, [20b] this deed remains as done but not accumulated, [20c] like a seed that is sown, [but] not cared for afterwards. [20d] But what|
|b6||[is] the deed accumulated but not done? [21a] In which manner it is to be understood, I will tell it: [21c] the being here who, with such malicious mind, [21c] says some word [and] roars to do evil, [21d] but he does not do it [and] (he takes) no (measure to do) it [22a] [cf. PK AS 7D a1]|
The meter is 4 x 12 (5/7).
a2. ykāṃṣñenträ is a verse form with simplification of the geminate of the suffix and further syncope of medial ä.
a5. Sieg 1938: 11 proposed to correct the subjunctive mrauskantär into a present mrausknantär, but the context does allow a subjunctive reading because it belongs to a long protasis where there are other subjunctive forms. In any case, even a present form mrausknantär would not show a correct spelling. The spelling here is rather due to confusion with the archaic original (see below).
a6. After ceu an 〈a〉 is very clearly visible before the lacuna, so that reading and restoration by Sieg 1938: 11 are excluded.
b3. It remains totally uncertain whether the lacuna contained an anusvāra. Both demonstratives se and seṃ seem equally possible.
b4-5. The correction by Sieg 1938: 13, adding a negation at the end of the pāda 19d, is not supported by the manuscript or by the Sanskrit parallel. He may have been led to this assumption in order to make a difference against the following case about a deed not accomplished physically but in mind and in speech. Here, however, we do not have such an opposition, although the Tocharian redactor anticipated the following case somehow by mentioning mind and speech here as well. But note the subtle difference in construction between a substantive with active verbal form (= body) and adjectival phase with middle verbal form (= word and mind), i.e., making a difference between external and internal point of view. Actually, the notion of a deed done unintentionally follows in the next fragment PK AS 7D a5 [26ab].
In general, the language is of the standard type; however, we find many archaic spellings as well as colloquialisms and even hypercorrect forms, but inconsistently so. Accordingly, this manuscript seems to have been copied from an archaic one by an inattentive scribe. Real archaisms are: läkle (a2), tärkänaṃ (a3, b5), pest (a3, b2, b3, b5), ykāṃṣäṃññenträ (a5), and preservation of final -ä several times in colon- and pāda-final position; false archaisms are: ntä (a1 for nta), weñentänne (b1 for weñentanne); colloquialisms are: nreyṣṣana (a1), nreyne (a3), cmelyesa (a5). On the other hand, tsälpentre instead of tsälpenträ (a1) and mamāntäṣ instead of mamāntaṣ (b6) may simply be mistakes.
Lévi 1933: 86-87, 100-101; Sieg 1938: 10-14; Pinault 2007: 209-212
Translation: a1-2 Peyrot 2013: 313; a2 Peyrot 2013: 686; a2-3 Peyrot 2013: 686; a3-4 Peyrot 2013: 686; a4 Peyrot 2013: 686; a4-6 Peyrot 2013: 715; b2-3 Peyrot 2013: 346; b3 Peyrot 2013: 347; b4 Peyrot 2013: 657, 685; b4-5 Peyrot 2013: 685; b6 Peyrot 2013: 657
Georges-Jean Pinault (in collaboration with Melanie Malzahn and Michaël Peyrot)
Lévi, Sylvain, 1932: Mahākarmavibhaṅga (La grande classification des actes) et Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa (Discussion sur le Mahā Karmavibhaṅga), Paris: Ernest Leroux.
Lévi, Sylvain, 1933: Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien» par M. Sylvain Lévi, Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.
Peyrot, Michaël, 2013: The Tocharian subjunctive, A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. (Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics 8.) Leiden / Boston: Brill.
Pinault, Georges-Jean, 2007: "Concordance des manuscrits tokhariens du fonds Pelliot", Instrumenta Tocharica, ed. by Melanie Malzahn, Heidelberg: Winter, 163-219.
Sieg, Emil, 1938: "Die Kutschischen Karmavibhaṅga-Texte der Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris", Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 65, 1-54.