Work in progress
PK AS 7I
|Other press marks:||K 9|
|Main find spot:||Duldur-Akhur|
|Collection:||Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)|
Language and Script
|Add. linguistic characteristics:||With archaic forms|
|Title of the work:||Karmavibhaṅga|
|Parallel texts:||Mahākarmavibhaṅga §§ 60-61, 63-65 (Lévi 1932: 79-88, 142-144)|
|Material:||Ink on paper|
|Size (h x w):||8,2 x 37 cm|
|Number of lines:||6|
|Interline spacing:||1,3 cm|
|Remarks:||The fragment PK AS 7H immediately precedes this one, PK AS 7J follows.|
|a1||ntra s(··)m(·)na taisā(·) r(· ·)[tā]na : śak y[o]l(·)[n](· –)[mo]rnta eṅkormeṃ tuntse ṣarmtsa toṃ : śak wäntarwaṃts\ sparkālñe kal[pā]st[ra] parnāññanantso 8 śak no weñ(·) /// (7. syl.)|
|a2||lmeṃ weñenta : ñäkteṃts ñakte kaṣṣintse poyśints(·) pat wināṣlñemeṃ : cmelane kartse-ere masketra kartse-weśeññai : eṅkalle masketar-ne reki /// (6 syl.)|
|a3||rtsi[y](·)ne krui yopaṃ wertsya cpi ○ yamaṣṣaṃ yarke : lāre no ṣpa masketra śāmnantso ślek ra ñäktentso : oro[tse] cpī masketra cämpa[m]ñe /// (6 syl.)|
|a4||[c]ä[m](··) (··)e(··)e(·) [k]o= nolmempa kanma○stra ṣesa 10 pūdñäktempa kalpāṣṣaṃ ṣe śamtsi bodhisātvempa : wrotsana ekñiññenta yänmāṣṣaṃ ne(··)[e] /// (7 syl.)|
|a5||tanmas(– –)sārmeṃ ramer tsalpetra : śak parkāwnta toṃ maskentra kuse pat wināṣṣaṃ 11 śak parkāwänta kṣ[ā]tre ailñesa yänmāṣṣaṃ wnolme : cmela(·)e /// (8 syl.)|
|a6||ttre tatākau : snai palśalñe masketra kektseñ[t](·)a (·)ai(– –)l(··)osa : pos= oṃṣap su masketra mā cewsa masketr auṣap ksa 12 orotse masketar-ne /// (8 syl.)|
|b1||cämpamñecceṃ orocceṃ wnolmempa rittetra eṣe [ñ](· – – ·)t(·) pūdñäkteṃ poyśiṃmpa bodhisatvempa : ṣesa śmalñe kalpāṣṣaṃ wnolme sū c[ew] kr(·)nt yāmo /// (8 syl.)|
|b2||ññe īk(·) ṣpa kalpāṣṣaṃ nano-nano : kamarttāññeṣṣe īke eṅtsiśc ṣap yamastra yāmor\ : kakraupau ṣpa masketra yāmor cpī kṣātr= aiṣṣeñcantse : o[ro] /// (8 syl.)|
|b3||[e](·)ñ(·)ññenta [ṣpa] 14 iña○kteṃ sū tanmastra nemce= ksa cew krent yāmorsa : ramer no ṣpa saṃsārmeṃ tsalpetra yekte skeyentsa : toṃ pa /// (8 syl.)|
|b4||yä[r]p[o]ssu wnolm(·) : kaṣṣintse pū○dñäktentse patstsa kuse yamaṣaṃ kṣāttre 15 śak parkāwänta kulantse āyorsa poyśintse patne : tu ñke [w]e /// (6 syl.)|
|b5||śceścam(·)s̝ palskosa : kartse-reki masketra wnolme sū kartse-weśeññai : palskonta kātkaṣṣeñca weśeñña masketar-ne ṣpa 16 cäñcarya cpī maske /// (8 syl.)|
|b6||ṣ(··)i katkauñai māka (– –) [ma]sketar su c[m]ela[n]e [w](·)olme : katkauñaṣṣana plātaṃ rekauna su ṣek-ṣek\ klyauṣaṃ : amiśkaññe erṣeñcai reki sū mā nemce= klyauṣaṃ ///|
|a1||The grains [lit. seeds] [and] the trees in that way also become (without fruits). [8b] Having held on to the ten bad deeds, for that reason [8c] one obtains the dissolution of the ten external things. [8d] But the (Buddha lord), the excellent speaker, has told|
|a2||ten (advantages), [9a] caused by the reverence for a stūpa of the omniscient, of the teacher, the lord among the gods. [9b] He [= the pious one] becomes of good appearance in his rebirth [and] of good voice. [9c] (Everyone) is to be convinced by (hearing) his word. [9d]|
|a3||If he enters into an assembly, the assembly pays homage to him, [10a] and he is dear to humans and to gods likewise. [10b] The power of this one [= the pious one] is great ..., [10c]|
|a4||he comes together with (great), p(owerful) beings for sure; [10d] he succeeds in coming together with the buddhas [and] with the bodhisattvas; [11a] he obtains great possessions. Certainly indeed (among the gods [11b] through this deed)|
|a5||he is reborn, from the saṃsāra he is soon redeemed. [11c] These [= the preceding points] are the ten advantages for the one who reveres a stūpa. [11d] A being [also] obtains ten advantages through the giving of a parasol. (This one) in [his] rebirth will (become)|
|a6||a parasol (for the world). [12b] He becomes without torment with respect to the body [and] likewise with respect to the mind. [12c] This one becomes superior to all, nobody becomes superior to him. [12d] His (power) is great, ... [13a]|
|b1||he establishes relationship with powerful, great beings. [13b] With the omniscients, the buddhas, the lo(rds among the go)ds [and] with the bodhisattvas, [13c] this being succeeds in coming together through this good deed. [13d]|
