PK NS 36 and 20
|Main find spot:||Duldur-Akhur|
|Expedition code:||DA cour|
|Collection:||Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)|
Language and Script
|Title of the work:||Araṇemijātaka|
|Parallel texts:||THT 93, THT 94, IOL Toch 69|
|Material:||Ink on paper|
|Size (w x h):||26,6-7 x 5,9 cm|
|Number of lines:||5|
|Line distance:||1 cm|
|Remarks:||The two fragments PK NS 36 and PK NS 20 can be joined neatly on line 1 of the recto and line 2 of the verso side; together they form approx. 2/3 of a leaf.|
|a1||(–) ne candramukhe walo wes̝s̝aṃ auspa p[o]ks[e]ñä\ mapi twe nest\ || [tane a](– – – – –) [w](·)lk(·) palsk(·)nt(·) ///|
|a2||[wai]ke wentsi • tumeṃ candramukheṃ lāntaś (·)e[s̝](·)[aṃ] (–) oroccu walo se ñiś[ä]\ [a](– – – –) walo nesau || te kekl(·)au ///|
|a3||ṇemiñä\ lānte paine yäksau palwā(– – ○) wes̝s̝aṃ ñäkte-yok\ sas[w]a [ku]s[e] t[e] takācä\ || devadat[t]e ///|
|a4||[ci] naktsy āñme : kete wat [n]o [l](–)[ts]i āñme nraiṣṣana toṃ laklenta sū ci klāte ñy[ā]tsene [:] [kus]e nai ṅke ṣai ///|
|a5||(–) (·)ai (– – – –) (·)ī [wä](– –) [k](·)e [k](·)a al(·)e[k](\) tañä\ e[ṅ]sate yapoyä\ : śak koṭanma [re]t(·)e [ñ]i [s](·)e[ñ](·) ///|
|b1||(– –) (·)[w]r(·) (·)[n](·)(·)n(·) – (·)k(·) – (– – –) k(·) ta(\) [sn](·) [o]k(·) lkāstar\ [ā] – –  [s]w(·)[s](·) ys(·)r(·)ṣṣ(·) sw(·)[sa][s]k(·) [k](·) ///|
|b2||[ā]nte yke-postaṃ yāmmar p(·)[k](·) t[e]ntse ñiśä\ • yl[ai]ñäkte ram no lare-yok\ saswe • tallāw ram no śem ñī ·(·) ///|
|b3||kañc\ śconiye mā sū ksa nesaṃ kuse ñi(– ○) [m]aiyyasa cämpalle ṣai ce e[r](·)[a]t[ñ]ene kalatsi || aptsara ///|
|b4||[t]ā kentsa kuse ñī tañcī cimpamñe : karu[ṇ](·)(·)[ṣ](·) warks̝altsa rī palskoṣṣai yū[k](·) (– –) akālkaṣṣe retke no were t(·) ///|
|b5||[a]ñmalāṣl[ñ]e orotse sū ñiś\ klāte ce y[k]e[ne : lkāsk]au ś[ai]ṣṣe [ta]llān[t]o (– – –)mas̝\ kleśanmaśä\ – ///|
|a1||(Th)en king Candramukha speaks: “Indeed, tell me! [It] is you after all?” Then (king) Araṇemi after pondering for a long time (speaks to himself: “How shall this become now? It is not my principle)|
|a2||to tell a lie.” Thereupon he speaks to king Candramukha: “O great king, I am the king A(raṇemi).” When he had heard this, (king Candramukha fell down from [his] lion-throne),|
|a3||grasped the feet of king Araṇemi and wai(ling) speaks: “O divine lord, what has befallen you?” || (In) [the tune] devadatte || (“To you, to whom mankind [was] devoted in any way ....),|
|a4||one (whose) wish [it is] to ruin you, or whose wish [it is] to make [you] suffer the torments of hell, has brought you in this misery. Who indeed was (this ignorant man? 1. Do tell)|
|a5||(me) indeed(, o lord, the reason) for this matter! What other one has taken hold of your land? An army of ten myriads is at my disposal (... the life lived by me.)|
|b1||(Wh)en (I see the enemy of the lord) face to face (I will release [my] passion,) (greetings or pity/mercy?, restrain?) will be seen fruitless. 2. A rain of blood I will let rain over the earth [and] (with a flood of missiles I will fill all corners of the world. With dead people ...)|
|b2||the surface [of the earth?] (will be filled (?)), step by step. In this I will take part. Like Indra, the lord [is] looking lovely; but as a miserable one he came into my c(ountry, as such a one I leave [it] now, full of suffering.” 3. .... (King Araṇemi) speaks: “O great king, ....|
|b3||After all, in this world there is no such hate that by [its] strength would be able to bring me into this anger.” Thereupon he speaks: || In [the tune] aptsara(darśaṃ || “... let go [off] the hate, o great king. [There is nobody])|
|b4||on this earth, who could restrain my power. By the power of compassion I have vanquished the fortress of thought. And the army of wishing (has been turned by me) into a [mere] odour (... 1. Grateful arrows have struck me painfully in my heart.)|
|b5||The great compassion has brought me to this place. I see the miserable world [that] has been (brought) under the control of the Kleśas.|
The first tune has 20|22|10|15 syllables (with the rhythm a=5/5/5/5, b=8/7/7, c=5/5, and d=8/7), the second 4 x 14 (7/7).
