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Other press marks:Pelliot Koutchéen Ancienne Série 7H; K 8


Main find spot:Duldur-Akhur
Expedition code:496
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:Classical
Add. linguistic characteristics:With archaic forms

Text contents

Title of the work:Karmavibhaṅga
Parallel texts:Mahākarmavibhaṅga §§ 50-60 (Lévi 1932: 77-79, 141-142)
Manuscript:Karmavibhaṅga β
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Material:Ink on paper
Size (h x w):8,2 x 37 cm
Leaf number:38
Number of lines:6
Interline spacing:1,3 cm
Remarks:The fragment PK AS 7G immediately precedes this one, PK AS 7I follows.


PK AS 7H Recto PK AS 7H Verso

Images loaded from by courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Pelliot koutchéen.


a1(– – –)kn[ātsa](–) m(·)mtsa trikseṃ duśśīlañ[ñ]e (–)maskeṃ : cmentra kwr(·) yśāmna karpi maskentra yuṣe-yndrinta yolo-wer(·) cew yāmorsa [ma](– –) /// (10 syl.)
a2pūdñäktents[e] weweñoṣaṃ sutarmameṃ salkāmai : ṣesa ṣñaṣṣeṃmpa po se ñy ekita yamaṣare ce postakaścä\ paiykatsi ñiś [y]ā[tkawa] (– – –)[nt] yām·(– –) /// (7 syl.)
a3śpāl(·)eṃ kalloyeṃ cai po pūdñäkti ○ tākoṃ ṣpa : kuce no te wñāwa yāmornts= okonta temeṃ mante kuce no weñau tu ñke pklyauṣso po ā[ñmtsa 2]4 | ///
a4krenta yā(m)o(··)t(·)ṣṣ[ai] ytārin(·) ○ palskossu śaumo : yāmi speltke po āñmtsa āñme ket\ tsalpātsi tākoyä\ : śale ce [cm]el[n]e ślek al[y]e /// (7 syl.)
a5– – sk· [kus](·) ś(·)k krenta yāmornta paṣṣeñcañä(\) tākaṃ : 1 māntalñesa śak krenta yāmorntats\ ṣparkaṣalñesa : śak yolaina yāmorṣṣ[ana yt](··)[i] /// (9 syl.)
a6ś[ai]ṣṣeṃts[e] nemcek po karep masketra : parnāññana (– –)(··)ṃ(–) ś(·)aṃts [t]ūsa sparkālñe westra 2 kauṣentañ krui onolmi māka [tne] aunantra ·e – /// (9 syl.)
b1ñyai alyaik ṣpa wnolmi : lyśī no māka krui tākaṃ tu – – – – ñ· śalāpa : maścītsi ṣpa peṣeli śaiṣṣene maskentra pākri 3 ket ra yśe /// (12 syl.)
b2t(· –) ṣa[r](···) atāmo taur tweye masketra pākri : snai preke yenti tseṅkentra snai preke suwaṃ ṣpa swese : śäktālyenta onolmeṃ[ts pr]eke /// (10 syl.)
b3ka tāk[aṃ] (–)[n]olmi tuntse no ṣa○rmtsa : koynameṃ yolo were onolments aunastra wrātsi : waṣe reki no lāre yamantra [tu]ntse oko /// (9 syl.)
b4nma ṣpa kotaiñ maskentra 5 ○ ścire reki onolmi māka krui aunantra nessi : karweñi yare tarśkañ salañce maskentra [pā]kri : [re] /// (8 syl.)
b5[k]nerw[a]nta atstsenta : ściron= ātyañ tsakātstse kaumi ṣpa maskentra pākri 6 ketara ṣaññe wnolmi entseṣṣi krui māka tākaṃ : tusa [st]ā[na] [śl]e (–)r[mna] ly /// (7 syl.)
b6(– – –) no w(·)o(··)i māka krui aunantra ne(··)i [:] raskarona matrona stāna ṣpa maskentra tūsa 7 aṅkaiṃ pilko no onolmi t(·) ///


