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THT 81

Other press marks:B 81, Bleistiftnummer 2340

Provenience

Main find spot:Šorčuq
Expedition code:T III Š 102.6
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Language:TB
Linguistic stage:Classical
Script:Classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Araṇemijātaka
Parallel texts:PK NS 35
Manuscript:Araṇemi α
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna
Verse/Prose:Both

Object

Material:Ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Leaf number:15
Number of lines:6
Remarks:

The left part of the original leaf is now missing, but was edited by TochSprR(B) II: 19-20. The preserved manuscript now starts with:

a1 ś

a2 wem

a3 ○ lyautsañ

a4 ○lo

a5 ksa

a6 ṣṣe

b1 [ñī]

b2 brāhmaṇi

b3 ○skeṃ

b4 [nn](·)

b5 pwāyar-me

b6 ṇemi (with parts of the 〈ra〉 still visible).

Images

THT 81 Recto THT 81 Verso

Images loaded from idp.bbaw.de through idp.bl.uk by courtesy of IDP Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.

Transliteration

a1naman(·) • p[i]ś uw(·) akalalye(·)ścä makā yäkne (–)pauta[rme](·) • wes̝aṃnmeścä\ sasūśkaṃ nesaṃ ksa ñī yesaśc\ añmaṣṣe reki (–) [k](·)pilava(·)ṇ(·)
a2brāhmaṇe wes̝s̝aṃ spantai kaṣṣi weṃ || rudramukhe brāhmaṇe wes̝s̝aṃ || niṣkramāṃne || walo aknātsa su marsau ṣañ āñm atsai[k]\ ñem\ ara[ṇ]e
a3mi • yāmṣate ñiśś erkatte ○ lyautsañ pastä\ ṣañä\ ypoymeṃ wertsaints= enepre • srukor aiśaumyepi olypo (·)[a]noyt(·)r pastä\ mā kwī
a4pe rmoytar\ : su ke ñem wa○lo yāmṣate ñīśś erkatte makte ṣ teṃ kelu : || akalalyi weskeṃ upādhyāya kuse wesañä\ ta[n]neṃ
a5yamas̝a(·)l[e] (–) brāhmaṇe wes̝s̝aṃ (–) – ksa nai yes\ ñ[ī] (–)t[k]orsa pcīso araṇemiñ lānte uttare ñemtsa [soṃ]śke ste ṣañ śaulameṃ snai wāki [l](·)
a6[rau]ñesa • sū no walo pañäktaṃñe (– –)ṣṣe akālksa po – (– – –) – k cau uttareṃ [m]ñ(–)ṣkeṃ yesaṃññ ais̝s̝aṃ cwī lkāllona [la]klenta ñiśä\ ///
b1r[i] mñcuṣkentse lkātsi ā[y]u : krui ye(–) [ñī] ce akālk(\) k[an](·) (– – – –) [ṅ]k[e] ñśam(··) ś[a]sta[r]ṣṣ(·) yäknesa pruccamñe ya[nma]c(·)r\ || brāhma(–)
b2weskeṃ ma(··)e [wa]tkas̝s̝aṃ upādhyāye (– –) brāhmaṇi : tume(·) [c](ai) brāhmaṇi tot ike postaṃ ynemane a[ra]ṇemiñ lānte yapoyne kameṃ (–)
b3rrine yaiporm[e]ṃ ālyauceś we○skeṃ bho bho • kuse (–) ksa wesañä\ kekamor\ orocce lant\ śa(·)saṣṣi || tane plaktu–ñña brāhma
b4ṇeṃ lyelyakormeṃ kercīye○[nn](·) yopsa śle yärke l[ā]ntaś we[s̝s̝a]ṃ ñakta alyek\ ypoyṣi brāhmaṇi parna [k]lyent[ra] sasweṃ lkātsi ñä
b5skentra • || walo wes̝s̝aṃ ramer ecce pwāyar-me kartse yamiñ cai ñi || ta[n]e brāhmaṇi kerciyeṃne yaipormeṃ poñc\ ṣar koś ceccalorsa ka lānte
b6yarke yamaskeṃ || tane araṇemi walo brā[hma]ṇeṃ [wra]ts[ai] «[tsa]»ṅko[rmeṃ] kaṣṣ[ī]ññe yäknesa asānne ly[ā]mate-me || tumeṃ (–)ññai uppāla

