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Other press marks:B 1, THT 1a, THT 1b, Bleistiftnummer 3380


Main find spot:Šorčuq
Specific find spot:Stadthöhle
Expedition code:T III Š 94, T III Š 96
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:Classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānālaṅkāra
Passage:Book 1 (Anityavarga), strophes 75d-87a
Parallel texts:Uv 1.8-1.11
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Manuscript:Udānālaṅkāra A
Leaf number:12
Following fragment:THT 3
Material:Ink on paper
Size (h × w):12 × 10 cm
Number of lines:8
Interline spacing:1 cm
Remarks:The fragment is badly damaged. It is composed of two smaller fragments.


THT 1a Recto THT 1a Verso

Images loaded from through by courtesy of IDP Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


a1/// ent[e ·k· s·] – ·l· ///
a2/// laklessuntsai lyāka werts[yai] ///
a3/// näksentramaskeṃntr – ṃṣketse [·ts·] ///
a4/// [ntse] pelaikne śtwār= emprenm= aurtsesa : ///
a5/// nt[w]āt\ ykuwermeṃ lalaikarmeṃ ṣa[r]n[e] 70 ///
a6/// tetemwa ka kloyontra ///
a7/// – kentra t[e]moṣ kā ///
a8/// [le ·e ·o] ///
b1/// ṣ· – ·s· ///
b2/// sau māwk\ ñäś\ srūka[·l·] ///
b3/// [·trä] no ponta ra[ṣ]yentra : ma ///
b4/// ṣ ramt\ srūkalñeṣṣe madārntse yai[·o] ///
b5/// prākre : tetkākp\ śmanme srūkal[ñe] ///
b6/// [nt]s· śem\ poyśiṃśä\ : po skloka[n·] ///
b7/// wnolmentsa : akṣāne poy[ś]i ///
b8/// [86] lā – o [·o ·e] ///

(continues on THT 3)


a1/// ente ·k· s· – ·l· 7(5) ///
a2/// läklessuntsai lyāka wertsyai ///
a3/// näksenträ mäskeṃntr eṃṣketse (:) ·s· ///
a4/// (ākṣa wertsiya)ntse pelaikne śtwār= emprenm= aurtsesa : ///
a5/// (pi)ntwāt ykuwermeṃ lalaikarmeṃ ṣarne 7(8) ///
a6/// tetemwa ka kloyonträ ///
a7/// (ywārcä sru)kenträ tetemoṣ kā- ///
a8/// le ·e ·o ///
b1/// ṣ· – ·s· ///
b2/// (maiwe ne)sau māwk ñäś srūka(lle) ///
b3/// (kloyont)rä no ponta räṣyenträ : ma(nt) ///
b4/// (wnolmi aknātsañ triko)ṣ ramt srūkalñeṣṣe madārntse yai(p)o(ṣä koyne cai) ///
b5/// prākre : tetkāk ṣp śman-me srūkalñe (kärnānm= eṅkalñenta) ///
b6/// (jātiśroṇe ñem brāhmaṇe tsäṅkoṣ sklone empelye pälsko)nts(e) śem poyśiṃś : po skloka(nma) ///
b7/// wnolmentsa : akṣā-ne poyśi ///
b8/// 86 lā(ñc) o(nts)o(yttñ)e(sa) ///

(continues on THT 3)


a1... [75d] ...
a2... He saw the sorrowful assembly ... [76c]
a3... they perish [and] do not last ... [77b]
a4... (he recited before the assembly) the law [and] the four truths in detail ... [78a]
a5... having gone the almsround [and] having washed the hands [78d] ...
a6... having just emerged they fall .... [79c]
a7... they die having just been born .... [80b]
b2... I am (young), I will not die yet ... [82b]
b3... they all fall as well, they have been ripped off. [83b] Therefore ...
b4... [83d] (the foolish beings) like (confused ones) they have passed into (the maws) of the monster of death ...
b5... firm. An when death suddenly comes to them, (it severs their bonds) [84d] ...
b6... (A Brahman named Jātiśroṇa) came (in the emerged, terrible doubt of his spirit) to the Omniscient: [85b] (O thou Severer) of all doubt, (o God, sever) ... [85c]
b7... with the beings.” [86a] To him recited the Omniscient ... [86b]
b8... 86 (When) the kings (out of insatiability)

