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  1. Kognition und Radikaler Konstruktivismus In: Artur P. Schmidt ENDO-Management - Entrepreneurship im Interface des World Wide Web - Release 3.0 Verlag Paul Haupt: Bern Stuttgart Wien de 12 Dec 2003
  2. Allefeld, Carsten (1997) Radikaler Konstruktivismus Unpublished manuscript. [PDF] de 16 Jun 1999
  3. Andemicael, Adhanom Time in a quantum and relativistic universe: A new perspective on the relation between subjective time and physical reality Presented at the conference, Tucson III en 23 Aug 1999

    argues that subjective experience is the only context within which reality can possibly exist. The article was debated on Quantum-Mind during the months of September through November, 1998; and more recently, it has been discussed on JCS-Online during the "Solipsism Virtualized" thread. It describes the role of subject experience in defining reality.

  4. Anderson, J. R., Reder, L. M., & Simon, H. A. (1998) Radical Constructivism and Cognitive Psychology In Ravitch, D. (ed.) Brookings Papers on Education Policy: 1998. Washington, D.C. Brookings Institution, pp. 227-255.  en 24 Jun 2000
  5. Beer, S. (1980) Preface to: Autopoiesis: The organization of the living In: Maturana, Humberto R. & Varela, Francisco J. (1980) Autopoiesis and Cognition, pp. 63-72. Online version edited by John Hicks en 07 May 1998
  6. Benking, H. & Rose, J. N. (1998) A House of Horizons and Perspectives. A cognitive deep openspace for positioning, comparing, merging and morphing our metaphors, models, maps and views ISSS and ISIS, “The Compatibility of Social Systems”, Atlanta July 19-24, 1998 en 7 Jan 1999

    This paper invites the exploration of common frames of reference, defined as both symbolic and real spaces. Because different world views and mental models co-exist, we rely on the a priori that literal and figurative views are accessible with each other by transformations between different topologies of shared mutual aspects. Such imagery matches real utile human capacities, where mental manipulations and exercises are best understood using real dynamic physical analogs. We focus particularly on the social form “house” because it incorporates “visual reference spaces” and natural physical/biological/social analogs. Combining them allows us to architecture a “house of eyes”, thereby communicating the pragmatism that consensus and agreed actions are attainable when for example first grounded in the format of a shared “home” or social living-place.

  7. Benking, Heiner (2001) Spacial versus spatial (trilogy) KnowMap magazine 8/2001 de 06 Sep 2001

    Mapping known and unknown in constructed insight scaffoldings to help share persceptions and how to witch between models/metaphors/paradigm in a meta-pardigm (3Space/Time Cognitive Panorama)

  8. Berislav Zarnic (2001) Learning to learn: An epistemological paradox in education Synthesis Philosophica 16 (2):355-362. en 20 May 2002

    Examining knowledge-process shows that upgrading the relevance of knowledge requires a constructive step that cannot be decomposed into an algorithm. The antinomy arises: it is philosophically sound to choose the development of the learning ability as the central goal of intellectual education, and there is no effective procedure for achieving this goal.

  9. Bertalanffy, Ludwig von (1975) Vaihinger’s Als-Ob: The Role of Fiction in Science Chapter 4 in: Perspectives on General System Theory Scientific-Philosophical Studies, edited by Edgar Taschdjian. George Braziller New York. en 29 Apr 2003
  10. Blumstengel, Astrid (1998) Konstruktivismus Chapter in: Entwicklung hypermedialer Lernsysteme. Dissertation. Wissenschaftlichen Verlag Berlin Erkenntnistheoretische Grundposition & Relevanz für Lehren und Lernen de 28 Mar 2002

    Discusses constructivism and its influence on education

  11. Boden, Margaret A. (2000) Autopoiesis and Life Cognitive Science Quarterly 1, 117-145 (PDF version) en 17 May 2000

    Life is defined by Maturana and Varela as a type of self-organization: autopoiesis in the physical space. This resembles the concept of metabolism, which itself is typically included in definitions of life. Three senses of metabolism are distinguished. If life depends on either autopoiesis or metabolism (in the third sense), then strong A-Life is impossible. The theory of autopoiesis challenges concepts familiar in biology and cognitive science. While its use of informational language is too restrictive, its use of cognitive language is too liberal: life does not imply cognition.

  12. Bodner, G. M., Klobuchar, M., and Geelan, D. (2001) The many forms of constructivism Journal of Chemical Education 78(8) en 15 Jul 2000
  13. Boeree, C. George (1991) Causes and Reasons: The Mechanics of Anticipation Unpublished manuscript, based on Master’s Thesis, Oklahoma State University, 1979. en 03 Jul 1999

    The concept of anticipation shows considerable potential for unifying the causal and teleological aspects of psychology. As a step towards exploring that potential, this paper presents a network model of cognition based on stratificational linguistics theory, including “feedforward” features that provide a likely mechanism for anticipation. Speculations on how the model might lead to a broader understanding of the mind’s structure are included.

  14. Boeree, C. George (1998) Perspectives Theory Unpublished manuscript. en 03 Jul 1999
  15. Boeree, C. George (1998) Seven Perspectives Unpublished manuscript. en 03 Jul 1999
  16. Botella, Luis, Sara Figueras, Olga Herrero and Meritxell Pacheco (1997) Qualitative Analysis of Self-Narratives: A Constructivist Approach to the Storied Nature of Identity Workshop presented at the XIIth International Congress on Personal Construct Psychology. July 9-12, 1997, Seattle, Washington, USA. en 15 Jul 2000

    Outline of the theoretical connection between human psychological processes, meaning making, narrative, and identity from a constructivist position, and its application.

  17. Botella, Luis Constructivism and narrative psychology Unpublished document at the department of Psychology, Ramon Llull University (Barcelona, Spain) en 15 Jul 2000

    While constructivism, and particularly PCP, adopts the metaphor of knowledge as a personal theory, narrative psychology uses the metaphor of knowledge as a personal narrative. The aim of this work will be to elucidate to what extent these two metaphors are compatible or reflect a different understanding of human psychological processes – and, particularly, of self-identity construction processes.

  18. Botella, Luis Personal Construct Psychology, Constructivism, and Postmodern Thought Unpublished document at the department of Psychology, Ramon Llull University (Barcelona, Spain) en 15 Jul 2000

    This paper contributes to the ongoing debate concerning the attempt to subsume Kelly’s theory under the notion of constructivism and, at a more superordinate level, to relate constructivism to the notion of postmodern thought.

  19. Botella, Luis Personal construct psychology in a changing europe: from the matrix of decision to multiphrenic identity Opening Address presented at the Third Biennial Conference of the European Personal Construct Association, Reading, UK, April 1996 en 15 Jul 2000
  20. Botella, Luis Personal Construct Psychology, Constructivism, and Psychotherapy Research Plenary talk presented at the XIIIth International Congress on Personal Construct Psychology. Berlin, Germany, July 1999. en 15 Jul 2000
  21. Boudourides, Moses A. (1998) Constructivism and education: A shopper’s guide Contributed Paper at the International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematics Samos, Greece, July 3-6, 1998 en 25 Jun 2000

    Overview article which distinguishes cybernetic, educational, philosophical, psychological, radical, and social constructivism.

  22. Brandl, W. (1997) Lernen als “konstruktiver” Prozess: Trugbild oder Wirklichkeit? Aktualisierte Fassung eines Artikels, der in schulmagazin 5 bis 10, Heft 5/1997 erschienen ist de 04 Dec 1997
  23. Brockman, John (1995) Francisco Varela – The Emergent Self Chapter 12 in: The Third Culture: Beyond the Scientific Revolution. Simon & Schuster. en 28 Mar 2002

    Discusses the ideas of Varela. Includes commentaries by Stuart Kauffman, W. Daniel Hillis, Christopher G, Langton, Daniel C.Dennett, Niles Eldredge, Brian Goodwin, and Lynn Margulis.

  24. Bubenhofer, Noah (1999) Kreative Konstruktion Schriftliche und erweiterte Fassung eines Referates, gehalten am 1. Dezember 1999 anlässlich des Seminars “Einführung in die Kommunikationssoziologie” von Dr. Claus-Heinrich Daub, Universität Basel Einführung in den Konstruktivismus de 29 Apr 2003
  25. Bubenhofer, Noah (2001) Sprachliche Konstruktion der Wirklichkeit Universität Basel Die linguistische Relativitätstheorie im konstruktivistischen und systemtheoretischen Licht de 29 Apr 2003
  26. Burbules, Nicholas C. (2000) Constructivism: Moving Beyond the Impasse In: D. C. Phillips (ed.) Constructivism in Education. University of Chicago Press en 22 Mar 2002

    Examines the philosophical and pedagogical merits of constructivismand the reasons why there is so such a passionate disbute between constructivists and its opponents going on.

  27. Bänsch, Alexandra (1997) Wie hältst du’s mit der Wirklichkeit? Kleine Einübung in die konstruktivistischen Diskussionen [What is your attitude towards reality? A short introduction to constructivist discussions] Working papers “Gemeinschaften” of the Swedish-German research project “Den kulturella konstruktionen av gemenskaper i moderniseringsprocessen: Sverige och Tyskland i jämförelse / Die kulturelle Konstruktion von Gemeinschaften im Modernisierungsprozeß: Schweden und Deutschland”, Number 8, ISBN 3-932406-09-5. de 14 Feb 2001

    Starting from the observation that constructivism despite its contra-intuitive point of view gains in public interest, the paper presents a (critical) overview and comparison of methodological constructivism, constructive realism, and radical constructivism.