Transcription

(skai-)
a1naman(e)piś uw(eṃ) akalṣälye(ṃ)ścä makā-yäkne (pa)pautarme(ṃ)weṣäṃnmeśc säsūśkaṃ nesäṃ ksa ñī yesäśc añmaṣṣe reki (||) k(a)pilava(r)ṇ(e)
a2brāhmaṇe weṣṣäṃ spantai käṣṣi weṃ || rudramukhe brāhmaṇe weṣṣäṃ || niṣkramāṃne || walo aknātsa su ; märsau ṣañ āñm atsaik ; ñem araṇe-
a3-mi • #1a yāmṣate ñiśś erkatte ; lyautsa-ñ päst ṣañ ypoymeṃ ; wertsaints= enepre • #1b srukor aiśaumyepi ; olypo (·)anoyt{ä}r päst ; kwī-
a4-pe rmoytär : #1c su {t}e ñem walo yāmṣate ñīśś erkatte mäkte teṃ kelu : #1d || akalṣälyi weskeṃ upādhyāya kuse wesäñ tanneṃ
a5yamaṣä(l)le (•) brāhmaṇe weṣṣäṃ (tusā)ksa nai yes ñī (yai)tkorsa pcīso araṇemiñ lānte uttare ñemtsa soṃśke ste ṣañ śaulameṃ snai wāki (la)-
a6-rauñesa no walo pañäktäṃñe (perne)ṣṣe akālksa po (aiṣṣeñca nemce)k cau uttareṃ mñ(cu)ṣkeṃ yesäṃññ aiṣṣäṃ cwī lkāllona läklenta ñiś (utta)-
b1-ri mñcuṣkentse lkātsi āyu : krui ye(s ñī) ce akālk kan(aścer) (ot) ṅke ñśam(eṃ) śastarṣṣ(e) yäknesa pruccamñe yanmac(e)r brāhma(ṇi)
b2weskeṃ mä(kt)e watkäṣṣäṃ upādhyāye (lateṃ) brāhmaṇi : tume(ṃ) c(ai) brāhmaṇi tot ike-postäṃ ynemane araṇemiñ lānte yapoyne kameṃ (tā)
b3rrine yaipormeṃ ālyauceś weskeṃ bho bhokuse (pi) ksa wesäñ kekamor orocce lant śarsäṣṣi || tane plaktu(kä)ñña brāhma-
b4-ṇeṃ lyelyakormeṃ kercīyenn(e) yopsa śle-yärke lāntaś weṣṣäṃ ñakta alyek-ypoyṣi brāhmaṇi parna klyenträ säsweṃ lkātsi ñä-
b5-skenträ • || walo weṣṣäṃ ramer ecce pwāyar-me kärtse-yamiñ cai ñi || tane brāhmaṇi kerciyeṃne yaipormeṃ poñc ṣar koś ceccalorsa ka lānte
b6yarke yamaskeṃ || tane araṇemi walo brāhmaṇeṃ wratsai tsäṅkormeṃ käṣṣīññe yäknesa asānne lyāmate-me || tumeṃ (tse)ññai uppāläṃ ( or uppāl-)

Translation

a1... making (an eff)ort [and] after having flattered the five [most] learned students in many ways, (the Brahmin Rudramukha) speaks to them. “[My] little sons, I have a personal word for you!”
a2The Brahmin Kapilavarṇa speaks: “The teacher may speak trustingly!” The Brahmin Rudramukha speaks: || In [the tune] niṣkramānt || “An ignorant king, who even has forgotten himself, by the name of Araṇemi
a3treated me with contempt. He drove me from his country in front of [his] retinue. Death shall be (accept)ed (?) by a wise one rather than
a4that he yield to this shame! The king thus called treated me with contempt: how shall I bear this?” (1.) The pupils speak: “Master! What is to be done by us
a5in this?” The Brahmin speaks: “Therefore be on your way by my order! The king Araṇemi has a little son named Uttara, that he loves no different than his own
a6life. The king, however, because of his wish for the dignity of a Buddha, is one who (gives) all [and] surely [will] give you the prince Uttara. The sufferings to be experienced [lit. seen] by him
b1I will give the prince Uttara to experience. If you fulfil this my wish, you will receive benefit from me according to the rule.” The Brahmins
b2speak: “As the master commands!” The Brahmins went out. Thereupon these Brahmins, going step by step, came to the land of the king Araṇemi. Having entered (this)
b3town, they speak to one another: “Well now! Well now! Who will announce our arrival to the great king?” Thereupon the [female] door warden,
b4having espied the Brahmins, entered the palace [and] speaks to the king with deference: “[Your] majesty! Foreign Brahmins are standing outside; to see the lord they
b5request.” The king speaks: “Lead them in here quickly! Benefactors these are for me! Thereupon after having entered the palace the Brahmins all show [no more] deference to the king [than] only
b6by lifting [their] hand. Thereupon the king Araṇemi after having risen towards the Brahmins let them sit on the throne in the manner of teachers. Thereupon ... (bl)ue ... (like) lotus ...

