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THT 48

Other press marks:B 48, Bleistiftnummer 3340


Main find spot:Šorčuq
Expedition code:T III Š 90.6
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:Classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānālaṅkāra
Passage:uncertain; Book 21 (Cittavarga) ? - cf. Lévi 1933: A1-3, 72ff.
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Material:Ink on paper
Size (h × w):13,5 × 11,5 cm
Number of lines:8
Remarks:Fragment from the centre of a leaf, damaged on all edges.


THT 48 Recto THT 48 Verso

Images loaded from through by courtesy of IDP Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


a1/// ll· ·k· [pā]tarntso wro·c· – yaṣlñe : ///
a2/// : yokye ṣarm po lakle[nt]ēṅkalñentaṃts\ ///
a3/// [rn]ewo śarsa emprenma : kalpa perne pa ///
a4/// – rhanteññe 24 yāṣṣu śwātsi a ///
a5/// : tanaul[y]kaṃ ramt\ sekwetse pīle ra pta[r]k· ///
a6/// [ya]yāta[s̝]\ ··elmi piś yäkne : snai s[pa]rk[ālñe] ///
a7/// [kn·] : v[i]śvakarmi ñäktentse memiskos̝\ ñä ///
a8/// [ṣ]eṣṣe – – : wñā[n]e poy[ś]i mā [na]ṃ ne ///
b1/// ·k· klutka·ts·ś\ akṣān· śl[o]k\ ot\ c· ///
b2/// meṃ tek\ śarsa auspa : ñiś\ palkormeṃ ///
b3/// [pā]sakeṃ ñäś\ peṅsa śaul warñai saim ne ///
b4/// ts weṣṣi nakanma makāykne kraupeṃ [we] ///
b5/// ākṣa pūdñä[kte] ot\ ceṃ ṣamāneṃts\ nau[ṣ]a[ññ(·)] ///
b6/// [rīm]eṃ tāu parna maskītra : śem\ pratyai ///
b7/// [nt]s· : auntsante paryarinta yāmtsy o (·)e ///
b8/// [ypau] – ·e dantapu[r]i[·e] : rīye ///


a1/// ll· ·k· pātärntso wro(c)c(e) (mi)yaṣlñe : ///
a2/// : yokye ṣarm po läklente= ṅkalñentaṃts ///
a3/// (pe)rnewo śarsa emprenma : kalpa perne pä(rweṣṣe) ///
a4/// (a)rhanteññe 24 yāṣṣu śwātsi a ///
a5/// : tanaulykaṃ ramt sekwetse pīle ra ptark(aso) ///
a6/// yayātaṣ (yś)elmi piś-yäkne : snai spärkālñe ///
a7/// kn· : viśvakarmi ñäktentse memiskoṣ ñä(kciye) ///
a8/// ṣeṣṣe – – : wñāne poyśi naṃ ne ///
b1/// (takarṣ)k(eṃ) klutkä(s)ts(i)ś akṣān(e) ślok ot c· ///
b2/// (añma)meṃ tek śarsa auspa : ñiś pälkormeṃ ///
b3/// (u)pāsakeṃ ñäś peṅsa śaul warñai saim ne ///
b4/// ts weṣṣi nakanma makāykne kraupeṃ we ///
b5/// ākṣa pūdñäkte ot ceṃ ṣamāneṃts nauṣaññ(e) ///
b6/// rīmeṃ u parna mäskītra : śem pratyai ///
b7/// nts· : auntsante paryarinta yāmtsy o(mt)e ///
b8/// ypau(nan)e dantapuri(n)e : rīye ///


a1... the great damage of the fathers ...
a2... Thirst [is] the source of all sufferings and attachments ...
a3... the worthy one perceived the [four] truths [and] reached the fi(rst) level ...
a4... Arhathood. [24d] To eat alms (from somewhere else) ...
a5... also like the wound of pus [attracts] flies. Give up [pl.] the ...
a6... the fivefold pleasures have [not] been able to, [so] without disappearance...
a7... exchanged by the god Viśvakarma [in the divine shape (?)] ...
a8... To him spoke the Omniscient: Not Nanda ...
b1... to let him become (believing) he then proclaimed this strophe to him ...
b2... he indeed perceived this: Truly, with regard to myself ...
b3... take me as a lay member, (to be) [my] lifelong shelter ...
b4... he spoke often about the damages of the (pleasures), he spoke [whole] sections ...
b5... The Buddha then told an earlier (incident) of these monks ...
b6... he was out of town at that time. (To the) Pratyekabuddha came ...
b7... They began to do miracles ...
b8... (in the) countries, in the town Dantapura. The town ...

