Work in progress
PK AS 7F
|Other press marks:||K 6|
|Main find spot:||Duldur-Akhur|
|Collection:||Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)|
Language and Script
|Add. linguistic characteristics:||None|
|Title of the work:||Karmavibhaṅga|
|Parallel texts:||Mahākarmavibhaṅga §§ 37, 39, 44-47 (Lévi 1932: 69, 71, 75-77, 135, 136, 139-141)|
|Material:||Ink on paper|
|Size (w x h):||34,2 x 8,2 cm|
|Number of lines:||6|
|Interline spacing:||1,3 cm|
|Remarks:||Fragment PK AS 7E immediately precedes this one, PK AS 7G follows|
|a1||(– – –) ka – – – – waraṣalñesa āklyisa añmantse āyor aitsi ṣek cäñcan-me rilñecci no maskentra 10 kāttsi no ne[saṃ] ṣemi ksa /// (15 syl.)|
|a2||ts sasweñä(\) (–) entsesa attsaik eśne wawālas̝ä\ mā cäñcan-me āyor aitsi olypotse śateñ no : kuse su tne wnolme snaukine k(·)stne da[kṣi]ṇākeṃ /// (12 syl.)|
|a3||mā(–) lykwarwa mā rano ṣe[k-ṣ](·)k\ mā ○ āyorṣṣe kreṃt wāṣmoṃmpa āklyi yāmu cmelane 11 sū cpī yāmorntse okosa wnolme ekñiññenta (12 syl.)|
|a4||raṣṣal(·)en(·)e (·)e(·)kītsñesa no [e]○ntse lāre masketar-ne m= āyor aitsi cäñcan-ne : te ṣarmtsa wnolmi śateñ maskentra entseṣṣi no pra – – – /// (10 syl.)|
|a5||(– – – –)ṣle palsko waraṣṣalle āyorne ṣek\ āklaṣṣall āyormpa 12 kāttsi no wnolme śāte masketra cäñcan-ne ṣpa āyor aitsi /// (13 syl.)|
|a6||(·)ta(·) onolmeṃ dakṣiṇākents āyornt= aiṣṣaṃ nano-nano ·e ·e – (–) su toṃ yärponta yāmorsa śāte ekñiññenta makā-yäkne yänmāṣṣe /// (16 syl.)|
|b1||ñca ṣpa masketar su nauṣ cmelaṣṣe āklyisa 13 k(···)s(· – – –) sn(·)tse masketra entseṣṣe ṣpa mā cäñcan-ne āyor aitsi alyeṅkaṃ /// (14 syl.)|
|b2||(– –)yo[rn]e (–)ttaṣṣeñca tākan-ne : mā ket ra nta kca aiṣṣaṃ kuse āyor tūsa snaitse masketra su mā yāmorsa yärpontaṃts(\) : mā ā[k]l(·)i yāmu m· /// (13 syl.)|
|b3||s= (·)ntsesse [mask]etra 14 kā[t]tsi ○ no wnolme kektsentsa skwassu masketar tne mā palskosa kuce ṣarm tūne tu weñau : yāmu yärponta [ṣe] /// (11 syl.)|
|b4||ra [sk]w(·)ssu mā no palskosa : kuse no ○ sū wnolme palskosa skwassu masketar tne makā-yäkne mā no skwas[su] kektseñtsa : yarpo a[yā](–) /// (10 syl.)|
|b5||pal[sk]osa skwassu mā no kektsentsa 15 intsu no wnolme kektsentsa skwassu masketar tne taisāk rano palskosa sak wärpnātra : yāmu yärpo(–) /// (11 syl.)|
|b6||(– – –)l[p]au(·)o (–) [cm]elameṃ : kuse no su wnolme mā [k]ektseñäṣṣe sakusa skwassu ma rano kca sak wärpnātra palskoṣṣ[e] : pern= eṅkalpatte [mā] /// (12 syl.)|
|a1.||(These beings when they are reborn among humans, they are born always in a poor house.) [10c] Through exercise [and] education of themselves [lit. oneself] it always pleases them to give gifts, and they are generous. [10d] Why then are some (beings) ...|
|a2||masters of (possessions)? [11a] Because of avarice for sure [their] eyes are covered, [and] it does not please them to give gifts even though [they are] very rich. [11b] This is the being who here in case of need [and] in case of famine (gives gifts to the) worthy ones, ... [11c]|
|a3||[but] neither many times, nor even always and always, [since] he has not been educated during the [previous] births with the good friend [who is] gift. [11d] Such a being through the fruit of this deed (becomes an obtainer of) possessions (of every kind), [12a]|
|a4||but because of his lack of practice, avarice becomes dear to him [and] it does not please him to give gifts. [12b] For this reason the beings are rich but characterized by avarice ... [12c] ...|
|a5||... (Therefore) give (gifts constantly) [and] one should train the mind with respect to the gift [and] educate it with [the help of] the gift. [12d] But why is a being rich and it pleases him to give gifts? ... [13a] (This is the being who here)|
|a6||give gifts to the (goo)d beings and to the worthy ones again and again ... [13b] This one by doing deeds of merit [becomes] rich [and] he (becomes) an obtainer of possessions of every kind. [13c] ...|