(continues on THT 3)

Philological commentary


a1. At the end of the line there is a remnant of an akṣara which can be interpreted as the lower part of the number 70 according to TochSprR(B) I: I, 8 fn. 1.


a4. (ākṣa wertsiya)ntse supplemented according to TochSprR(B) I II, 3 fn. 1 and TochSprR(B)2: 139.
a5. (pi)ntwāt and 7(8) emended according to TochSprR(B) I I, 8 fn. 5.
a7. (ywārcä sru)kenträ supplemented based on THT 2 a1.
b2. (maiwe) supplemented based on THT 2 a6; (ne)sau and srūka(lle) amended according to TochSprR(B) I I, 8 fn. 8.
b3. (kloyont)rä supplemented and amended according to ··yonträ based on THT 2 a8; ma(nt) also based on THT 2 a8 .
b4. (wnolmi aknātsañ triko)ṣ supplemented based on THT 2 b1; (ṣä koyne cai) supplemented according to TochSprR(B) I II, 3 fn. 6.
b5. (kärnānm= eṅkalñenta) supplemented based on THT 2 b3.
b6. (jātiśroṇe ñem brāhmaṇe tsäṅkoṣ sklone empelye pälsko)nts(e) supplemented based on THT 2 b4 and according to TochSprR(B) I II, 4 fn. 1.
b8. lā(ñc) o(nts)o(yttñ)e(sa) supplemented based on THT 2 b8.

General remarks

Contains fragments of strophes 75d – 87a of the Anityavarga (I); the metre is 21, 21, 18, 13 syllables. The rhythm in a and b is 8/7/6, in c it is 9/9 (or 4/5, 4/5 respectively), in d it is 7/6. The content is partly the same as in THT 2, which ascertains important text supplements. Since this leaf directly preceded THT 3, it was leaf 12 of the manuscript.

Sanskrit parallel

b2. corresponds to Uv. 1,8:
tatra ko viśvasen martyo daharo 'smīti jīvite

I am young (but) mortal. Who is there in this life that could rely on (something)?

b3. corresponds to Uv. 1,11:
yathā phalānāṁ pakvānāṁ nityaṁ patanato bhayam

As ripe fruits always are in fear of falling.


IDP: THT 1a, THT 1b, TITUS: THT 1.
Edition: TochSprR(B) I: I, 8-9.
Complete translation: TochSprR(B) I: II, 3-4, notes 139-140.
Translation: a4 TochSprR(B)2: 139; a5 Hackstein 1995: 121; a6 Schmidt KT 1974: 105; b3 TochSprR(B)2: 140; b4 TochSprR(B)2: 140; b5 Krause, WTG: 205, TochSprR(B)2: 140; b6 Carling 2000: 234, TochSprR(B)2: 140.


Hannes A. Fellner


Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd, 2000: Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen, Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav, 1995: Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (HS Erg.-Heft 38).


The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online, at:

Krause, WTG

Wolfgang Krause, Westtocharische Grammatik, Band I. Das Verbum, Heidelberg: Winter 1952.

Schmidt KT 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T., 1974: Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen, Univ. Göttingen.


Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection. Transcriptions prepared by Christiane Schaefer, transliterations by Tatsushi Tamai and Katharina Kupfer. Edited by Jost Gippert, Katharina Kupfer, and Tatsushi Tamai, Frankfurt am Main, 2000–2007; at:

TochSprR(B) I

Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, hg. v. E. Sieg und †W. Siegling, Heft 1. Die Udānālaṅkāra-Fragmente. Text, Übersetzung und Glossar, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1949.


Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B. Teil I: Die Texte. Band 1. Fragmente Nr. 1-116 der Berliner Sammlung, hg. v. †Emil Sieg und †Wilhelm Siegling, neubearbeitet und mit einem Kommentar nebst Register versehen v. Werner Thomas, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1983. 1
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