  28. Bühl, Walter L. (2000) Luhmanns Flucht in die Paradoxie In: P.-U. Merz-Benz & G. Wagner (eds.) Die Logik der Systeme: Zur Kitik der systemtheoretischen Systemtheorie von Niklas Luhmann. Universitätsverlag Konstanz, pp. 225–256. de 02 Jan 2004

    Argues that Luhmann profoundly re-interpreted the scientific concepts of other authors in order to use them for his own work.

  29. Bühl, Walter L. Grenzen der Autopoiesis Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 39: 225–254. de 02 Jan 2004

    Discusses the application of Maturana and Varela’s concept of autopoiesis to sociology and its limitations.

  30. Capurro, Rafael (1990) Zur philosophischen Dekonstruktion des radikalen Konstruktivismus In: Bernd Hellingrath, Johannes Joemann, Georg Reichwein, Alfred Ultsch (eds.) Reader zur Ringvorlesung Radikaler Konstruktivismus. Forschungsbericht Nr. 288, Universität Dortmund. de 02 Feb 2005
  31. Chaput, Harold Henry & Cohen, Leslie M. (2001) PA Model of Infant Causal Perception and its Development Proceedings of the 2001 Cognitive Science Society Meeting (in press). en 10 Jan 2002

    The paper presents a computational model of causal knowledge acquisition built using the Constructivist Learning Architecture, a hierarchical self-organizing system. from such young infants, were the product of an innate “causal module”.

  32. Chaput, Harold Henry (2001) Post-Piagetian Constructivism for Grounded Knowledge Acquisition Proceedings of the AAAI Spring Symposium on Grounded Knowledge, Spring 2001, Palo Alto, CA. en 10 Jan 2002
  33. Chiari, Gabriele & Nuzzo, M. Laura (1987) Constructs and trinities: Kelly and Varela on complementarity and knowledge Presented at the Seventh International Congress on Personal Construct Psychology, Memphis, TN, August 5th-9th, 1987. en 03 Jul 1999

    The paper is aimed at showing similarities and differences between the views of complementarity in relation to the creation and structure of cognitive systems held by George A. Kelly and Francisco J. Varela, both of them sharing a constructivist metatheory. Though operating in different times and in different fields (psychology and biology), their notions of construct and trinity, respectively, represent a similar departure from classical logic and dialectics, and lead to similar implications as to the problem of knowledge and the hierarchical structure of cognitive systems. Even if, because of their different views on the dependence/independence of reality from the observer’s act of construing, Kelly’s constructivism can be considered as trivial and Varela’s constructivism as radical, the triviality of the former is questioned.

  34. Chronaki, Anna Constructivism as an ‘energiser for thinking’! Chreods 11 09 Jun 1999

    This paper aims to re-examine recent criticism on radical constructivism as an inadequate research framework for discussing learning and teaching. A number of questions are raised in an attempt to focus attention not on the theory itself but on what the theory may imply for the learner’s rights. Finally it is suggested that even though the theory cannot provide clear cut answers to issues related to learning as a contextualised practice in a social and political setting, it still challenges research theorising and contributes to an educational discourse.

  35. Cobb, Tom (1999) Applying constructivism: A test for the learner as scientist Educational Technology Research & Development 47 (3): 15-31. en 24 Jun 2000

    Constructivist learning theory predicts that knowledge encoded from data by learners themselves will be more flexible, transferable, and useful than knowledge encoded for them by experts and transmitted to them by an instructor or other delivery agent. This study attempts to establish conditions in which the prediction can be operationalized and tested. It reports on the adaptation of constructivist principles to instructional design in a particular domain, second language vocabulary acquisition.

  36. Cobern, W. W. (1996) Constructivism And Non-Western Science Education Research Education Research. International Journal of Science Education, 4(3): 287-302. en 25 Jun 2000

    The author argue that science education research and curriculum development efforts in Non-western countries can benefit by adopting a constructivist view of science and science learning. Constructivism leads one to expect that students in different cultures will have somewhat different perspectives on science. Japanese elementary science education based on the Japanese traditional love of nature is a good example.

  37. Conceição-Runlee, Simone and Daley, Barbara J. (1998) Constructivist Learning Theory to Web-Based Course Design: An Instructional Design Approach Presented at the 17th Annual Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, October 8-10, 1998 18 Jun 1999

    The paper outlines constructivist learning theory as an approach to fostering web-based course development. A constructivist approach allows both learners and facilitators to take advantage of the World Wide Web, because the theory focuses on making connections and making meaning in the learning process. Web-based courses that are designed with a constructivist approach encourage the learners to navigate, create, and construct their unique knowledge base.

  38. Cull, J. In Search of the Mind Unpublished manuscript. en 07 May 1998

    Over the centuries we have had a paradigm of thinking that the mind is in the head. That the mind exists somewhere in the brain and that it processes and stores information. On a closer inspection of the brain you would find that the entity we call “mind” is not actually there, but is used as a metaphor for the process of thinking. A metaphor is a description of something that we want to explain that exists in our experience; thus a metaphor is not an explanation. To propose that the mind or the process of thinking exists in the head or brain is only descriptive and is misleading in several ways.

  39. Dennett, D. C. (1993) Review of F. Varela, E. Thompson and E. Rosch, The Embodied Mind American Journal of Psychology, 106:121-126 en 04 Dec 1997
  40. Diettrich, Olaf (2001) A Physical Approach to the Construction of Cognition and to Cognitive Evolution Foundation of Science, special issue “The Impact of Radical Constructivism on Science”, vol. 6, no. 4: 273-341. [More about this journal issue] en 18 Dec 2001

    It is shown that the method of operational definition of theoretical terms applied in physics may well support constructivist ideas in cognitive sciences when extended to observational terms. This leads to unexpected results for the notion of reality, induction and for the problem why mathematics is so successful in physics. A theory of cognitive operators is proposed which are implemented somewhere in our brain and which transform certain states of our sensory apparatus into what we call perceptions in the same sense as measurement devices transform the interaction with the object into measurement results. Reality in so far it is represented by the laws of nature has no longer an independent ontological status. Finally, it is shown that there holds an incompleteness theorem for physical laws similar to Gödels incompleteness theorem for mathematical axioms, i.e., there is no definitive or object ‘theory of everything’.

  41. Dimitrov, Vladimir & Dimitrov, Judith Bihl (1994) Fuzzy Logic: A Key to Shared Wisdom In: Fell, L. Russell, D. & Stewart, A. (eds.) Seized by Agreement, Swamped by Understanding. Hawkesbury Printing, Univ. of Western Sydney. 21 Jun 1999

    Human beings are ‘at root’ irrational (Williams 1988) - the hidden power of their illogical intuition challenges constantly the constraints and ‘norms’ of rationality. Any discovery, before it happens, always seems irrational - it challenges and contradicts rationality. After it happens, rationality adopts it immediately - it becomes part of a new rational explanation.

  42. Dimitrov, Vladimir & Ebsary, Robert (2000) Intrapersonal Autopoiesis Portugese version appeared as: Dimitrov, V. and Ebsary, R. (2000) A Busca de Identidade. Thot 74: 51-60. en 04 Mar 2001

    ”Intrapersonal autopoiesis” refers to the reproduction and evolution of the individual self in a vital coupling with its environment. Thus, the concept represents an application of the original concept of autopoiesis, introduced by Maturana and Varela in biology and by Luhmann in social systems, to the individual self, its realization and evolution.

  43. Dimitrov, Vladimir & Fell, Lloyd (2000) Autopoiesis in Organizations Unpublished manuscript. en 04 Mar 2001

    Describes the application of autopoiesis to management: “organizational autopoiesis”, i.e., the crucial survival process of the interlocked adjustment of internal chaotic dynamics to the chaotic dynamics of the environment.

  44. Dimitrov, Vladimir & Hodge, Bob (1998) Autopoiesis and Spirituality Proceedings of Spirituality, Leadership and Management Conference, edited by M. Jones, pp. 90-101. en 04 Mar 2001
  45. Dimitrov, Vladimir & Russell, David (1994) The Fuzziness of Communication In: Fell, L. Russell, D. & Stewart, A. (eds.) Seized by Agreement, Swamped by Understanding. Hawkesbury Printing, Univ. of Western Sydney. 21 Jun 1999

    Human beings differ in ways of understanding, interpreting, describing or sharing experience. On the basis of experience we construct our own conceptual systems (beliefs and values) that are neither consistent nor monolithic. How do people who think differently manage to communicate with one another? There should be something in our language which helps us to reduce misunderstanding and soften or avoid verbal conflict. This ‘something’ is its intrinsic fuzziness.

  46. Doherty, Conor (1992) Reconstructing AI In: McMullin, B. (ed.) Proc. of the Workshop “Autopoiesis and Perception”, Dublin City Univ., Aug. 25-26 1992. 21 Jun 1999

    Symbolic AI is argued to be epistemologically and ontologically necessary but insufficient for constructing robust AI. Two principles, embodiment and situatedness, are elaborated which any global theory of AI must incorporate. These principles require autonomous robotics to form a basis for AI. Also, the future relationship of artificial neural networks to symbolic AI is speculated on.

  47. Doolittle, Peter E. & Camp, William G. (1999) Constructivism: The Career and Technical Education Perspective Journal Of Vocational And Technical Education (16) 1. en 22 Jun 2000

    Constructivist principles are examined in light of the fundamental requirements of career and technical education as we move into the new century with a new name for a redesigned profession. Of the three basic types of constructivism discussed, cognitive constructivism is most compatible with career and technical education. The authors recommend a more thorough examination of the relative efficacy of behaviorism and cognitive constructivism to serve as the learning theory on which to base career and technical education in the future.

