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THT 93

Other press marks:B 93


Main find spot:Šorčuq
Expedition code:T III Š 79.29
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:Classical
Add. linguistic characteristics:With late forms

Text contents

Title of the work:Araṇemijātaka
Parallel texts:IOL Toch 69, PK NS 36 and 20
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna


Manuscript:Araṇemi α
Leaf number:44
Preceding fragment:THT 92
Following fragment:THT 94
Material:Ink on paper
Number of lines:6
Remarks:The original manuscript is missing.


THT 93

Images loaded from through by courtesy of IDP Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


(continues from THT 92)

a1lke pilko śeśśamorm[e]ṃ weṣṣann(·)śca nemcek twe [k]uṣattarye nestä\ taisa ksa ṣotruna lk[ā] ///
a2ñña nesaṃ || śle sklok\ candramukhe walo wes̝s̝aṃ auspa sasweṃntse araṇemiñ lānte twe ///
a3mā wes̝s̝aṃ kca || nano candramukhe walo wes̝s̝aṃ auspa poñä\ mapi twe ///
a4ñ añmampa k[a] wes̝s̝amakte ñake tākaṃ mā ñi pele ste waike weṃtsi ///
a5nesau || te keklyauṣormeṃ candramukhe walo ṣecakecce asāṃmeṃ ñor klāya ara ///
a6kuse te takacä\ || tumeṃ wes̝s̝aṃ || devadattenne || ket śāmñe śaiṣṣe aiwau poykne ///
b1tsi āñme nraiṣana to laklenta su ci klāte ñyātsene : kuse nai [ṅ]k(e) [p](·) su aknā ///
b2pokseñ nai saswa ṣarm\ cwi wäntrentse kuse ksa allek tañä\ eṅsate yapoyä\ śak ko ///
b3ly ñi śaśayu : sanaṃ sasweṃtse lakau krui yneśo : tārko eṅkal\ ///
b4saskau keṃtsa tsainwāṣṣai l(·)ñsa kalymiṃ prutkaskau : srukos̝s̝aṃts a ///
b5ylaiñäkte ram no lare yok sasweṃ : tallāw ram no śem ñi ypoyne se ñkek\ lnaskau śle ///
b6śconiye mā su ksa nesaṃ ce śaiṣṣene kuse ñiś maiyyasa cämpalle ṣai ceṃ erkatñe ///

(continues on THT 94)


(continues from THT 92)

a1lke pilko śeśśamormeṃ weṣṣann(e)śca nemcek twe kuṣattarye nest taisa ksa ṣotruna lkā(ntär-c) /// (ścmo)-
a2-ñña nesäṃ || śle sklok candramukhe walo weṣṣäṃ auspa säsweṃntse araṇemiñ lānte twe ///
a3 weṣṣäṃ kca || nano candramukhe walo weṣṣäṃ auspa poñ mapi twe (nest tane araṇemi walo walke pälskontasa ṣa)-
a4 añmämpa ka weṣṣäṃ mäkte ñake tākaṃ ñi pele ste waike weṃtsi (tumeṃ candramukheṃ lāntäśc weṣṣäṃ oroccu walo se ñiś araṇemiwalo)
a5nesau || te keklyauṣormeṃ candramukhe walo ṣecakecce asāṃmeṃ ñor klāya ara(ṇemiñ lānte paine yäksau pälwāmane weṣṣäṃ ñäkte-yok saswa)
a6kuse te taka-c || tumeṃ weṣṣäṃ || devadattenne || ket śāmñe śaiṣṣe aiwau po-ykne(sa /// (– – – – – –) naktsy āñme kete wat no (lkā)-
b1-tsi āñme nraiṣana to(ṃ) läklenta su ci klāte ñyātsene : kuse nai ṅk(e) p(i) su aknā(tsa śaumo) ///
b2pokse-ñ nai saswa ṣarm cwi wäntrentse kuse ksa allek tañ eṅsate yapoy śak ko(ṭanma retke ñi ste /// (śau)-
b3-ly ñi śaśayu : sanaṃ sasweṃtse lakau krui yneśo : tārko eṅkäl /// (swese – – – swā)-
b4-säskau keṃtsa tsainwāṣṣai l(ā)ñsa kälymiṃ prutkaskau : srukoṣṣäṃts a- /// (ānte yke-postäṃ yāmmar pāke tentse ñiś :)
b5ylaiñäkte ram no lare-yok sasweṃ : tallāw ram no śem ñi ypoyne se ñkek lnaskau śle (lakle) /// (akañc)
b6śconiye su ksa nesäṃ ce śaiṣṣene kuse ñiś maiyyasa cämpalle ṣai ceṃ erkatñe(ne kalatsi) ///