PK AS 7G b6 (tane ṣemi ksa ; wnolmi mä)-
a1-(skenträ ; śl= ā)knātsa(ññe) m(ai)mtsa trikseṃ ; duśśīläññe (ya)maskeṃ : #23c cmenträ kwr(i) yśāmna ; kärpi mäskenträ ; yuṣe-yndrinta yolo-wer(e) ; cew yāmorsa mä(skentär 23) ///
a2; pūdñäktentse weweñoṣäṃ ; sutarmameṃ sälkāmai : #24a ṣesa ṣñaṣṣeṃmpa ; po se ñy ekita ; yamaṣare ce postakäśc ; paiykatsi ñiś yātkawa (: #24b ce kre)nt yām(orsa) ; ///
a3śpāl(m)eṃ källoyeṃ cai ; po pūdñäkti tākoṃ ṣpä : #24c kuce no te wñāwa ; yāmornts= okonta ; temeṃ mante kuce no weñau ; tu ñke pklyauṣso po āñmtsa 24 || /// (śak)
a4krenta yā(m)o(rn)t(a)ṣṣai ; ytārin(e) palskossu śaumo : #1a yāmi speltke po āñmtsa ; āñme ket tsälpātsi tākoy : #1b śale ce cmelne ślek alye(k) ; /// #1c
a5– – sk· kus(e) ś(a)k krenta ; yāmornta paṣṣeñcañ tākaṃ : 1 māntalñesa śak krenta ; yāmorntats ṣparkäṣälñesa : #2a śak yolaina yāmorṣṣana ; yt(ār)i(ntsa ṣpä yalñesa :) #2b (– – – –)
a6śaiṣṣeṃtse ; nemcek po karep mäsketrä : #2c pärnāññana (wäntarwa)ṃ(ts) ; ś(r)aṃts [t]ūsa spärkālñe westrä 2 kauṣentañ krui onolmi ; māka tne aunanträ ·e – #3a /// (snai pe)-
b1ñyai alyaik ṣpä wnolmi : #3b lyśī no māka krui tākaṃ ; tu – – – – ñ· śalāpä : #3c maścītsi ṣpä peṣeli ; śaiṣṣene mäskenträ pākri 3 ket ra yśe(lme) – – – ; /// #4a
b2t(untse) ṣar(mtsa) atāmo taur ; tweye mäsketrä pākri : #4b snai preke yenti tseṅkenträ ; snai preke suwaṃ ṣpä swese : #4c śäktālyenta onolmeṃts ; preke /// #4d (waikecci mā)-
b3-ka tākaṃ ; (o)nolmi tuntse no ṣarmtsa : #5a koynameṃ yolo were ; onolments aunasträ wrātsi : #5b waṣe reki no lāre ; yamanträ tuntse oko(sa) #5c ///
b4nma ṣpä kotaiñ mäskenträ 5 ścire reki onolmi ; māka krui aunanträ nessi : #6a kärweñi yare tarśkañ ; salañce mäskenträ pākri : #6b re(ki) ///
b5knerwanta atstsenta : #6c ściron= ātyañ tsakātstse ; kaumi ṣpä mäskenträ pākri 6 ketara ṣäññe wnolmi ; entseṣṣi krui māka tākaṃ : #7a tusa stāna śle (sā)rmna ; ly· /// #7b
b6(māntalñecci) no w(n)o(lm)i ; māka krui aunanträ ne(ss)i : #7c räskarona matrona ; stāna ṣpä mäskenträ tūsa 7 aṅkaiṃ pilko no onolmi ; t(ākaṃ krui māka tusa) #8a (snai okonta mä-)
(continued on PK AS 7I)