  48. Dorninger, Christian Neue Medien und der Konstruktivismus. Medienwelten im Lernprozeß und ein passendes pädagogisches Paradigma Beitrag zum Lehrgang “Multimedia und Telekommunikation” des Pädagogischen Instituts in Wien und Mitarbeitern der HTL Wien 4. [Alternative site] de 16 Jun 1999

    Die effiziente Aneignung von Informationen durch “instruierten” Unterricht führt zu “trägem”, nicht hinterfragtem Wissen (“inert knowledge”), das zwar erworben, aber nicht angewendet werden kann, da es in zu hoher Abstraktionsstufe vorliegt; es verbleibt träge in Kopf und bewirkt eine Kluft zwischen Wissen und Handeln. Die Überwindung dieser Kluft ermöglichen Lernprozesse, die ihr Hauptaugenmerk auf die Konstruktion von Wissen legen. Damit bereitet der Konstruktivismus eine Basis für die Untermauerung vom Lernen in den “Schulen der Zukunft”, großzügig multimedial angelegten Lernlandschaften, die mit selbstorganisiert agierenden Schülern oder Schülerteams bevölkert sind, und manchmal zum Zwecke der Motivation und als Tutor (zur technischen Hilfeleistung) von “Lehrern” durchstreift werden.

  49. Drescher, Gary L. (1986) Genetic AI: Translating Piaget into LISP AI memo 890 [2.1MB postscript file] [Cached PDF version] en 04 Apr 2001

    This report is a precursor of Drescher 1991 book. It presents a constructivist model of human cognitive development during infancy which draws from Piaget’s “Genetic Epistemology”

  50. Dykstra, Dewey (2001) On Fear of Solipsism: Science, Radical Constructivism, and Science Education Karl Jaspers Forum Target Article 40 Comments and replies en 07 Apr 2002

    The article points out why radical constructivism (RC) has more potential than realism. It examines the solipsism-reproach radical constructivism is often confronted with, it sheds light on how RC performs in science education, and explains how it relates to science. Finally the article describes the benefits to society of practicing a more humble approach to the nature of knowledge suggested by RC.

  51. Emmeche, C. (1990) Kognition og omverden - om Jakob von Uexküll og hans bidrag til kognitionsforskningen Almen Semiotik 2: 52-67. (In Danish) 16 Jun 1999
  52. Emmeche, Claus (2000) Closure, function, emergence, semiosis and life: The same idea? Reflections on the concrete and the abstract in theoretical biology In: Chandler, Jerry L. R. & Van de Vijver, Gertrudis (eds.) Closure: Emergent Organizations and Their Dynamics. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences volume 901. New York: The New York Academy of Sciences, pp. 187-197. en 04 Mar 2001

    Investigates the question of hidden connections between different areas of experience, such as folk biology and scientific biology, and hidden connections between central concepts of theoretical biology, such as function, semiosis, closure and life.

  53. Ernest, Paul (1990) Social Constructivism as a Philosophy Of Mathematics: Radical Constructivism Rehabilitated? Talk at 14th Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Mexico, July 1990. en 09 Jun 1999

    Epistemological issues, although controversial, are central to teaching and learning and have long been a theme of PME. A central epistemological issue is that of the philosophy of mathematics. It is argued that the traditional absolutist philosophies need to be replaced by a conceptual change view of mathematics. Building on the principles of radical constructivism together with the assumption of the existence of the physical and social worlds, a social constructivist philosophy of mathematics is proposed. This suggests an explanation of both the apparent objectivity and the utility of mathematics. A consequence is that the criticism that radical constructivism is necessarily solipsistic is overcome.

  54. Essl, Karlheinz (1992) Kompositorische Konsequenzen des Radikalen Konstruktivismus 11. Heft (“Mind behind: Systemtheorien”) der von Gisela Nauck herausgegebenen Zeitschrift positionen (Berlin-Ost, Mai 1992). Nachgedruckt in: zwischen-ton (hrsg. von Lothar Knessl, Wien 1993). de 25 Nov 1997

    Die epistemologische Einsicht, das die Wirklichkeit nicht bloße Abbildung einer objektiven Welt ist, sondern individuelle mentale Konstruktion zeitigt Konsequenzen für die kompositorische Praxis: das anvisierte Konzept der Offenheit ermöglicht dem Hörer, im aktiven Vorgang des Hörens seine persönliche Fassung des Werkes zu Ende zu komponieren - auf Basis eines neuen, systemtheoretisch orientierten Materials, das der Komponist mit Hilfe des Computers erarbeitet und reflektiert.

  55. Fell, Lloyd & Russell, David (1994) The Dance of Understanding In: Fell, L. Russell, D. & Stewart, A. (eds.) Seized by Agreement, Swamped by Understanding. Hawkesbury Printing, Univ. of Western Sydney. 21 Jun 1999

    We subscribe to the view, expressed by Maturana and others, that a satisfying experience of understanding does not result from invoking objectivity, the truth, or a compelling argument, to achieve agreement by the force of reason, nor from a process of information exchange, but from some other qualities of the biological interaction itself.

  56. Fell, Lloyd and Russell, David (1994) An Introduction to “Maturana’s” Biology In: Fell, L. Russell, D. & Stewart, A. (eds.) Seized by Agreement, Swamped by Understanding. Hawkesbury Printing, Univ. of Western Sydney. 21 Jun 1999

    The ideas of Maturana presented from a biological-physiological and a psychological-educational perspective.

  57. Fell, Lloyd and Russell, David (1994) Non-Traditional R & D In: Fell, L. Russell, D. & Stewart, A. (eds.) Seized by Agreement, Swamped by Understanding. Hawkesbury Printing, Univ. of Western Sydney. 21 Jun 1999

    It is argued that he contextual philosophy of Gadamer and Heidegger and the biology of cognition portrayed by Maturana and Varela could be of assistance in addressing the issues of research and development in science.

  58. Fell, Lloyd and Russell, David (1994) Biology’s Room With a View In: Fell, L. Russell, D. & Stewart, A. (eds.) Seized by Agreement, Swamped by Understanding. Hawkesbury Printing, Univ. of Western Sydney. 21 Jun 1999

    How the biology of Humberto Maturana relates to the interests of scientists, philosophers, educators, and therapists.

  59. Fell, Lloyd and Russell, David (1994) Living Systems - Autonomous Unities In: Fell, L. Russell, D. & Stewart, A. (eds.) Seized by Agreement, Swamped by Understanding. Hawkesbury Printing, Univ. of Western Sydney. 21 Jun 1999

    Biologists are coy about defining life because, even with the closest scientific scrutiny, there are difficulties. The tools of science have revealed much about biochemistry and heredity, enzymes and genes, but very little about precisely what is life. This situation appears to have arisen out of our history of mechanistic biological explanation which has relied almost entirely on the reductionist or analytical kind of description. The authors attempt to find a more satisfying explanation.

  60. Fischer, Hans Rudi (2001) Abductive Reasoning as a Way of Worldmaking Foundation of Science, special issue “The Impact of Radical Constructivism on Science”, vol. 6, no. 4: 361-383. [More about this journal issue] en 18 Dec 2001

    The author deals with the operational core of logic, i.e. its diverse procedures of inference, in order to show that logically false inferences may in fact be right because - in contrast to logical rationality - they actually enlarge our knowledge of the world. This does not only mean that logically true inferences say nothing about the world, but also that all our inferences are invented hypotheses the adequacy of which cannot be proved within logic but only pragmatically. It is the practice of living which provides the orienting standards for constructivist thinking and its judgments of viability. The question of truth is replaced by the question of viability, and viability depends on the (right) kind of experiential fit. In conclusion the author demonstrates, through the relationship between rule-following and rationality, that it is most irrational to want to exclude the irrational: it may, at times, be most rational to think and infer irrationally.

  61. Foerster, Heinz von (1967) Time and Memory In: Roland Fischer (ed.) Interdisciplinary Perspectives of Time. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, pp. 866–873. en 02 Jan 2004
  62. Foerster, Heinz von (1972) Perception of the Future and the Future of Perception Instructional Science 1 (1): 31–43 [PDF version] en 05 Feb 2004
  63. Foerster, Heinz von (1973) On Constructing a Reality This is an abbreviated version of a lecture given at the opening of the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Design Research on April 15, 1973, at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute in Blacksburg, Virginia. In: F. E. Preiser (ed.) (1973) Environmental Research Design, Vol. 2. Stroudsburg: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, pp. 35-46. Reprinted in: Heinz von Foerster (1984) Observing Systems, Intersystems Publications, pp. 288-309. [PDF version] 09 Jun 1999

    This paper tries to find neurophysiological support for the claim that the environment as we perceive is our invention.

  64. Foerster, Heinz von (1995) Ethics and second-order cybernetics Stanford Humanities Review, volume 4, issue 2: Constructions of the Mind 16 Jun 1999
  65. Foerster, Heinz von (1995) Metaphysics of an Experimental Epistemologist vordenker, September 27, 1996. First presented on a congress on Teneriffa in November 1995. Printed version in: Roberto Moreno-Diaz und José Mira-Mira (eds) Brain Processes, Theories and Models. The MIT Press: Cambridge MA, pp. 3–10, 1996. 16 Jun 1999

    A contribution about one of the founders of cybernetics, Warren S. McCulloch. HvF discusses McCulloch’s relationship to the creator of polycontextural logic, Gotthard Günther, and to Ludwig Wittgenstein and Carlos Castaneda.

