Work in progress
PK NS 55
|Main find spot:||Unknown|
|Collection:||Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)|
Language and Script
|Title of the work:||Dhūtaguṇa|
|Material:||Ink on paper|
|Size (w x h):||20,2 x 6,6 cm|
|Number of lines:||4|
|Interline spacing:||1,6 cm|
|Remarks:||Some remnants of the leaf number are still visible in the right margin on the verso.|
|a1||(–)ṇyakaṃñe dhutagūṃ pañäkte kaṣṣiṃtse ārt[o]s̝\ eṅku tāka su ṅke postaṃ[ñ](·) ///|
|a2||kaṃñ[e] śmaśān[i]kaṃñesa warñai śak ta○rya dhutaguṇntane karts(·) ///|
|a3||ṅkārne || kuse cai ltūweṣ ostameṃ mamrau○skas̝\ ceu palskosa ///|
|a4||rwa yke postaṃ ṣek\ wikṣeñcaṃ : taurmeṃ kutsāreṃ wastsy eṅko[ṣ\] (– ·)ṣ(·) śwātsi stām [ñ]o(–) – ///|
|b1||(–)[ma]stra yaiku ṣpane tsetsamu nete warkṣal\ wī yama(– – –)ṅkte āksalñ(·) ///|
|b2||ṅku kalmisa pilko spelkka-śaul\ śailñe ○ kalmis(·)me ompalsko ///|
|b3||stwer\ ket\ tsmemane krentauna muskema○[n]e yolaiṃñe ṣek\ somo(··)[ñ](·) ///|
|b4||[ñca]ñ[ä](\) saṃvarṣṣe cmelamp= erṣai : śīlne stmo[ṣo] astareṃ yolaiññesa prosk=ari[l](·)[e] ///|
|a1||The one who has taken the Dhūtaguṇa consisting of dwelling in the forest, chosen by the Buddha lord, the teacher, this one now finally …|
|a2||having been well trained in the thirteen Dhūtaguṇas, beginning with (the dwelling in the forest and) the frequentation of cemeteries ...|
|a3||In the (Śānaśra)ṅkār [tune]. These who had left the house, having felt repulsion (for the world), by this thought, …|
|a4||… the ones avoiding bit by bit [and] constantly (all obj)ects ; having taken the yellow-reddish (?) garment from dust [heaps], the meal of alms, (sitting) under a tree, …|
|b1||… he does ..., having driven away the sleep, having caused the force [and] energy to grow , … the awakening between the two deeds, …|
|b2||… having taken the correct view, the living of a live of effort, the correct consciousness, (the sitting in) meditation…|
|b3||by whom (day and) night the virtues [are] being increased, the evil [is] being rejected, always likewise …|
|b4||… (joining) [their] enthusiasm [i.e., devoutness] with the birth characterized by restraint; remaining in the pure good behavior, the giving up of the fear of evil …|
From a3 onwards, the text is in verse (meter 4 x 18, rhythm 7/7/4). The name of the meter is found also in THT 78: b5.
b4. The last colon of line b4 has eight syllables unless one assumes colon break between sandhi.
This text mentions thirteen kinds of dhūtaguṇas, i.e. ascetic practices. For lists of those, cf. Edgerton BHSD: 286 and Dantinne 1991. Here we find both loan words derived from the Sanskrit terms and adaptations in TB:
- āraṇyakäṃñe (a1), cf. Skt. āraṇyaka- ‘dwelling in the forest’.
- śmaśānikäṃñe (a2), cf. Skt. śmāśānika- ‘frequenting cemeteries’.
- taurmeṃ kutsāreṃ wastsi (a4), cf. Skt. pāṃśukūlika- ‘one who wears refuse rags’, i.e. from dust heaps in order make garments from them. Probably, the adjective kutsāre corresponds to Skt. kāṣāya- ‘yellow-reddish’, the color of the monks’ robe.
- yāṣṣu śwātsi (a4), cf. Skt. piṇḍapātika- ‘one who lives on alms food’.
- stām ñor (a4), cf. Skt. vṛkṣamūlika- ‘living at the root of a tree’.
The language is not consistent and shows several incorrect or late forms.
a3. In this translation it has been decided to take ltuweṣ as a predicate without copula; alternatively, it is possible to take the phrase as referring to religious mendicants: “These religious mendicants, having felt repulsion ...”.
b4. In the final words, note the sandhi of proskai + arilñe, a late form for arälñe ‘cessation’, verbal noun of the verb ār(ā)- ‘to cease’, based on the subjunctive I of the ‘Antigrundverb’, inf. ārtsi. In the same line, preceding pāda, cmelampa is perlative plural and constructed with rittā- ‘to join, associate’. This plural may be taken as miswritten for the singular camelmpa (by blurring with the verse form cmelmpa), since the preceding adjective is obl. masc. singular; alternatively, the plural may have been intentional, and saṃvarṣṣeṃ, with obl. plural masculine, should be restored, instead of the feminine saṃvarṣṣana, metri causa. The PPt stmoṣo shows o-mobile inside a colon, which is an unusual position.
Couvreur 1955: 114.
Couvreur, Walter, 1955: "Nieuwe Koetsjische fragmenten van de Bibliothèque Nationale te Parijs", Handelingen van het Eenentwintigste Vlaams Filologencongres, Leuven, 110-116.
Dantinne, Jean, 1991: Les qualités de l’ascète (Dhutaguṇa). Étude sémantique et doctrinale, Bruxelles: Thanh-Long.
Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit grammar and dictionary, by Franklin Edgerton, New Haven: Yale Univ. Press 1953 (several reprints).