Exposure of humans to uranium presents both chemical and radiological hazards. The current discussion in Germany and the EU on maximum uranium levels in drinking water illustrates the increasing awareness of uranium as a public health problem. Uranium is released to the environment from various sources. It has been released by anthropogenic activities such as fertilizer processing and use, nuclear weapons manufacturing during the Cold War, mining and milling of uranium ores, the testing and use of depleted uranium ammunition and tank shields. Such anthropogenic uranium releases can result in high contamination levels on a local scale. However, uranium is also present naturally in waters and soils due to elevated uranium concentrations in the source rocks and/or due to accumulation of uranium in redox fronts. These natural uranium sources can cause elevated uranium levels in natural waters or soils on regional scales, posing problems, e.g., for water suppliers depending on maximum uranium levels permitted in drinking water. Thus, uranium contamination is a salient issue in many countries across the globe.