  66. Foerster, Heinz von (1997) Lethology. A Theory of Learning and Knowing vis à vis Undeterminables, Undecidables,Unknowables Revista Universidad Eafit, Julio - Agosto - Septiembre 1997. Adaptation of an address given on April 26,1990, in San Martino di Castrozza at the Seminario Internationale ‘Conoscenza come educazione’. en 11 May 2001
  67. Foerster, Heinz von (1998) Interactivity Presentation at The Culture of Interactivity, Jan 17 and 18, 1998, New York City en 7 Jan 1999
  68. Furlong, Dermot & Vernon, David (1992) Reality Paradigms, Perception, and Natural Science. The Relevance of Autopoiesis In: McMullin, B. (ed.) Proc. of the Workshop “Autopoiesis and Perception”, Dublin City Univ., Aug. 25-26 1992. 21 Jun 1999

    What is suggested here is that normal science is fundamentally flawed when it is applied to the domains of Life and Mind, and that, furthermore, very much involved in that flaw is our non-recognition of the adopted perceptual reality-paradigm. And what is wrong with our conception of science in its application to Life and Mind is that the analytic reductionism which characterises the spectator consciousness stance can never capture the organisational distinctions which characterize living or cognizing beings.

  69. Gaines, Brian R. and Shaw, Mildred L. G. (2003) Personal Construct Psychology and the Cognitive Revolution In: J. D. Raskin & S. K. Bridges (eds.) Studies in Meaning, New York: Pace University Press. en 03 Aug 2003

    This article presents relevant aspects of Kelly’s era, commenting on their significance for understanding personal construct psychology (PCP) and the role that it played, or did not play, in various developments in psychology. In particular, the role that PCP and the repertory grid played in artificial intelligence research on knowledge acquisition for expert systems is discussed in terms of its significance for other aspects of PCP research.

  70. Gash, Hugh & Kenny,Vincent The Implementation of a Constructivist Approach to the Resolution of Prejudice Methodologica 16 en 15 Feb 1998

    Using a consistently constructivist approach, the formation of prejudices, their role in identity, and their resultant resilience are examined. Next, the strategies which may be used to persuade people to change such constructs are considered. For the person who owns the prejudice these amount to experiences which invite reconsideration of existing ways of construing: for one who desires to invite another to change, these strategies include distancing, circular questioning, circulation, parenthesising and orthogonality of facilitator position.

  71. Gehrke, Ralph (1994) Was leistet der Radikale Konstruktivismus für die Literaturwissenschaft? Deutsche Vierteljahrs Schrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte 68: 170-188. de 28 Aug 2007

    Radical Constructivism bases the study of literature on an epistemology derived from biology. The peculiar empha-sis of its critical analyses results from the specificity of the model of cognition it adopts. Its specificity lies in its empirical method, in the constructivist terminology and construction of the relationship to aesthetic form.

  72. Gelbmann, Gerhard (1997) Autopoïetische Konzepte des Konstruktivismus Proceedings Arbeitskreis “Das Spiel der Gleichgewichte” - Pro Scientia Sommerakademie 1997, Matrei am Brenner de 28 Aug 2007

    Aufschlüsselung von Varelas und Maturanas Begriff der Autopoïese (lebender Systeme) nach Peter M. HEJL.

  73. Giordano, G. (1997) Toward a Virtual Psychotherapy International Symposium on Autopoiesis, Belo Horizonte, Brasil (Maintained by Gaetano Giordano) en 20 May 1999

    The therapeutic power of psychotherapy is not just in the changing (or in the giving) meanings to events or to meanings of events - as in the giving to the process of signification the meaning of the meaning process and not of objectivization. So, in this perspective, psychotherapy would discover in its being an expression of the narrative dimension of the human mind: obviously, its boundaries are out of its domain: in the perspective of Autopoiesis and of Maturana’s studies, they are in the ethic. In a Healing Ethic and not in an impossible only one ‘truth’.

  74. Glanville, Ranulph (1990) ”Sed Quis Custodient Ipsos Custodes?” In: Heylighen, F., Rosseel, E. & Demeyere, F. (eds.) Self-Steering and Cognition in Complex Systems. Gordon and Breach: London, pp. 107-112. en 16 Jul 1999

    We draw distinctions (Spencer Brown): the drawing of such distinctions, no matter what euphemisms we choose, creates me (I, the observer, the self) and the other. How this happens, the agency of drawing distinctions, is beyond cognition, for only when the distinction is drawn is there a cognitive entity.

  75. Glanville, Ranulph (1990) The Self And The Other: The Purpose Of Distinction In: Trappl, R. (ed.) Cybernetics and Systems ‘90. World Scientific: Singapore. en 16 Jul 1999

    The nature of distinction drawing (Spencer Brown) is examined with special reference to the distinction between the self and the other.

  76. Glanville, Ranulph (1994) Variety In Design Systems Research, vol 11, no 3. en 16 Jul 1999

    It is argued that creativity might be amplified through the co-operative sharing of brain power – in contrast to Ashby’s amplification of intelligence by restricting attention to the problem.

  77. Glanville, Ranulph (1995) Chasing The Blame In: Lasker, G. (ed). Research on Progress – Advances in Interdisciplinary Studies on Systems Research and Cybernetics” Vol 11, IIASSRC. Windsor: Ontario. en 16 Jul 1999

    Tries to make the understanding of (and the understandings from) the Cybernetics of Cybernetics – characterised by its circularity, by the inclusion of the participant/actor/observer – more apparent.

  78. Glanville, Ranulph (1995) A Ship without a Rudder In: Glanville, R. and de Zeeuw, G. (eds.) Problems of Excavating Cybernetics and Systems. BKS+, Southsea. en 16 Jul 1999

    Stability is related to the basic cybernetic concept goal. It is shown that every goal must have a goal of its own which in turn is observer dependent. Every stable system must be assumed to have an internal goal of its own. Thus, apparently random behaviour (viewed from the outside) is entirely stable (viewed from the inside).

  79. Glanville, Ranulph (1995) The Cybernetics of Value and the Value of Cybernetics. The Art of Invariance and the Invariance of Art In: Glanville, R. & de Zeeuw, G. (eds.) Problems of Values and (In)variants. Thesis Publishers: Amsterdam. en 16 Jul 1999

    In this paper, Spencer Brown’s Logic of Distinctions is considered in the light of various amendments proposed by the author.

  80. Glanville, Ranulph (1996) Robin McKinnon-Wood and Gordon Pask: A Lifelong Conbersation Cybernetics & Human Knowing. A Journal of Second Order Cybernetics & Cyber-Semiotics, Vol. 3 no. 4 en 09 Jun 2000
  81. Glanville, Ranulph (1996) Communication without Coding: Cybernetics, Meaning and Language (How Language, becoming a System, Betrays itself) Invited paper in Modern Language Notes, Vol 111, no 3 (ed Wellbery, D.). en 16 Jul 1999

    Communication is considered as a cybernetic system in which two participants (the representer and the representee) share a representation (made up of a representing and a represented), each constructing his own meaning from the identity of the representing and the represented in the representation in the form of a conversation. Meaning, in this context, is not seen as lying in any part of the representation. Certain consequences of this cybernetic system are developed, some of the prerequisites for such a system to exist are explored, and ossible tests are considered.

  82. Glanville, Ranulph (1997) Behind the Curtain 1st Int. CAiiA Research Conference “Consciousness Reframed ‘97”, University of Wales College, Newport, UK. en 16 Jul 1999

    We cannot know what happens behind the interface with another we communicate with, what their understanding is. It is explored how we can retain our ignorance of what happens in the other and yet communicate, is explored, using the cybernetic construction the “Black Box”.

  83. Glanville, Ranulph (1997) The Value of being Unmanageable: Variety and Creativity in CyberSpace In: Proceedings of the Conference “Global Village ‘97”, Vienna. en 16 Jul 1999

    Complexity is examined in the context of Ashby’s Law of Requisite Variety, and systems are shown to rapidly reach transcomputability, at which point they become uncontrollable. The circular notion of control is introduced, where control occurs “between”. Systems that are in principle beyond control are defined as unmanageable. Unmanageability is examined and shown to be potentially enrichening, offering possibilities of enhancing creativity.

  84. Glanville, Ranulph (1998) A (Cybernetic) Musing: The Gestation of Second Order Cybernetics, 1968-1975 - A Personal Account Cybernetics & Human Knowing. A Journal of Second Order Cybernetics & Cyber-Semiotics. Volume 5, No.2 1998 16 Jun 1999
  85. Glanville, Ranulph (1998) Acts Between and Between Acts 2nd Int. CAiiA Research Conference “Consciousness Reframed ‘98”, University of Wales College, Newport, UK. en 16 Jul 1999

    We treat observing “as if” it were of Objects. The “as if” gives the ability to postulate/construct Objects such that we believe they are held in common between observers. We can treat observing by different observers “as if” shared. Thus, we can talk of events: coherent observings in one timespan.

  86. Glanville, Ranulph (1998) Re-searching Design and Designing Research Design Issues vol 15 no 2. en 16 Jul 1999

    When Design Research began in the 1960s, research was central to Science. Research was Science. In shameful contrast, Design was not Scientific. Design should be Scientific. Design therefore needed Research. The problems of design would be solved, given the application of proper scientific methods.

  87. Glanville, Ranulph (2001) An Observing Science Foundation of Science, special issue “The Impact of Radical Constructivism on Science”, vol. 6, nos. 1-3: 45-75. [More about this journal issue] en 18 Dec 2001

    The author shows not only that Radical Constructivism is sensible, but that it does not preclude us having a science. In contrast, it can enrich science by taking on board the sensible. In the process, which science is seen to be the more basic is challenged.