Philological commentary


a3. Emendation according to TochSprR(B)2: 86 fn. 2.
a5. Emendation according to TochSprR(B)2: 86 fn. 3.
a6. Emendation according to TochSprR(B)2: 86 fn. 4.
b3. Emendation according to TochSprR(B)2: 86 fn. 5. Schmidt KT 1986: 122 prefers to amend to ... saimne (ykuweṣo) “accept me [as] a lay follower, [who have taken] refuge for [my] whole life”.

General remarks

The 4 x 15-syllable-metre apparently used in this fragment is already known to us from the second part of the Mārgavarga (XII), cf. THT 28 - THT 30. This fragment here, however, cannot be part of the latter, since the content here does not match with that of THT 30, which shows the same strophe numbers. The same metre, however, was also used in the chapter dealing with the Cittavarga (XXXI), see Lévi 1933: A1-3, 72ff., and the agreement of b2 tek\ śarsa auspa : ñiś palkormeṃ with Lévi 1933: A1b4 klyauṣa nande ñäś ṣarmmeṃ pudñäkte ślokanma weña is rather astounding. But in A1b4 this is already strophe 81, whereas a4 in this text has the strophe number 24. Due to the scantiness of the fragment, which, after all, has preserved only a single strophe number, not even recto and verso side can be identified with any certainty; and in the translation a lot of things remain doubtful.


Edition: TochSprR(B) I: I, 70-71; TochSprR(B)2: 85-86, notes 219-220
Complete translation: TochSprR(B) I: II, 70-71
Translation: b1 Thomas 1954: 752; b3 Thomas 1981: 489, Schmidt KT 1986: 122; b4 Thomas 1957: 62, Thomas 1995: 65; b6 Thomas 1957: 27; b8 Carling 2000: 160


Hannes A. Fellner


Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd (2000) Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. de Gruyter: Berlin/New York.


The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.

Lévi 1933

Lévi, Sylvain (1933) Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien» par M. Sylvain Lévi. Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

Schmidt KT 1986

Schmidt, Klaus T. (1986) Fragmente eines buddhistischen Ordinationsrituals in westtocharischer Sprache. Aus der Schule der Sarvāstivādins. Text, Übersetzung, Anmerkungen und Indizes. unveröffentlichte Habilitationsschrift.

Thomas 1954

Thomas, Werner (1954) Die Infinitive im Tocharischen, In Schubert, Johannes, and Ulrich Schneider, eds., Asiatica. Festschrift Friedrich Weller. Zum 65. Geburtstag, gewidmet von seinen Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern. Harrassowitz: Leipzig, 701-764.

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner (1957) Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Harrassowitz: Wiesbaden.

Thomas 1981

Thomas, Werner (1981) Indogermanisches in der Syntax des Tocharischen: Zum Ausdruck eines Gebotes und Verbotes, In , Festschrift der Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft an der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main. Steiner: Wiesbaden, 481-497.

Thomas 1995

Thomas, Werner (1995) Zur tocharischen Syntax. Adverbiales A māk, B māka ‘viel’. Steiner: Stuttgart (SbWGF XXXIII, 2).


Gippert, Jost et al. Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection. Frankfurt am Main.

TochSprR(B) I

Sieg, Emil, and †Wilhelm Siegling (1949) Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 1. Die Udānālaṅkāra-Fragmente. Text, Übersetzung und Glossar. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht: Göttingen.


Sieg, Emil, and †Wilhelm Siegling (1983) Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B. Teil I: Die Texte. Band 1. Fragmente Nr. 1-116 der Berliner Sammlung. neubearbeitet und mit einem Kommentar nebst Register versehen v. Werner Thomas, Thomas, Werner, ed. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht: Göttingen. 48
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