(continues on THT 94)


(continues from THT 92)

a1After (King Candramukha) had been gazing (lo)ng [at Araṇemi] he speaks to him: “Surely you are a Kṣatriya: Such features show (themselves on you) ...
a2is the (pl)ace (of all virtues (?)). Doubting, king Candramukha speaks: “Indeed, you (are a Kṣatriya (?)) of the lord, of the king Araṇemi.” ... (Araṇemi) [however]
a3says nothing. Again king Candramukha speaks: “Indeed, speak! [It] (is) you after all?” (Thereupon king Araṇemi after pondering for a long time)
a4speaks to himself: “How shall this become now? It is not my principle to tell a lie.” (Thereupon he speaks to king Candramukha: “O great king, I am the king)
a5Araṇemi.” When he had heard this, king Candramukha fell down from [his] lion-throne, (grasped the feet of king Araṇemi and wailing speaks: “O divine lord,)
a6what has befallen you?” Thereupon he speaks: || In [the tune] devadatte || “To you, to whom mankind [was] devoted (in) any way ...
b1one (whose) wish [it is] to ruin you, or whose wish [it is] to make [you] see the torments of hell, has brought you in this misery. Who indeed was this ignor(ant man)? ... [1.]
b2Do tell me indeed, o lord, the reason for this matter! What other one has taken hold of your land? An (army) of ten my(riads is at my disposal ...)
b3the (lif)e lived by me. When I see the enemy of the lord face to face I will release [my] passion ... [2.] (A rain of ... I will)
b4let rain over the earth [and] with a flood of missiles I will fill all directions of the world. With dead [people] ... (the surface [of the earth?] will be filled?, step by step. In this I will take part.)
b5Like Indra, the lord [is] looking lovely; but as a miserable one he came into my country, as such a one I leave [it] now, full of (suffering).” [3.] ...
b6[Araṇemi:] "(After all,) in this world there is no such hate that by [its] strength would be able (to bring) me (into) this anger.”

(continues on THT 94)

Philological commentary

The restorations are based on the parallel texts, the translation is based on Schmidt KT 2001: 323-6. According to Sieg/Siegling in TochSprR(B) II, the metric passage has a meter of 20|22|10|15 syllables with the rhythm a=5/5/5/5, b=8/7/7, c=5/5, and d=8/7.

b2. For the correct restoration see now the parallel text PK NS 36 and 20 a 5.

Linguistic commentary

The text shows some inaccurate or colloquial spellings:

a6. taka-c for takā-c; śaśayu for śaśāyu in b3; sasweṃtse for säsweṃtse in b3, likewise sasweṃ for säsweṃ in b6. While these forms are most likely mere misspellings, the next ones show some signs of colloquial TB (although one may speculate about a shift of accent in the two forms of saswe, which has an irregular paradigm in standard TB):

nraiṣana in b1 shows degemination of ṣṣ, while the preterite participle srukoṣṣäṃts in b4 has a wrong geminate.

One interesting feature is the palatal 〈ly〉 in śaul in front of following palatal ñi in b3.

tārko for tārkau in b3 seems to show monophthongization.

a3. Note that the parallel PK NS 36 and 20 a 1 differs slightly by having tane instead of nano at the beginning of the sentence and, more interestingly, the imperative pokse "tell me!" instead of poñ "speak!".

b3. Note that the parallel PK NS 36 and 20 b 1 has kwri yneśne instead of krui yneśo, which is a more archaic version.