  88. Glasersfeld, E. v. (1990) Distinguishing the Observer: An Attempt at Interpreting Maturana English translation of (1990) Die Unterscheidung des Beobachters: Versuch einer Auslegung. In: V. Riegas & C. Vetter (eds.) Zur Biologie der Kognition. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, pp. 281-295. Italian translation: (1991) Distinguendo l’osservatore: un tentativo di interpretare Maturana. Methodologia 5 (8): 92-111. en 27 Feb 1998

    Humberto Maturana is one of the few authors that nowadays engage the construction of a wide, complete, esplicatory system, comparable to those of Plato or Leibniz. His “autopoietic” approach includes also the origin of the observer, meant as a methodological prius who provide itself a view of the world. Here the author follows the way Maturana sees the birth of res cogitans (entity which gains awareness of what it’s doing). The author demonstrates that the basic activity of distinguishing can certainly lead to the distinction with which the observer is separated from anything observed. As a conclusion, the origin of active consciousness remains obscure, that is, what works as the agent of distinguishing.

  89. Glasersfeld, E. v. (1996) Cybernetics and the Art of Living Cybernetics and Systems 27 (6): 489-497 [Alternative URL] [Cached PDF version] en 25 Nov 1997

    The paper outlines the fundamental support a cybernetic attitude can supply to those who search for balance in their own lives rather than power and control over others. Starting with the experience of having lived in a variety of countries and disciplines. the author considers the cybernetic way of thinking as an eminently useful tool in the practice of living, as the art of creating equilibrium in a world of possibilities and constraints.

  90. Glasersfeld, E. v. (1996) The Conceptual Construction of Time Presented at Mind and Time, Neuchâtel, 8-10 September 1996 [Cached PDF version] en 25 Nov 1997

    The author is interested in how the thinking mind might come to have a concept of time rather than providing an answer the question of what time is, in an ontological sense.

  91. Glasersfeld, E. v. (1997) Homage to Jean Piaget Irish J.of Psychology 18 (2): 293-306 [Alternative URL] [Cached PDF version] en 27 Feb 1998

    In the 1980s, Piaget was rediscovered for the third time, as the progenitor of constructivism. Since then, constructivism has become fashionable, especially in the educational domain. Many writers call themselves constructivists, but few have fully understood the revolutionary aspect of Piaget’s theory.

  92. Glasersfeld, E. v. (1998) The Incommensurability of Scientific and Poetic Knowledge Methodologia 17: 1-7. (Expanded Translation of a talk given at the International Congress on Science, Mysticism, Poetry, and Consciousness, Instituto Piaget, Lisbon, April 1994.) en 7 Jan 1999

    The article examines the relationship between science and mysticism by distinguishing two types of metaphors: those based on only familiar relationships and those which invoke mysterious ones.

  93. Glasersfeld, E. v. (1998) Obituary: Silvio Ceccato (1914-1997) Cybernetics and Systems 29 (3): 213-214 en 27 Feb 1998

    Silvio Ceccato, the founder and director of the first Center for Cybernetics in Milan, [...] had been the first in Europe to apply the cybernetic principle of self-organization to the domains of concept formation and language.

  94. Glasersfeld, Ernst von & Pitasi, Andrea (2001) Constructing Communication Exlusive Interview with Ernst von Glasersfeld. en 10 Jan 2002
  95. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (1983) Learning as constructive activity In: J. C. Bergeron & N. Herscovics (ed.) Proceedings of the 5th Annual Meeting of the North American Group of Psychology in Mathematics Education, Vol.1. Montreal: PME-NA, pp. 41-101. [Cached PDF version] en 09 Mar 2001
  96. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (1984) An introduction to Radical Constructivism Opening chapter in Paul Watzlawick (ed.) The Invented Reality. New York: Norton. [Cached PDF version] 18 Jun 1999
  97. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (1989) Cognition, Construction of Knowledge, and Teaching Synthese 80 (1): 121-140. Reprinted in: (a) M. R. Matthews (ed.) (1991) History, philosophy, and science teaching. New York: Teachers College Press. (b) M. R. Matthews (ed.) (1998) Constructivism in science education. Dordrecht: Kluwer. en 09 Mar 2001
  98. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (1991) Knowing without Metaphysics: Aspects of the Radical Constructivist Position Steier, F. (ed) Research and Reflexivity (Inquiries into Social Construction). London: Sage Publications. 09 Jun 1999

    Focusses on some aspects of Radical Constructivism, as distinct from ‘trivial’ constructivisms, and try to show that the major objections that have been raised against it are due to gross misinterpretation and turn out to be vacuous once the position is made a little clearer.

  99. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (1992) Why I Consider Myself a Cybernetician Cybernetics & Human Knowing. A Journal of Second Order Cybernetics & Cyber-Semiotics. Vol. 1 no. 1 en 29 Apr 2003
  100. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (1995) A Constructivist Approach to Teaching In: Constructivism in Education, ed. By L.P. Steffe and J. Gale, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1995, 3-15. 09 Jun 1999
  101. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (1995) A Cybernetician before Cybernetics Systems Research and Behavioral Science 14(2): 137-139.

    A biographical sketch of Heinz von Foerster. The author maintains that cybernetics is the art of creating equilibrium in a world of possibilities and constraints.

  102. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (1996) Aspects of Radical Constructivism and its Educational Recommendations Presented at ICMe-7, Working Group #4 Quebec, August 1992. Printe version in: L. P. Steffe, P. Nesher, P. Cobb, G. A. Goldin, & B. Greer (eds.) Theories of mathematical learning. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 307-314. [Cached PDF version] 18 Jun 1999

    Reiterates some points of the “post-epistemological” radical constructivist approach which requires the change of several deeply rooted notions, such as knowledge, truth, representation, and reality.

  103. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (1997) Distinguere l’osservatore: un tentativo di interpretare Maturana Unpublished italian version of “Distinguishing the Observer: An Attempt at Interpreting Maturana” it 22 Jun 2000
  104. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (1997) Anticipation in the Constructivist Theory of Cognition CASYS’97 - International Conference on Computing Anticipatory Systems, Liège, August 11-15, 1997 [Cached version] 18 Jun 1999
  105. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (1997) Piaget’s Legacy: Cognition as Adaptive Activity In: A. Riegler, M. Peschl & A. von Stein (eds.) Understanding representation in the cognitive sciences - Does representation need reality? New York/Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 283-287. en 09 Mar 2001

    With the introduction of the term “representation” in philosophical writings, the spurious question has arisen whether or not representations could reproduce, replicate, or correspond to things-in-themselves. It could have been avoided if one had followed Mark Baldwin and had used the term “presentation” which has the added advantage of being a viable translation of the German “Vorstellung”.

  106. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (1998) Scheme Theory as a Key to the Learning Paradox Invited paper presented at the 15th Advanced Course, Archives Jean Piaget Geneva, September 20-24, 1998 [Cached version] 18 Jun 1999

    Carl Bereiter’s article “Toward a solution of the learning paradox” appeared in 1985, was widely read and cited, but did not end the discussion about the “learning paradox”. My contribution is an attempt to show that it is in fact a spurious problem and that the paradox springs from unwarranted traditional views of knowledge and conceptualization. A constructivist orientation adopting Peirce’s notion of abduction and a particular interpretation of Piaget’s scheme theory opens a different and perhaps more promising approach.

  107. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (1999) A proposito dei bilingui (About bilinguals). Working Papers, 109 (1-2) Milan, Italy: Societ‡ di Cultura Metodologico-Operativa it 22 Jun 2000
  108. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (1999) Comment: Piaget’s genetic epistemology Karl Jaspers Forum (McGill U. Montreal), TA15 C10, 16 Feb.99 en 22 Jun 2000
  109. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (1999) Il costruttivismo e le sue radici (Constructivism and its roots) Unpublished manuscript. it 22 Jun 2000
  110. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (1999) How Do We Mean? Constructivist Sketch of Semantics Cybernetics and Human Knowing 6 (1): 9-16. en 09 Mar 2001
  111. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (1999) Le Moigne’s Defense of Constructivism In: Entre systemique et complexité, chemin faisant. GRASCE. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. pp. 85-90. en 09 Mar 2001
  112. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (199?) A constructive approach to “universals” [Cached version] en 16 Jul 1999
  113. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (2000) Reflections on Cybernetics Cybernetics & Human Knowing 7 (1): 93-95 en 19 Jun 2000
  114. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (2000) Gesellschaft als subjektive Erfahrung [Society as subjective experience] Festschrift for Siegfried J. Schmidt de 14 Feb 2001

    An attempt to show that radical constructivism should pay more heed to social phenomena.

  115. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (2000) The ASC Pages: Reflections on Cybernetics Cybernetics and Human Knowing 7(1): 93-95. en 09 Mar 2001
  116. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (2000) Radical Constructivism and Teaching To be published in French by Archives Jean Piaget, Geneva. en 09 Mar 2001

    The papers claims that there can be no understanding without reflection. Reflection is induced by verbalization and can therefore be encouraged by fostering conversation. Ceccato’s notion of ‘operational awareness’ will be shown to be relevant to teaching and compatible with Piaget’s theoretical model.

  117. Glasersfeld, Ernst von (2001) The Radical Constructivist View of Science Foundation of Science, special issue “The Impact of Radical Constructivism on Science”, vol. 6, nos. 1-3: 31-43. [More about this journal issue] en 18 Dec 2001

    From the constructivist perspective, science cannot transcend the domain of experience. Scientific theories are seen as models that help to order and manage that domain. As the experiential field expands, models are replaced by others based on novel conceptual constructs. The paper suggests the substitution of ‘viability’ or ‘functional fit’ for the notions of Truth and objective representation of an experiencer-independent reality. This by-passes the sceptics’ incontrovertible arguments against certain real-world knowledge and proposes the Piagetian conception of cognition as the function that generates ways and means for dealing with the world of experience.

  118. Glasersfeld, Ernst von L’Interprétation Constructiviste de l’Épistémologie Génétique Methodologica 16 fr 22 Jun 2000

    Fragments of Piaget’s work have been assimilated for more then sixty years all over the world but the manifestations of accomodation to the principles of his Genetic Epistemology are extremely rare. The author points to the realist tradition as a source of this resistance and shows that neither Piaget’s theories of development or learning are accessible without a radical change of epistemological habits.

