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Other press marks:B 2, Bleistiftnummer 3321


Main find spot:Šorčuq
Specific find spot:Stadthöhle
Expedition code:T III Š 95.12
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:Classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānālaṅkāra
Passage:Book 1 (Anityavarga), strophes 80b – 87a
Parallel texts:Uv 1.8-1.11
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Manuscript:Udānālaṅkāra C
Material:Ink on paper
Number of lines:8
Remarks:The original manuscript is missing, but had a torn-off right corner, about 1/4 of a leaf.


THT 2 recto THT 2 verso

Images loaded from by courtesy of IDP Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


a1/// [y]wārcä\ srukentra tet[e]moṣ k= ā ///
a2/// sū nesaṃ kuse onwaññe tākoyä\ 80 ma
a3/// [s̝a]ṃts\ onolmeṃts\ srukalñe ṣ[p]\ ṣek\
a4/// tsoṅkaik\ lyelyku ksa : tsoṅkaik ra
a5/// [y]wārśkāññi pikulameṃ kuse rano maiwe
a6/// ntoytra wnolmi aknātsa maiwe
a7/// we menāk\ ce maiweñä\ wrocce
a8/// yontra no ponta raṣyeṃntra mant\
b1/// nkelñene 80-3 wnolmi aknātsañä\
b2/// [r]y·ṃ kāñmeṃ spanteṃntra onwaññe śaul\
b3/// lñe karsnān-m= eṅkalñenta 80-4
b4/// śroṇe ñem\ brāhmaṇe tsaṅkos̝\
b5/// kta pkrāsta sklok\ ñi tsaṅkoṣ palsko
b6/// ypauna kuṣaintsa kaklautkau aṅkāre wnolme
b7/// pr[o]tarñtsä\ śnona ysentar\ ṣera tkātaä\
b8/// [o]ntsoyttñesa alloṅkna re[t]·e [i]yaṃ ·au


a1/// ywārc srukenträ tetemoṣ k= ā(lyaik) ///
a2/// (mā) nesäṃ kuse onwaññe tākoy 80 mä-
a3-(kte) /// (po tetemo)ṣäṃts onolmeṃts srukalñe ṣp ṣek
a4/// tsoṅkaik lyelyku ksa : tsoṅkaik ra-
a5-(no) /// ywārśkāññi pikulameṃ kuse rano maiwe-
a6-(ño) /// (spä)ntoyträ wnolm{e} aknātsa maiwe
a7(nesau māwk ñäś srūkalle) /// (tai)we menāk ce maiweñ wrocce
a8/// (klo)yonträ no ponta räṣyeṃnträ mant
b1/// (poñc yeyeṃ) nkelñene 83 wnolmi aknātsañ
b2/// (ke)ry(e)ṃ kāñmeṃ spänteṃnträ onwaññe śaul
b3/// (sruka)lñe kärsnān-m= eṅkalñenta 84
b4/// (jāti)śroṇe ñem brāhmaṇe tsäṅkoṣ
b5/// (ña)kta pkrāsta sklok ñi tsäṅkoṣ palsko-
b6-(ne) /// ypauna kuṣaintsa kaklautkau aṅkāre wnolme-
b7-(ntsa) /// protärñts śnona ysentär ṣera tkātärñ
b8/// (lāñc) ontsoyttñesa alloṅkna ret(k)e iyaṃ (yp)au-


a1... die in the centre; just born, o(thers) ... [80b]
a2... is (not) one, that was immortal. [80d] Like ...
a3... (and [to] all) beings (born) death is always ... [81b]
a4... one [still] seen in the morning, [81a] in the morning also ...
a5... [those] of middle years [and] also [those] that are young [82a] ...
a6... the foolish being must have trust: “I am young. (I will not die yet)” ... [82c]
a7... like the ripe fruit these young ones great ... [83a]
a8... fall all also, they have been ripped off. [83b] Therefore ...
b1... (all) went into destruction. [83d] The foolish beings ...
b2... they laugh, they play, they trust: life [is] eternal ... [84b]
b3... (and when de)ath (suddenly comes to them), it severs their bonds. [84d] ...
b4... A brahmin named (Jāti)śroṇa (came) in the arisen ... [85b]
b5... o God, sever the doubt that has arisen (in) my spirit. [85c]
b6... in the countries and villages immorality has turned up (among) the beings. [86b]
b7... the brothers’ wives are being touched, the sisters, the daughters [86c] ...
b8... [86d] (When the kings) out of insatiability lead the army (into) other (countries) ... [87a]