Philological commentary

Continues A 343, continued on THT 82 and PK NS 35 a 3ff. The translation basically follows Schmidt KT 2001: 309-10.

a2. The restoration of the tune name to niṣkramāntne is based on the often attested TA form niṣkramāntaṃ "In [the tune] niṣkramānt".

a2-a4. According to Sieg/Siegling, the meter has basically 4 x 17 syllables (6/6/5 or 5/7/5), while pāda 1b has one syllable to many. It is quite clear that it is the first colon to contain the additional syllable, because it is repeated as such in pāda 1d (where the seven syllables are correct) and, what is more, the sandhi-triggered gemination in ñiś proves that the internal ceasura cannot be restored after the pronoun.

a3. Schmidt, l.c., translates: "Er hat mich von [seinem] Gefolge [...] fortgejagt", which is, most likely, a typo for "vor [seinem] Gefolge", since this is the meaning of enepre. Cf. also Carling 2000: 357.

a3-a4. The traditional interpretation of pāda 1c is based on the restoration and correction (ri)toyt(a)r by Sieg/Siegling. Accordingly, Thomas 1957: 181 translates: "Von einem Weisen dürfte eher der Tod gesucht werden, [als] daß ihm die Ehre genommen würde [wörtl. daß die Scham fortgebeugt würde]." Differently, Schmidt KT 2001: 310, fn. 42 doubts the restoration of the verbal form and reads [n](a)noyt(ä)r. A 2sg. indeed does not make any syntactical sense, and it has to be accepted that the copyist mistook a 〈ta〉 of the original for 〈ta〉 (the signs are somewhat similar as second part of an akṣara). As for the beginning of the verbal form, one would indeed expect to see some traces of an akṣara 〈ri〉 around the lacuna, and the rather small akṣara 〈na〉, as proposed by Schmidt, would certainly fit. Since there is no trace of an upper vowel sign, 〈a〉 does indeed seem to be the best reading. It is also true that the following akṣara is a 〈na〉 rather than a 〈ta〉. However, although nānā- (Gv.) is so far the only known verb forming a Sub V and ending in -n, Schmidt's interpretation is, in my opinion, not really convincing with respect to semantics, because the (intransitive) verb means "to appear" (not passive "hingenommen werden = "to be accepted", as Schmidt translates). The genitive aiśaumyepi is most certainly the agens of a passive construction, which means that the underlying verbal form has to be a passive and not an intransitive. So far, no root that fits all these requirements is known. A similar problem occurs with the second verbal form rmoytär, which is also intransitive and not passive (pace Thomas in TochSprR(B)2: 236). Furthermore, pace Thomas in TochSprR(B)2: 236, päst (most likely with intensifying function) for syntactical reasons belongs to the first verbal form and not to rmoytär.

a5. Sieg/Siegling read ñī yaitkorsa, but the original seems to be more damaged now. Only a part of the ī and 〈ya〉 is still visible, the ai is missing.

b1. It is certain that kan(·) is a transitive 2pl. (most likely subjunctive) form of the root kän- itr. "to come about", tr. "to fulfill"; Sieg/Siegling proposed to restore to kan(aścer), which subsequently has entered the handbooks as a 2pl. Prs IXb form (see Krause and Thomas, TEB II: 181 s.v. kän-). This view was challenged with good reasons by Hackstein 1995: 235f. (followed by Malzahn 2010: 568-570), who proposed as alternative a 2pl. transitive Sub I kan(tär) based on the reading by K. T. Schmidt (p.c.). However, a close look at the original manuscript shows that the preserved remains of the second stroke of the akṣara in question can only belong to a 〈na〉 and not to the upper part of a 〈ta〉 or even 〈ta〉. Consequently, Sieg/Siegling's restoration is indeed the only philologically possible one; since the kausativium stem of kän- now in addition does show traces of A-character (see Malzahn 2010: 568-570), a 2pl. Prs IXb kan(aścer) = /känāścer/ with accent on the root is also morphologically supported. The further restoration by Sieg/Siegling to (ot) ṅke is supported by THT 78 a 3.