a1(There are some beings here, full of) ignorance, they err in their judgment [and] they show ill conduct. [23c] If they are reborn among humans, they are mean, of dull senses, [and] of bad smell because of such a deed. [23d] ... (Since)
a2I have extracted (this lesson?) from the sūtras spoken by the Buddha lord, [24a] together with my relatives who all have supported me for this book, I have ordered to write [it], [24b] through this good deed, ...
a3may they obtain the excellent (nirvāṇa) and may they all become buddhas! [24c] Then what I have told about the fruits of the deed and likewise what I will tell from here onwards, listen (pl.) to it now with your whole self! [24d] (name of a meter)
a4On the path of the (ten) good deeds the thoughtful man [1a] should make effort with his whole self, [if] he has the wish to be redeemed. [1b] Likewise in this bir(th) as in the other (birth), ... [1c] (these ones obtain the roots of merit?),
a5who will be observing the ten good deeds. [1d] Through malice [and] through the dissolution of the ten good deeds [2a] and through the going on the paths of the ten bad deeds [2b], ...
a6the whole damage of the world for sure comes about. [2c] The dissolution is therefore said [to be] the removing of external (objects). [2d] If many beings [are] killers [and] they begin here to ... [3a] ...
b1the other beings [are] also without splendor. [3b] But if there are many thieves, (then there are hail, parrot), locust, [3c] mice, [and] worms [that] appear in the world. [3d] By whom also sexual misconduct [is] committed ... [4a]
b2for that reason appear infertile soil, dust, [and] ashes. [4b] Untimely winds arise and untimely rain, [4c] [and] the seeds of the beings (do not come up at the right) time. [4d] [If]
b3many beings [are] (liars), for that reason then [5a] from the mouths of the beings a bad smell begins to smell. [5b] But [if] they love slanderous speech, as a fruit of that [5c] ...
b4(on the ground) appear (pebble)s and pits. [5d] If many beings begin to be harsh-speaking, [6a] then rocks, gravel, potsherds, [and] salty soil appear. [6b] [If] (the beings are idle talkers),
b5there appear fissures (?), thickets, [6c] harsh grasses, thorny [bushwood], and (harsh) shoots. [6d] If many beings are greedy for someone else’ own, [7a] then the trees as well as the grains ... (become fruitless). [7b]
b6If many beings begin to be provided with malice, [7c] the trees become bitter and sharp because of that. [7d] (If many) beings (are) of false view, (then) [8a] (see PK AS 7I)

Philological commentary

The meter is 4 x 25 (5/5/8/7) until stanza 24 (a3), afterwards 4 x 15 (7/8 or 8/7).

a3. At the end of the line the name of the next meter would be expected to stand between || ||, approximately seven akṣaras. The form pklyauṣso shows syncope due to metrical reasons.

a5. One may consider a restoration (kälpā)sk(eṃ) at the beginning of pāda 1d. b1. Due to the Sanskrit parallel we know that this is a list of calamities: aśani-śuka-śalabha-mūṣika-kīṭa- “hail, parrot, locust, mouse, worm”. The last two appear in the next pāda in plural forms, while the loan word śalāpä seems to be uninflected; since there is no virāma written, it looks like, again, a case of preservation of final in colon-final position. However, in the preceding lacuna there is space for four akṣaras, which are in fact needed for the restoration of still two terms. But this would make the pāda too long. In any case, the first word has to be tu(sa) or tu(meṃ).

b2. The second colon of pāda 4c has one syllable to many. It remains possible to read ṣpä as the more progressive form ṣp or .

b4. mna is the certainly the end of a plural noun referring to ‘gravel’, ‘pebble’ according to the Sanskrit text. The form had only two syllables. Since the fault is slander (Skt. piśuna-vacana-), the punishment also implies slanderous ground, i.e., slippery stones and pits. By contrast, the next fault concerning harsh speech (Skt. paruṣa-vacas-) causes harsh and rough ground, where it is painful to walk on. Therefore, the meaning ‘(pot)sherd’ for tarśke assumed by Sieg 1938: 39 is justified, even though it has no direct parallel in the Sanskrit original. At the beginning of the next pāda one may venture to restore re(ki käskaucañ tākaṃ ; wnolmi), because this fault refers to confused, senseless talk (Skt. saṃbhinna-pralāpa-). This restoration is based on the phraseology used elsewhere for the rendering of this fault, cf. TB käskau welñe and TA käsko weñlune (see Pinault 1999: 230).