  119. Goldammer, E. von, Paul, J. & Newbury, J. Heterarchy – Hierarchy Deutsche Fassung: Heterarchie – Hierarchie en de 02 Jan 2004

    The authors discuss the concept of “heterachy” first introduced by neurophysiologist and cybernetician Warren S. McCulloch and provide a detailed historical perspective of this scientific concept with the help of substantial source material.

  120. Goldammer, Eberhard von & Paul, Joachim Einführung zur Neuauflage von Gotthard Günthers “Das Bewusstsein der Maschinen” de 02 Jan 2004
  121. Goldammer, Eberhard von & Spranger, Heinz (1991) Kybernetik und Systemtheorie: Aus der Sicht der Medizin. Kognitive Netzwerke als geschlossene und offene Systeme In: Kybernetik und Systemtheorie – Wissenschaftsgebiete der Zukunft. M. Wessels: Greven. de 02 Jan 2004
  122. Goldammer, Eberhard von (1991) Polykontexturale Systemtheorie In: Kybernetik und Systemtheorie – Wissenschaftsgebiete der Zukunft? Dresdner Symposium ‘91. en 02 Jan 2004
  123. Goorhuis, Henk (1998) Bildung und Arbeit als autopoietische Systeme Beitrag zum Kongress Bildung und Arbeit de 16 Jun 1999

    Bei zunehmend komplexen, verteilten und zirkulären Prozessen in der heutigen Gesellschaft ist der Anspruch auf Durchschaubarkeit, Prognostizierbarkeit und Steuerbarkeit immer weniger erfüllbar. Die Systeme Bildung und Arbeit werden deshalb nun als autopoietische Systeme betrachtet, welche ihre eigene Steuerung aus sich heraus kreieren.

  124. Goorhuis, Henk (1998) Viel mehr als die Summe der Teile unimagazin Die Zeitschrift der Univ Zürich Nr. 4/98 de 28 Mar 2002

    Investigates the trend to use constructivist approaches in education which are fundamentally different from the classical view of knowledge transfer.

  125. Goudsmit, Arno Leo (1998) Autonomy and language in Maturana’s theory of living systems Chapter 2 in “Towards a negative understanding of psychotherapy”, PhD thesis by Arno Leo Goudsmit at the Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, the Netherlands. en 04 Jun 2001
  126. Großmann, Rolf (1997) Konstruktiv(istisch)e Gedanken zur ‘Medienmusik’ In: Hemker, Thomas, and Daniel Müllensiefen (eds.), Medien - Musik - Mensch. Neue Medien und Musikwissenschaft. Hamburg, pp. 61-78 de 03 Aug 2003

    In dem Artikel wird davon ausgegangen, daß die Strukturen eines musikalischen Phänomens (zusammen mit ‘Wirklichkeit’ und ‘Bedeutung’) im Kognitionsprozeß von einem sozialen System erzeugt werden und auch nur dort (‘systemintern’) existieren.

  127. Grössing, Gerhard (2001) Comparing the Long-Term Evolution of “Cognitive Invariances” in Physics with a Dynamics in States of Consciousness Foundation of Science, special issue “The Impact of Radical Constructivism on Science”, vol. 6, no. 4: 255-272. [More about this journal issue] en 18 Dec 2001

    It is shown that the evolution of physics can in several regards be described by elements of “regression”, i.e., that within a certain tradition of ideas one begins with the construction of most “plausible” statements (axioms) at hand, and then “works onself backwards” with respect to developmental terms. As a consequence of this strategy, the further work proceeds along such a “regressive” path, the more one arrives at concepts and relationships which are unexpected or even counter-intuitive in terms of our everyday experiences.

  128. Günther, Gotthard & Foerster, Heinz von (1967) The Logical Structure of Evolution and Emanation In: Roland Fischer (ed.) Interdisciplinary Perspectives of Time. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, pp. 874–891 en 02 Jan 2004
  129. Günther, Gotthard (1953) Can Mechanical Brains Have Consciousness? Article written for John W. Campbell’s magazine “Astounding Science Fiction”.  en 02 Jan 2004
  130. Hall, William P. (2003) Organisational Autopoiesis and Knowledge Management Presented ISD ‘03 Twelfth International Conference on Information Systems Development - Methods & Tools, Theory & Practice, Melbourne, Australia, 25 - 27 August, 2003 en 16 Sep 2004

    First paper in a series looking at the evolutionary origins the orders of autopoiesis (cellular, organism, organization) in the context of Karl Popper’s epistemology of objective knowledge, three worlds and general theory of evolution. The next paper (in prep) will make the connections between Popperian and constructivist epistemologies.

  131. Hall, William P. (2003) Working Towards Biologically Based Theories of Organization and Knowledge to Understand How Organizations Work Best. Joint Lunchtime Seminar, 08/09/03, Rutherford House, Wellington. New Zealand Knowledge Management Network and Government Information Systems Forum. en 16 Sep 2004

    Wide ranging summary of disciplines contributing to the development of the evolutionary origins of cellular, organismic and organizational autopoiesis leading to a biological theory of (social) organization, to be presented in a major work in progress.

  132. Hall, William P. (2004) Biological nature of knowledge in the learning organization Unpublished paper en 20 Feb 2005

    Combines ideas from physics, epistemology and philosophy of science to military affairs, to sketch a scientific framework for studying the emergence of learning, knowledge and memory. Maturana and Varela’s autopoiesis with Karl Popper’s evolutionary epistemology of three worlds leads to a radical constructivist view.

  133. Hansen, Niels Viggo (2000) Affirmative analyses of science as constructed – resources of radical constructivism in Hegel and Deleuze This is a preprint of a working paper: only for discussion at the XIIIth Inter-Nordic Symposium in Philosophy, Bergen, May 2000. (Maintained by Niels Viggo Hansen) en 20 Dec 2000
  134. Haynes, John-Dylan, Roth, Gerhard, Schwegler, Helmut & Stadler, Michael (1998) Die funktionale Rolle des bewußt Erlebten. [The functional role of conscious experience]. Gestalt Theory 20: 186-213. de 26 Nov 2003

    Maintains that the limbic system, the unconsciously working part of the brain responsible for evaluations, is the ultimate instance of volitional cognition. In their view, consciousness is just a pseudo-ruling ego. It is not the ego who constructs; it is constructed.

  135. Hein, George The Constructivist Museum Journal of Education in Museums, no. 15, 1995. pp. 1-15. en 20 Jun 2000

    Constructivism is appropriate as a basis for museum education, if we consider the wide range of museum visitors. How can we accommodate this diverse audience and facilitate their learning from our objects on their voluntary, short visits?

  136. Hejl, Peter M. (1991) Fiktion und Wirklichkeitskonstruktion. Zum Unterschied zwischen Fiktionen im Recht und in der Literatur In: Watzlawick, P. und P. Krieg (eds.) Das Auge des Betrachters. Beiträge zum Konstruktivismus. Festschrift für Heinz von Foerster. München, Zürich: Piper, pp. 101-115. de 10 Jan 2002
  137. Hejl, Peter M. (1999) Konstruktivismus, Beliebigkeit, Universalien In: Rusch, G. (Hg.): Wissen und Wirklichkeit. Beiträge zum Konstruktivismus. Festschrift für E. v. Glasersfeld. Heidelberg: Auer. de 10 Jan 2002
  138. Hille, Helmut (2004) Anmerkungen zu Schriften über Erkenntnistheorie [Notes to writings on epistemology] A shorter version appeared in "Wechselwirkung" Zeitschrift für Wissenschaft und vernetztes Denken 129/130, 2004/2005, pp.102-105 de 19 Dec 2011

    Annotations to various books with mostly constructivist content, including Humberto Maturana's "Was ist erkennen?", "Einführung in den Konstruktivismus" edited by Heinz Gumm & Heinrich Meier, and Wolf Singer's "Der Beobachter im Gehirn".

  139. Hille, Helmut (2009) Die Eigen-Mächtigkeit des Gehirns. Aufklärung und Kritik 2/2009. de 19 Dec 2011

    Book review of Gerhard Roth's books "Das Gehirn und seine Wirklichkeit" [The brain and its reality] and "Aus der Sicht des Gehirns" [From the perspective of the brain].

  140. Holtorf, C. J. (1997) Knowing without metaphysics and pretensiousness. A Radical Constructivist proposal Nordic TAG Göteborg 1997: Archaeological epistemology and ontology [PDF] en 25 Nov 1997

    The initial question for this paper is: why do the sciences in general, and archaeology in particular, present themselves as serious enterprises?

  141. Holtorf, Cornelius (1998) Radical Constructivism - Knowing beyond epistemology In: Monumental Past. The Life-histories of Megalithic Monuments in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Germany). based on a doctoral dissertation submitted to the University of Wales (Lampeter). en 29 Apr 2003
  142. Ian M. Kinchin (2000) On The Significance of a “Minor” Phylum (The Tardigrada) in the Context of a Constructivist View of Knowledge Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 43.2: 243-251 en 14 Feb 2001
  143. Ian Vandewalker (2001) The Threat of Social Constructivist Case Studies to the Cognitive Status of Science Undergraduate Thesis New College of Florida en 14 Feb 2002

    An examination of social constructivist debunking of science, focusing on Latour and Woolgar’s Laboratory Life.

  144. Järvilehto, Timo Paper Collection en 15 Feb 1998

    Papers describing systemic psychology which offers the possibility to understand the relations of consciousness, co-operation and power through the evolution of consciousness in co-operation of organism-environment systems.