Philological commentary


a1. k= ā(lyaik) supplemented according to TochSprR(B) I: II, 4 fn. 3.
a2. and mä(kte) supplemented according to TochSprR(B)2: 140.
a3. (po tetemo)ṣäṃts supplemented according to TochSprR(B) I: II, 4 fn. 6.
a4. ra(no) supplemented according to TochSprR(B) I: II, 4 fn. 7.
a5. maiwe(ño) emended according to TochSprR(B) I: I, 9 fn. 7.
a6. (spä)ntoyträ emended according to TochSprR(B) I: I, 9 fn. 8; (nesau māwk ñäś srūkalle) supplemented based on THT 1 b2.
a7. (tai)we emended according to TochSprR(B)2: 141.
a8. (klo)yonträ emended according to TochSprR(B) I: I, 9 fn. 10.
b1. The beginning of the line might be supplemented by (poñc yeyeṃ) according to supplemented according to TochSprR(B) I: II, 4 fn. 11.
b2. (ke)ry(e)ṃ emended according to TochSprR(B) I: I, 9 fn. 11.
b3. (sruka)lñe emended according to TochSprR(B) I: I, 9 fn. 12 based on THT 1 b5.
b4. The personal name (jāti)śroṇe is emended according to TochSprR(B) I: I, 9 fn. 13 based on THT 3 a2.
b5. (ña)kta and palsko(ne) emended according to TochSprR(B) I: I, 10 fn. 1.
b6. wnolme(ntsa) emended according to TochSprR(B) I: I, 10 fn. 2.
b8. (lāñc) is supplemented based on THT 1 b8 and ret(k)e iyaṃ (yp)au(nane) based on THT 3 a1.


a6. Against TochSprR(B) I: II, 4 the translation without 'not' is warranted by the Sanskrit Udv. I a8.

General remarks

Contains fragments of strophes 80b – 87a1, thereby supplementing the verso side of THT 1.

Parallel texts

Sanskrit parallel

a4. corresponds to Uv. I, 7:
sāyam eke na dṛśyante kālyaṃ dṛṣṭā mahājanāḥ
kālyaṃ caike na dṛṣyante sāyaṃ dṛṣṭā mahājanāḥ

In the evening not many beings are seen, at day break they are seen, at day brake they are not seen, but in the evening they are seen.

a5. corresponds to Uv. I, 10:
ye ca vṛddhā ye ca dahrā ye ca madhyamapūruṣāḥ
anupūrvaṃ pravrajanti phalaṃ pakvaṃ va bandhanāt

Some are grown, some are small, some are mediocre beings, orderly they go like ripe fruit from the bond.

a6. corresponds to Uv. I, 8:
tatra ko viśvasen martyo daharo ’smīti jīvite

I am young (but) mortal. Who is there in this life that could rely on (something)?

a7. corresponds to Uv. I, 11:
yathā phalānāṃ pakvānāṃ nityaṃ patanato bhayam

As ripe fruits always are in fear of falling.


Edition: TochSprR(B) I: I, 9-10, notes 140-141.
Complete translation: TochSprR(B) I: II, 4-5.
Translation: a2 Thomas 1952: 43, Thomas 1970a: 466, TochSprR(B)2: 140, TochSprR(B)2: 248; a5 TochSprR(B)2: 141; a6+B1b2 Thomas 1952: 40; a7 TochSprR(B)2: 141; a8 Thomas 1997: 90, Malzahn 2012b: 159; b1 Carling 2000: 239; b2 Schmidt KT 1974: 174f; b3 Krause, WTG: 205; b5 TochSprR(B)2: 140; b6 Carling 2000: 163, Thomas 1957: 261; b7 Schmidt KT 1974: 246.


Hannes A. Fellner


Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd (2000) Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.


The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.

Krause, WTG

Krause, Wolfgang (1952) Westtocharische Grammatik, Band I. Das Verbum. Heidelberg: Winter.

Malzahn 2012b

Malzahn, Melanie (2012) Position matters — The placement of clitics in metrical texts of Tocharian B. Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 13, 153-162.

Schmidt KT 1974

Schmidt, Klaus Totila (1974) Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen: Doctoral dissertation, Univ. Göttingen.

Thomas 1952

Thomas, Werner (1952) Die tocharischen Verbaladjektive auf -l. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag (Deutsche Akad. der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Institut für Orientforschung 9).

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner (1957) Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1970a

Thomas, Werner (1970) Zu einigen Besonderheiten der tocharischen Syntax. Orbis 19, 452-472.

Thomas 1997

Thomas, Werner (1997) Interpretationsprobleme im Tocharischen. Unflektiertes A puk, B po 'ganz, all, jeder'. Stuttgart: Steiner (SbWGF XXXV, 3).


Gippert, Jost et al. Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection. Frankfurt am Main.

TochSprR(B) I

Sieg, Emil, and †Wilhelm Siegling (1949) Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 1. Die Udānālaṅkāra-Fragmente. Text, Übersetzung und Glossar. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.


Sieg, Emil, and †Wilhelm Siegling (1983) Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B. Teil I: Die Texte. Band 1. Fragmente Nr. 1-116 der Berliner Sammlung. neubearbeitet und mit einem Kommentar nebst Register versehen v. Werner Thomas, Thomas, Werner, ed. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 2
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