General Aguinaldo or General Tinio?

Source critic to "The First Philippine Republic at Malolos"

Rene N. Sumodobila, Executive Director of PAWCI informed me recently, that the man in the center of this picture is General Tinio not General Aguinaldo. He wrote:

"Exactly the same photo appears in the book of Orlino A. Ochosa titled the 'Tinio Birgade', ..., which has a caption 'Amnesty awaited Generals Tinio and Natividad (center) and their 23 remaining officers after they surrendered to Gen. Bell at Sinait.' ... "

The same is the case with this picture.
Additional information can be found on PAWCIs Website:

See also:
Orlino A. Ochosa (1989): The Tinio Brigade: Anti-American Resistance in the Ilocos Provinces 1899-1901.
New Day Publishers
Christian Literature Society of the Philippines, Inc.
11 Lands St.
P.O. Box 1167, Quezon city, Philippines 1100

The two pictures were published on pages 773 and 771 in:
Our Islands and Their People as Seen with Camera and Pencil. Introduced by Major-General Joseph Wheeler with special descriptive matter and narratives by José de Olivares. New York and Chicago, 1899.

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created: March 4, 1999
updated: March 6, 1999
APSIS Editor Johann Stockinger