|b2||And he reaches the position of a (Cakravartin) king again and again, [14a] and the deed is done in order to get the position of a ruler, [14b] and the deed is accumulated for the one who gives a parasol. [14c] And (one obtains gr)eat|
|b3||possessions (in the world). [14d] This one is certainly reborn among the gods through that good deed, [15a] and soon he is redeemed from the saṃsāra with few efforts. [15b] These (ten excellent advanta)ges (obtains)|
|b4||the meritorious being, [15c] who makes [the offering of] a parasol on a stūpa of the Buddha lord, the teacher. [15d] Ten advantages [come] through the giving of a bell in a stūpa of the omniscient. [16a] That I will now (tell in detail. Listen [pl.])|
|b5||with a steady mind! [16b] This being is of good speech, of good voice, [16c] and his voice makes the minds rejoice, [16d] his (talk) is charming to hear (by every assembly).|
|b6||[17a] This being is able to (evoke) much joy in his rebirths. [17b] This one always indeed hears joyful talks [and] words, [17c] he certainly does not hear speech that evokes bad feelings. [17d]|
The meter is 4 x 15 (7/8 or 8/7).
a4. The middle part of pāda 10d is badly damaged. The restoration by Sieg 1938: 41-42 followed by Schmidt KT 1974: 473 is not warranted by the manuscript since a reading [k]o is more probable than [s]o. In any case one has to assume sandhi across colon boundary in order to get a correct verse.
a5. The second colon of pāda 11d has two syllables too few. In any case one needs a demonstrative pronoun to which the relative clause refers. One may then propose to add cwi and maybe a particle.
b6. The whole pāda as attested seems to be metrically wrong: the second colon has nine syllables; therefore Sieg 1938: 44 restored spä in order to get the six missing syllables in the first colon, but at the expense of the rhythm, which should either be 4 + 3 or 3 + 4. The first problem can be solved by reading the verse form mäsketär. The second problem requires the restoration of a word to be constructed with katkauñai as direct object. Pace Sieg, it is impossible to analyze the form as a kind of bahuvrīhi.
As is often the case in this manuscript, we have several attestations of o-mobile in colon- or pāda-final position. Note also the preservation of the cluster śc in the PPt śceścamoṣ (b5); this is consistent with the preservation of the same cluster in the allative affix -śc if there is no o-mobile. Interestingly, we find the two variants oṃṣap and auṣap of the same adverb in the same line (oṃṣap is the older one; see Peyrot 2008: 91-92). On the other hand, we have a hypercorrect form in patstsa (b4 for patsa, the perlative singular of pat). It may be morphologically motivated in order to reinforce the perlative affix and to avoid homophony with patsa ‘pollen’. But note that hypercorrect geminate tsts is also otherwise found for etymological ts in late texts.
Several times anusvāra is missing in oblique plural forms.
a2. TB pat is the usual term for stūpa, but the corresponding Sanskrit text has the more general term caitya- ‘temple, shrine’. So pat here is used as a pars pro toto.
Lévi 1933: 93-95, 104-105; Sieg 1938: 40-44; Couvreur 1949: 76-79
Translation: a3-4 Peyrot 2013: 688; a4-5 Peyrot 2013: 689
Georges-Jean Pinault (in collaboration with Melanie Malzahn and Michaël Peyrot)
Couvreur, Walter, 1949: "Zur tocharischen Etymologie I", IF 60, 33-37.
Lévi, Sylvain, 1932: Mahākarmavibhaṅga (La grande classification des actes) et Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa (Discussion sur le Mahā Karmavibhaṅga), Paris: Ernest Leroux.
Lévi, Sylvain, 1933: Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien» par M. Sylvain Lévi, Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.
Peyrot, Michaël, 2008: Variation and change in Tocharian B, Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi (Leiden Studies in Indo-European 15).
Peyrot, Michaël, 2013: The Tocharian subjunctive, A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. (Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics 8.) Leiden / Boston: Brill.
Schmidt KT 1974
Schmidt, Klaus T., 1974: Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen, Univ. Göttingen.
Sieg, Emil, 1938: "Die Kutschischen Karmavibhaṅga-Texte der Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris", Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 65, 1-54.