b5. The hapax knerwanta should designate something like some kind of cliff, fissure due to the Sanskrit parallel (Skt. kandara-). Here we deal with landscapes which are confusing, through which there is no clear path. In pada 7c (sā)rmna lit. ‘seeds’ used as a generic term for ‘grains’ is certain, cf. the similar list in the following leaf PK AS 7I a1 (sarmana taisāk ra stāna) and also in PK AS 6D a3 pyapyaiṃ stāna sārmna okonta “flowers, trees, seeds, fruits”. Note that there is no mention made of trees in the Sanskrit original but various species of grain and rice. Apparently, the Tocharian translator adapted this passage more freely than usual.

b6. At the beginning of pāda 7c we can safely restore a possessive adjective from the abstract māntalñe matching TA māntlune, both known as equivalents of Skt. vyāpāda- ‘malice’, cf. Pinault 1999: 231.

Linguistic commentary

As in other fragments of this manuscript, we meet some archaic spellings and forms: kärpi (a1, for kärpyi, verse form of kärpiyi, masc. of kärpiye), ṣäññe (b5); on the other hand, we have a progressive genitive plural ending in yāmorntats (a5) and the late variant of the relative pronoun se (a2, for kuse ). It is striking that this variant is attested precisely in the colophon, whereas the text proper always shows the classical form.

a2. The plural form sutarma shows a simplification of the cluster rnm, which seems to be regular in classical language, cf. sutarma (B 33 b5, B 429 b3) and śastarma (B 110 b8, B 425 b1, B 428 b4, IOL Toch 543 a3). However, judging from the derivative sūtärnmāṣṣe in B 134 a2, the cluster was still present in archaic language.

a6. Sieg 1938: 36 restored a form śaṃtsnasa on the basis of Lévi's reading; it was taken as a perlative of a loan word from Sanskrit śaṃsana-. But that would mean that the TB form is hybrid as such a syncope of a middle vowel cannot be taken for granted. But the reading [t]ūsa is certain based on an autopsy of the original, and it is preceded by a word ending in -ts. It is possible to read and restore ś(r)amts, a borrowing of Skt. śraṃsa- = sraṃsa- "perishing, destruction".

b5. The adjective tsakātstse cannot be an epithet of kaumi, because it is apparently a singular form. It ought to be substantivized, to refer to a thorny landscape.


Lévi 1933: 92-93, 103-104; Sieg 1938: 33-40
Translation: a1 Peyrot 2013: 687; a3 Peyrot 2013: 657; a6-b1 Peyrot 2013: 687; b3 Peyrot 2013: 820; b3-4 Peyrot 2013: 688; b4 Peyrot 2013: 688; b5-6 Peyrot 2013: 688


Georges-Jean Pinault (in collaboration with Melanie Malzahn and Michaël Peyrot)


Lévi 1932

Lévi, Sylvain, 1932: Mahākarmavibhaṅga (La grande classification des actes) et Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa (Discussion sur le Mahā Karmavibhaṅga), Paris: Ernest Leroux.

Lévi 1933

Lévi, Sylvain, 1933: Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien» par M. Sylvain Lévi, Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

Peyrot 2013

Peyrot, Michaël, 2013: The Tocharian subjunctive, A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. (Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics 8.) Leiden / Boston: Brill.

Pinault 1999

Pinault, Georges-Jean, 1999: "Restitution du Maitreyasamiti-Nāṭaka en tokharien A: Bilan provisoire et recherches complémentaires sur l’acte XXVI", TIES 8, 189-240.

Sieg 1938

Sieg, Emil, 1938: "Die Kutschischen Karmavibhaṅga-Texte der Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris", Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 65, 1-54. AS 7H
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