  145. Kaehr, Rudolf & and Goldammer, Eberhard von (1990) Problems of Autonomy and Discontexturality in the Theory of Living Systems In: D.P.F. Moeller & O. Richter (eds.) Analyse dynamischer Systeme in Medizin, Biologie und Ökologie. Springer: Berlin, pp. 3–12. en 02 Jan 2004
  146. Kaehr, Rudolf (1999) Zur Logik der Second Order Cybernetics Presentation at “Kybernetische Visionen – (Re)Vision der Kybernetik”, Institute für Kybernetik and Gesellschaft für Kommunikationskybernetik, Berlin 26-28 Nov. 1999. de 02 Jan 2004
  147. Kempf, Herve (1998) Le cerveau n’est pas un ordinateur: on ne peut comprendre la cognition si l’on s’abstrait de son incarnation. Entretien avec Francisco J. Varela La Recherche. No. 308, Avril 1998, p. 109-112. fr 13 Jun 2002
  148. Kenny, V. (1989) Anticipating Autopoiesis: Personal Construct Psychology and Self-Organising Systems A later revised version of this paper was published in Goudsmit, A. (ed) Self-Organisation in Psychotherapy. Springer-Verlag: Heidelberg en 02 Apr 1998
  149. Kenny, V. (1989) Life, the Multiverse and Everything: An Introduction to the Ideas of Humberto Maturana A revision of this paper was published in: A.L. Goudsmit (ed) Self-Organisation in Psychotherapy. Springer-Verlag: Heidelberg en 02 Apr 1998

    This chapter introduces the central concerns of Humberto Maturana’s theory of autopoiesis as they relate to the domain of psychotherapy.

  150. Kenny, V. (1996) Living in Anticipation Unpublished manuscript. en 02 Apr 1998

    This paper is addressed to those people who need some help in surviving Christmas given that they experience the entire event as oppressive, bleak and alienating rather than as a ‘time of good cheer’. The paper analyses human desire in its impossibility, and derives several practical suggestions for how to make a difference in one’s ways of approaching [yet again] the doomed event, so that by January one has generated some important human, personal novelty.

  151. Kenny, V. (1997) Gregory Bateson’s Notion of the Sacred - What can it Tell Us about Living Constructively? Draft article for a special edition of the Italian journal AlfaZeta on Gregory Bateson - due for publication in January 1998 [Alternative site] en 15 Feb 1998
  152. Kenny, V (1997) La nozione del Sacro di Gregory Bateson - Cosa ci puo insegnare per vivere costruttivamente? Briefer Italian version for AlfaZeta it 02 Apr 1998
  153. Kenny, Vincent (1992) On the Subject of Autopoiesis and It’s Boundaries: Does the Subject Matter? Draft of an article later published in the International Journal of General Systems, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1992 16 Jun 1999

    Two arguments are unfolded against the viability and advisability of applying the notion of autopoiesis to third-order systems. The first argument comes from the domain of psychotherapeutic praxis and elaborates a critique of ‘boundary’ and ‘family’ as third-order phenomena. The second argument, coming from the domain of ethics, uses the paramount individuality of personal consciousness to demonstrate that any third-order human system configured on the metaphor of autopoiesis would necessarily be oppressive, inhuman, and parasocial.

  154. Kistmann, Virgínia & Fialho, Francisco A. P. (1999) Cognitive Ergonomics: new trends in employing autopoiesis theory to understand consumers Straker, Leon & Pollak, Clare (eds.) CD-ROM Proceedings of CybErg 1999: Second International Cyberspace Conference On Ergonomic. The International Ergonomics Association Press: Perth. [PDF] en 28 Mar 2002

    Points to the possibility of using Autopoiesis Theory to approach a new research marketing area named Multioptional Consumers. These are consumers who identify themselves with one product and tomorrow with another. The possibility of understanding this kind of behavior must take into consideration a knowledge process that considers multiple associative possibilities in the ‘what to buy’ decision making process.

  155. Kordes, Urban The World As An (Autopoietic) System Unpublished manuscript at the Slowenian Jozef Stefan Institute, departement for Informatics and Extracurricular Education Centre en 14 Feb 2001

    The purpose of this paper is to show present evidences against representationism, to suggest a system approach that considers live organisms as operationally closed units, and to show that actuality is an autopoietic system.

  156. Kraus, Björn (2014) Introducing a Model for Analyzing the Possibilities of Power, Help and Control en 03 Mar 2017

    This article introduces Björn Kraus' constructivism theory of power. Therefore, it focuses the question, whether power always is a construction performed by the affected persons or if there are forms of power, which could take effect independently from the affected person’s own will.

  157. Kraus, Björn (2015) The Life We Live and the Life We Experience: Introducing the Epistemological Difference between “Lifeworld” (Lebenswelt) and “Life Conditions” (Lebenslage) en 03 Mar 2017

    The subject of this article is the introduction of a constructivism lifeworld-concept, that is based on an epistemological distinction between “lifeworld” (Lebenswelt) and “life conditions” (Lebenslage). In this context, the term “lifeworld” and its usage will be critically reconsidered and then contrasted to the term “life conditions”.

  158. Kravchenko, Alexander V. (2002) Cognitive Linguistics As A Methodological Paradigm In B. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk and K. Turewicz (Eds.). Cognitive Linguistics Today. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang, 2002. 41-54 en 23 Jul 2003

    A methodological paradigm for cognitive linguistics is suggested, based on the autopoietic conception of cognition and language.

  159. Kravchenko, Alexander V. (2002) Toward a Bio-Cognitive Philosophy of Language Journal for Interdisciplinary Work in the Humanities 1(5) en 06 Nov 2002

    It is argued that the theoretical and conceptual tangle in which linguistics finds itself at the turn of the century is rooted in methodological inadequacies of traditional (cartesian) philosophy. A metaphysical approach, sustained by accumulated empirical evidence and supported by the new epistemology of autopoiesis, is proposed, whereby language is viewed as adaptive functional activity based on an organism's experience of the environment to which the organism stands in a relation of mutual causality.

  160. Krippendorff, Klaus (1993) Major Metaphors of Communication and some Constructivist Reflections on their Use Cybernetics & Human Knowing 2 (1): 3-25 en 25 Feb 2001
  161. Krippendorff, Klaus (1996) A Second-order Cybernetics of Otherness Systems Research 13 (3): 311-328 en 25 Feb 2001

    In the spirit of second-order cybernetics, human communication is re-conceptualized by including in the process not only its theorists but also their observed Others without whom social reality is inconceivable. This essay examines several versions of otherness, how the voices of Others survive social scientific inquiries, the dialogical spaces made available for people to build their home, and the kinds of citizenship encouraged. The essay draws attention to the epistemological limits of different inquiring practices and seeks to expand the range of possibilities for humans to see each Other.

  162. Kügler, Peter Konstruktivistische Unzulänglichkeiten Aufklärung und Kritik 1/2002 S. 89-95 de 15 May 2002
  163. Lerman, Stephen (1998) A Response to Steffe’s Reply to Lerman on Intersubjectivity: A Case of Interpretations of ‘Social’ Chreods 13, October 1998. 09 Jun 1999

    It is argued that radical constructivism may offer a powerful explanatory system for difference but it offers little to explain similarity and commonality. It is shallow in the sense of the social, amounting to a Cartesian separation of the world of objects from the world of thoughts. Radical constructivists ask to accept that the commonality of perceptions amongst a whole people is a result of the cognitive reorganizations carried out by the individuals given that in their social interactions the manifold would result in a specific range of utterances, or explanations, from the people around.

  164. Liberati, Jorge (2001) La objetividad entre paréntesis enfocarte.com - Revista de Arte y Cultura en la Red 1.10 A propósito de Humberto Maturana sp 28 Mar 2002

    Short overview of Maturana’s work and its consequences

  165. Lorsbach, Anthony W. & Kenneth Tobin (1992) Constructivism as a Referent for Science Teaching In: F. Lorenz, K. Cochran, J. Krajcik, & P. Simpson (eds.) Research Matters to the Science Teacher. NARST Monograph No. 5. Manhattan, KS: National Association for Research in Science Teaching. en 25 Jun 2000

    One way to make sense of how students learn is through constructivism. Constructivism is a theory of knowledge used to explain how we know what we know. It is useful to teachers if used as a referent; that is, as a way to make sense of what they see, think, and do. Our research indicates that teachers’ beliefs about how people learn, whether verbalized or not, often help them make sense of, and guide, their practice.

  166. Luhmann, N. (1986) The Autopoiesis of Social Systems In: F. Geyer and J. van der Zouwen (eds.), Sociocybernetic Paradoxes, Sage, London, 1986, 172ff. 09 Jun 1999

    The term ‘autopoiesis’ has been invented to define life its origin is clearly biological. The text uses a multi-level approach in order to discuss its extension to other fields. It distinguishes a general theory of self-referential autopoietic systems and a more concrete level at which we may distinguish living systems (cells, brains, organisms, etc.), psychic systems and social systems (societies, organizations, interactions) as different kinds of autopoietic systems.

  167. Lutz, Hans-Dieter (1996) Verstehen aus konstruktivistischer Sicht Talk at the Kommunikationswissenschaftliches Kolloquium Universität GH Essen, 4. 6. 1996. de 28 Mar 2000

    Die vorgestellte Explizierung von Verstehen steht und fällt mit den vom (Radikalen) Konstruktivismus gemachten Voraussetzungen und den zu ihrer Stützung herangezogenen neurophysiologischen Befunden und mit einer Entscheidung, nämlich, Erkenntnistheorie nicht mehr als das “Erkennen-von-was”, sondern als das “Erkennen-von-wie” aufzufassen.