a1. Note that the parallel THT 93 a 3 differs slightly by having nano instead of tane at the beginning of the sentence and, more interestingly, the imperative poñ "speak!" instead of pokse-ñ "tell me!".
a2. The restoration (su) by Schmidt KT 2001: 324 is not warranted, because this anaphoric pronoun has no real function in this context; more likely is (ñem) "by the name".
a3. Note that in the parallel THT 93 a 6 we have an introduction to the following direct speech (in verse): || tumeṃ weṣṣäṃ ||, which is somewhat redundant.
a5. Instead of the usual restoration kontsa "days" (first proposed by Sieg/Siegling for the parallel THT 93 b 2), the different reading given above is now quite certain; we could fix the lacuna seen on the photograph given by Couvreur 1964: plate 3 by turning a misplaced piece of paper in the right direction on the original manuscript.
b1. After the verb lkāstär the syntax requires the subject of the sentence, which should have tree syllables and start with ā; of the next two more damaged akṣaras the last one most likely resembles 〈haṃ〉, the first could be a 〈vva〉 or 〈wa〉. That would give us the Sanskrit word āvāhana- "invocation, invitation", i.e. āwāhaṃ. The complement of swese is not a derivative of tsain (as it has usually been read and restored on the basis of the attestation in the next line), but here one has to read ys(a)r(a)ṣṣ(e) "bloody".
It seems that the Paris text has some more modernized morphological traits than the parallel Berlin manuscript THT 93 and THT 94; but note that THT 93 does have far more colloquial spellings:
b1. The parallel THT 93 b 3 has krui yneśo instead of kwri yneśne, which is a more modernized version.
b5. Here we have a perl.pl. kleśanmaś, while in the parallel text THT 94 a 3 we have a gen.pl. kleśanmats; it is likely that the original construction with oś kāmā- had a depending genitive (i.e., depending on the noun oś), and later oś kāmā- was reinterpreted as a phrase and oś lost its property to asign case.
b4. Note the colloquial spelling of cimpamñe for cämpamñe; otherwise this manuscript always has cä (even in the Ger. from the same root); there are no other colloquial forms (in contrast to the parallel THT 93, which has several colloquial spellings.)
First edited by Couvreur 1964: 241-43 with restitution of the complete leaf on pl. 3; partly translated in Couvreur 1955: 111; Schmidt KT 2001: 323-26 gave a joint translation with the other parallels.
Georges-Jean Pinault (in collaboration with Melanie Malzahn)
Couvreur, Walter, 1955: "Nieuwe Koetsjische fragmenten van de Bibliothèque Nationale te Parijs", Handelingen van het Eenentwintigste Vlaams Filologencongres, Leuven, 110-116.
Couvreur, Walter, 1964: "Nieuwe Koetsjische fragmenten van het Araṇemijātaka", Orientalia Gandensia 1, 237-249 (+ Taf. I-VII).
Schmidt KT 2001
Schmidt, Klaus T., 2001: "Die westtocharische Version des Araṇemi-Jātakas in deutscher Übersetzung", De Dunhuang à Istanbul. Hommage à James Russell Hamilton, prés. par Louis Bazin et Peter Zieme, Turnhout: Brepols (Silk Road Studies 5), 299-327.