b5-b6. The text is parallel to PK NS 35 a 1-a 2.

b6. The expression (tse)ññai uppāläṃ is proplematic from a semantic and morphological point of view: Usually, one does not construct uppāl "lotus" with the adjective "blue" in a pleonastic fashion; the normal construction is "something is blue like lotus"; second, (tse)ññai (or any other adjective in -ññe) is an obl. fem. singular, while uppāl is most likely an alternant (to be honest, only the plural uppalänta is certainly a feminine, but a plural in -nta should be an alternant). In any case, if the form referred to the eyes, we would expect a plural or dual. Therefore, one can either assume a gen.sg. uppāläṃ(ntse), or, more likely, the dot here marks virama and not anusvara (as, e.g., in line b 3). In that case one might consider an expression (tse)ññai uppāl(-yokäṃ) "the blue, lotus-colored xy (= fem.sg.)". A fitting feminine word would be āśce "head"; one may speculate that Araṇemi by bowing his head, the hair of which was blue-colored, made a further gesture of respect towards the Brahmins. This would also fill the missing number of at least 10 akṣaras before the text starts again in PK NS 35 a 3. See the commentary on PK NS 35: a 3.

References

IDP: THT 81, TITUS: THT 81
Edition: TochSprR(B) II: 19-20
Complete translation: Couvreur 1954c: 100-101, Schmidt KT 2001: 309-310
Translation: a1 Thomas 1958a: 145, Thomas 1995: 64; a2 Krause, WTG: 31, Thomas 1981: 491, TochSprR(B)2: 236; Peyrot 2013: 296; a2-4 Thomas 1957: 181; a2f Thomas 1967a: 60; a2ff Schmidt KT 1974: 464; a3 Carling 2000: 357, Hackstein 1995: 243, Krause, WTG: 204, Thomas 1993: 196, TochSprR(B)2: 236; a3-4 Thomas 1977b: 171; Schmidt KT 1974: 254, 304; a4 Krause, WTG: 38, Thomas 1967a: 76; Peyrot 2013: 302; a5 Thomas 1952: 20, Thomas 1967a: 64, TochSprR(B)2: 236; Peyrot 2013: 352; a5-6 Krause and Thomas, TEB II: 50; a6 Thomas 1952: 27, TochSprR(B)2: 237; Peyrot 2013: 304; a6-b1 Thomas 1954: 725; Peyrot 2013: 299; b1 Hackstein 1995: 235f; Peyrot 2013: 671; b1-3 Thomas 1957: 90; b2 Carling 2000: 101, 330, Thomas 1968: 227, Thomas 1983: 31; b2-3 Schmidt KT 1974: 321; b3 Carling 2000: 161; b3-4 Thomas 1957: 90, Thomas 1979b: 7; b4 Carling 2000: 153, Thomas 1954: 719, Thomas 1979d: 151; b4f Schmidt KT 1974: 271; b4f=PK NS 35a1 Thomas 1993: 161; b5 Carling 2000: 138, Carling 2000: 153, Krause, WTG: 47, Schmidt KT 1974: 387, 392 n.5, Thomas 1960a: 197, Thomas 1981: 487, Thomas 1990: 30; b5-6 Krause, WTG: 37; b5f Thomas 1957: 90, Thomas 1979b: 7, Thomas 1983: 28, Thomas 1997: 89; b5f=PK NS 35a2 Thomas 1993: 161; b6 Carling 2000: 171, Thomas 1957: 90, Thomas 1979b: 7, Thomas 1988: 252.

Editor

Melanie Malzahn

Date of publication: ...

Bibliography

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Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien. TITUS. Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection. Transcriptions prepared by Christiane Schaefer, transliterations by Tatsushi Tamai and transliterations by Katharina Kupfer. Edited by Jost Gippert, Katharina Kupfer, and Tatsushi Tamai, Frankfurt am Main, 2000-2007; at: http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/texte/tocharic/thtframe.htm

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TochSprR(B) II: Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, hg. v. †E. Sieg und †W. Siegling, Heft 2. Fragmente Nr. 71-633, aus dem Nachlaß hg. v. Werner Thomas, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1953.

TochSprR(B)2

Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B. Teil I: Die Texte. Band 1. Fragmente Nr. 1-116 der Berliner Sammlung, hg. v. †Emil Sieg und †Wilhelm Siegling, neubearbeitet und mit einem Kommentar nebst Register versehen v. Werner Thomas, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1983.

http://www.univie.ac.at/tocharian/?THT 81
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