Edition: TochSprR(B) II: 30-31.
Complete translation: Couvreur 1955: 111, Schmidt KT 2001: 323, 325.
Translation: a3 TochSprR(B)2: 246; Peyrot, ToSu: 364; a3=PK NS 36+20a1 Thomas 1993: 184; a4 Thomas 1954: 735; Peyrot, ToSu: 302; a5 Thomas 1965: 199; a5=PK NS 36+20a3 Thomas 1993: 183; a6 Thomas 1957: 241, 270, TochSprR(B)2: 246; b1 Carling 2000: 240, Schmidt KT 1974: 393, Thomas 1983: 32; Peyrot, ToSu: 353; b2 Schmidt KT 1974: 396, Thomas 1957: 241, Thomas 1988: 258, TochSprR(B)2: 247; b2=PK NS 36+20a5 Thomas 1993: 167; b3 Thomas 1957: 266, Thomas 1993: 191; Peyrot, ToSu: 670; b4 Peyrot, ToSu: 670; b4=PK NS 36+20b1 Thomas 1993: 167; b5 Hackstein 1995: 307, Thomas 1968: 202, Thomas 1979b: 54; b5=PK NS 36+20b2 Thomas 1993: 168; b6 Krause, WTG: 54, Thomas 1952: 46, Thomas 1993: 183; Peyrot, ToSu: 340.


Melanie Malzahn


Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd (2000) Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Couvreur 1955

Couvreur, Walter (1955) Nieuwe Koetsjische fragmenten van de Bibliothèque Nationale te Parijs. In Handelingen van het Eenentwintigste Vlaams Filologencongres. Leuven, 110-116.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav (1995) Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (HS Erg.-Heft 38).


The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.

Krause, WTG

Krause, Wolfgang (1952) Westtocharische Grammatik, Band I. Das Verbum. Heidelberg: Winter.

Peyrot, ToSu

Peyrot, Michaël (2013) The Tocharian subjunctive, A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Leiden/Boston: Brill (Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics 8).

Schmidt KT 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. (1974) Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. Göttingen.

Schmidt KT 2001

Schmidt, Klaus T. (2001) Die westtocharische Version des Araṇemi-Jātakas in deutscher Übersetzung. In Bazin, Louis, and Peter Zieme, eds., De Dunhuang à Istanbul. Hommage à James Russell Hamilton. Turnhout: Brepols (Silk Road Studies 5), 299-327.

Thomas 1952

Thomas, Werner (1952) Die tocharischen Verbaladjektive auf -l. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag (Deutsche Akad. der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Institut für Orientforschung 9).

Thomas 1954

Thomas, Werner (1954) Die Infinitive im Tocharischen. In Schubert, Johannes, and Ulrich Schneider, eds., Asiatica. Festschrift Friedrich Weller. Zum 65. Geburtstag, gewidmet von seinen Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern. Leipzig: Harrassowitz, 701-764.

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner (1957) Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1965

Thomas, Werner (1965) Das Fragment M 500, 4/5 der Sammlung Pelliot. Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 79, 192-202.

Thomas 1968

Thomas, Werner (1968) Zur Verwendung von toch. A oki/B ramt und A mäṃtne/B mäkte in Vergleichen. Orbis 17, 198-231.

Thomas 1979b

Thomas, Werner (1979) Formale Besonderheiten in metrischen Texten des Tocharischen: Zur Verteilung von B tane/tne 'hier' und B ñake/ñke 'jetzt'. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur (Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 1979, 15).

Thomas 1983

Thomas, Werner (1983) Der tocharische Obliquus im Sinne eines Akkusativs der Richtung. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur (Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 1983, 6 1983, 6).

Thomas 1988

Thomas, Werner (1988) Toch. AB säm-/läm- ‘sitzen’ in transitivem Gebrauch. Central Asiatic Journal 32, 244-259.

Thomas 1993

Thomas, Werner (1993) Parallele Texte im Tocharischen und ihre Bewertung. Stuttgart: Steiner (SbWGF XXX, 5).


Gippert, Jost, and Katharina Kupfer, and Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection. Frankfurt am Main.

TochSprR(B) II

Sieg, †E., and †W. Siegling (1953) TochSprR(B) II: Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 2. Fragmente Nr. 71-633. aus dem Nachlaß hg. v. Werner Thomas, Thomas, Werner, ed. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.


Sieg, †Emil, and †Wilhelm Siegling|Werner;Thomas (1983) Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B. Teil I: Die Texte. Band 1. Fragmente Nr. 1-116 der Berliner Sammlung. neubearbeitet und mit einem Kommentar nebst Register versehen v. Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 93
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