|b1||And this one becomes a (do)nor through the education made in previous births. [13d] (But) why is a (being) poor [and] marked by avarice? It does not please him to give gifts to others. [14a] ...|
|b2||[if] there is (no) one who connects him to the gift. [14b] The one who does not give any gift to anyone at all, because of that he becomes poor with respect to the non-doing of meritorious deeds. [14c] Not having been educated (in gift giving) ...|
|b3||because of that he becomes marked by avarice. [14d] But why does a being become happy with respect to the body here, but not with respect to the mind? What is the reason for that, I will tell it: [15a] Who has done meritorious deeds ...|
|b4||he [is] happy with the (body) indeed but not with the mind. [15b] But which is the being who becomes happy with the mind in many ways but not happy with the body? [15c] (An arhat who) has not done a meritorious deed ...|
|b5||(he is) happy with the mind but not with the body. [15d] But which being here becomes happy with the body [and] likewise also enjoys happiness with the mind? [16a] (An arhat who) has done meritorious deeds ...|
|b6||... being redeemed from (all) births. [16b] But which is the being who [is] not happy with respect to bodily happiness [and] does not even enjoy any happiness of the mind? [16c] Who has not obtained a rank [i.e., an ordinary person]... (he does) not ...|
The meter is 4 x 25 (5/5/8/7).
a1. The second colon of 10d āklyisa añmantse has one syllable too many; therefore, one should restore vowel sandhi āklyis= āñmantse.
a4. The last word of the third colon of 12c may be restored as pra(krauñecci) ‘provided with firmness’, i.e., “firmly characterized by avarice”.
a6. At the end of 13b the restoration (cm)e(lane) as per Sieg 1938: 26 is not supported by the manuscript. One may venture the guess to restore (ṣ)e(k-ṣ)e(k).
b6. Note the sandhi sak wärpnāträ for sakw wärpnāträ.
Like in the other fragments of this manuscript, there is an archaic spelling in the case of eṅkälpatte (b6); further, the PPt nom.sg. mask. tsälpauwo (b6) shows o-mobile inside a colon, which is a rare position for the preservation of the final vowel.
a1. The adjective rilñetstse (here in the nom.pl.masc.) is a calque of Skt. tyāgavant- ‘generous’, lit. ‘provided with renouncing’.
a3. Apparently māka lykarwa and ṣek-ṣek are the equivalent of the two Sanskrit complementary notions punar ‘again, renewed’ and abhyastam ‘accumulated by repeated practice’. There is a difference between the repetition of the same gift (i.e., making a choice of alms) and renewed generosity by giving different gifts (i.e., being prepared to give anything).
b3. The form entsesse is either a mistake for entseṣṣe (a4, b1) or a possessive adjective with a different suffix in -tstse which underwent dissimilation of the affricate.
Lévi 1933: 89-90, 102-103; Sieg 1938: 24-28; Couvreur 1949: 76
Translation: b3 Peyrot 2013: 657
Georges-Jean Pinault (in collaboration with Melanie Malzahn and Michaël Peyrot)
Couvreur, Walter, 1949: "Zur tocharischen Etymologie I", IF 60, 33-37.
Lévi, Sylvain, 1932: Mahākarmavibhaṅga (La grande classification des actes) et Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa (Discussion sur le Mahā Karmavibhaṅga), Paris: Ernest Leroux.
Lévi, Sylvain, 1933: Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien» par M. Sylvain Lévi, Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.
Peyrot, Michaël, 2013: The Tocharian subjunctive, A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. (Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics 8.) Leiden / Boston: Brill.
Sieg, Emil, 1938: "Die Kutschischen Karmavibhaṅga-Texte der Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris", Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 65, 1-54.