  168. Mancuso, J. C. & Hunter, K. V. (1985) Constructivist Assumptions in the Person Theories of George A. Kelly and Jean Piaget English version of a book chapter in: Mancini, F. & Semerari, A. (eds.) La psychologia dei costrutti personal: Saggi sulla teoria di G. A Kelly. Milano: Franco Angeli Libri, pp. 73-103. en 7 Jan 1999

    An essay in which the authors compare and contrast the constructivist assumptions in J. Piaget’s theories of human psychological development and George Kelly’s Psychology of Personal Constructs.

  169. Mancuso, James C. (2000) Claiming Giambattista Vico as a Narrativist/Copnstructivist Unpublished Paper en 27 Oct 2000

    This paper represents some of the thinking that preceded the author’s efforts to carefully draw out the basis of the claim that Giambattista Vico was a constructivist by drawing out the parallels between the formulations of Vico and the Personal Construct Psychology that has evolved from the work of George A. Kelly. It addresses the issue of how to speak of “inner respresentation”, how a person develops a system that allows inner representation.

  170. Mariotti, Humberto Autopoiesis, Culture and Society Unpublished manuscript. [Alternative site] en 16 Jun 1999

    Provides an overview of some of the fundamental principles of the work of Maturana and Varela and attempts to answer the question: “To what extent human social phenomenology could be seen as a biological phenomenology?”

  171. Matthews, Michael R. (1992) Old Wine In New Bottles: A Problem With Constructivist Epistemology Yearbook of Philosophy of Education en 11 May 2000

    The author’s criticism is that constructivism maintains the widespread, commonsensical, subject-centred, Aristotelian-empiricist epistemological paradigm, and by correctly pointing to a major error in empiricist assumptions, it then swings to a relativist epistemology without abandoning the paradigm itself. The relativist conclusion only follows within the empiricist paradigm, if this paradigm is rejected ã and there are good reasons for so doing ã no such relativist epistemological conclusions follow, and certainly no idealist ontological conclusions follow. Epistemologically, constructivism is the well-known old empiricist wolf in contemporary sheep’s clothing; to change metaphors, it is the empiricist wine, so criticised by constructivists, served up in new bottles.

  172. Maturana, H. & Nisis de Rezepka, S. Human Awareness: Understanding the Biological Basis of Knowledge and Love in Education en 07 May 1998

    The biology of cognition arises in the process of accepting that cognition is a biological phenomenon, and that it has to be explained as such. To do so entails asking the question, how do we do what we do as observers while we operate as living systems? Accepting such a question entails accepting all questions about how do we do what we do as living systems and as human beings. But it also entails that any explanatory answer that we may propose must be embedded in the understanding that living systems are structure determined systems, and that all that happens in them, to them, or with them, must happen in their continuous realization as structure determined systems.

  173. Maturana, H. & Verden-Zöller, G. (1996) Biology of Love In: Opp, G., Peterander, F. (eds) Focus Heilpadagogik. Ernst Reinhardt, München/Basel en 07 May 1998

    We human beings are love dependent animals. This is apparent in that we become ill when we are deprived of love at whatever age. No doubt we live a culture in which we are frequently in war and kill each other on different rational grounds that justify our mutual total denial as human beings. But doing that does not bring to us happiness, or spiritual comfort and harmony. Love and aggression - are they polar features of our biology or, of our cultural human existence? Are we genetically aggressive animals that love occassionally, or are we loving animals that cultivate aggression culturally? Our purpose in this article is to maintain that we are loving animals that cultivate aggression in a cultural alienation that may eventually change our biology.

  174. Maturana, H. R. Autopoiesis, Structural Coupling and Cognition: A history of these and other notions in the biology of cognition ? en 02 Jun 2003

    Reflection on the history of some biological notions such as autopoiesis, structural coupling, and cognition, that Maturana has developed since the early 1960’s as a result of my work on visual perception and the organization of the living.

  175. Maturana, H., Mpodozis, J. & Letelier, J. C. (1995) Brain, Language and the Origin of Human Mental Functions Biological Research 28: 15-26. Online version edited by Juan Jose Saen [Alternative site] en 25 Nov 1997

    In order to understand the biological and neurophysiological processes that give rise to human mental phenomena it is necessary to consider them as behavioral relational phenomena.

  176. Maturana, H. (1988) Ontology of Observing. The Biological Foundations Of Self Consciousness And the Physical Domain Of Existence In: Conference Workbook ‘Texts in Cybernetic Theory’, American Society For Cybernetics Conference, Felton, CA. 18-23 October, 1988. Online version edited by Alfredo Ruiz en 25 Nov 1997

    The purpose is to explain cognition as a biological phenomenon, and to show, in the process, how language arises and gives origin to self consciousness, revealing the ontological foundations of the physical domain of existence as a limiting cognitive domain.

  177. Maturana, H. (1988) Reality: The Search for Objectivity or the Quest for a Compelling Argument The Irish Journal of Psychology 9(1): 25-82. Online version edited by Jane Cull & Alexander Riegler European mirror [Alternative site] en 07 May 1998

    It is said that we human beings are rational animals. On account of this, we devalue emotions and exalt rationality so much that, whenever we see some complex behavior in a non-human animal, we want to ascribe rational thinking to it. In this process, we have made the notion of objective reality a reference to something that we deem universal and independent of what we do, and which we use as an argument aimed at compelling someone to do something against his or her will. As an analysis of this, the article concerns the ontology of reality and is a reflection on the social and ethical consequences that understanding such an ontology may have.

  178. Maturana, H. (1995) The Nature of Time Manuscript of November 1995. Online version edited by Alfredo Ruiz en 04 Dec 1997

    This document provides an overview of the biology of cognition, then concentrates on how the phenomenon we term “time” can be contextualized from this perspective.

  179. Maturana, Humberto & Varela, Francisco Social Phenomena and Communication Chapter in: The Tree of Knowledge, pages 193-194 en 28 Mar 2002
  180. Maturana, Humberto R. & Bunnell, Pille Biosphere, Homosphere, and Robosphere: what has that to do with Business? Paper based on a presentation made by Humberto Maturana at the Society for Organizational Learning Member’s Meeting, Amherst MA in June, 1998. en 14 Feb 2001

    Reflections on emotions, freedom, ethics and beauty, and their relationship to (human) history and living systems in general.

  181. Maturana, Humberto R. (1970) Biology of Cognition Biological Computer Laboratory Research Report BCL 9.0, Urbana IL: University of Illinois. Reprinted in: Maturana and Varela (1980) Autopoiesis and Cognition, pp. 5-58. en 04 Mar 2001

    This seminal paper starts with the claim that cognition is a biological function. Consequently, the author’s main question, “What is cognition?”, must be answered from a biological perspective, and “from understanding knowledge and the knower through the latter’s capacity to know.”

  182. Maturana, Humberto R. (1978) Biology of Language: The Epistemology of Reality Chapter 2 in Miller, G. A. & Lenneberg, E. (eds) Psychology and Biology of Language and Thought: Essays in Honor of Eric Lenneberg. New York: Academic Press, pp. 27-63. Online version edited by Randy Whitaker. [Alternative URL] en 07 May 1998

    This is the key essay on language and interaction by Maturana in which he extensively treats his view of linguistic interactions. He addresses two basic biological questions: 1. What processes must take place in an organism for it to establish a linguistic domain with another organism? 2. What processes take place in a linguistic interaction that permit an organism (us) to describe and to predict events that it may experience?

  183. Maturana, Humberto R. (1978) Cognition In: Hejl, Peter M., Wolfram K. Kˆck, and Gerhard Roth (eds.), Wahrnehmung und Kommunikation. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, pp. 29-49. en 04 Mar 2001

    Centers on the question “What phenomenon is the phenomenon of cognition?”

  184. Maturana, Humberto R. (2000) The effectiveness of mathematical formalisms Cybernetics & Human Knowing 7 (2-3): 147-150 en 04 Mar 2001

    Addresses the question: “How is that mathematical formalisms permit us to compute relations in the domain of what we call natural phenomena?”

  185. Maturana, Humberto R. Autopoiesis, Structural Coupling and Cognition Unpublished manuscript, not yet revised by the author. en 04 Mar 2001

    Reflections on the history of some biological notions such as autopoiesis, structural coupling, and cognition, that Humberto Maturana has developed since the early 1960s as a result of his work on visual perception and the organization of the living.

  186. Maturana-Romesín (2001) Comentario al artículo del Profesor Serani [Comments on Professor Serani’s article] Biological Research 34: 191-194 sp 05 Feb 2004
  187. Mazzotti, Tarso Bonilha (1999) Constructivism Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Education, edited by Michael A. Peters & Paulo Ghiraldelli Jr. en 31 Mar 2000

    Compares genetic construtivism (Piaget) with social constructivism

  188. McMullin, B. & Varela, Francisco J. (1997) Rediscovering Computational Autopoiesis Presented at ECAL-97, Brighton, UK July 1997 en 25 Nov 1997

    summarises some initial empirical results from a new computer model (artificial chemistry) which exhibits spontaneous emergence and persistence of autopoietic organisation. It is based on the Varela, Maturana and Uribe model of 1974.

  189. McMullin, B. (1997) Computational Autopoiesis: The Original Algorithm Working Paper 97-01-001 of the Santa Fe Institute. January 1997 [Alternative site] en 27 Feb 1998

    This report presents a detailed review and re-presentation of the algorithm for (computational) realisation of autopoiesis, originally presented by Varela et al. (1974). The review is from the perspective of one seeking to re-implement this algorithm. The motivation for such re-implementation is firstly to critically re-examine the phenomenology generated by this model chemistry, and secondly to use it as a basis for exploring more complex systems.

  190. McMullin, Barry (1992) Artificial Darwinism: The Very Idea! In: McMullin, B. (ed.) Proc. of the Workshop “Autopoiesis and Perception”, Dublin City Univ., Aug. 25-26 1992. 21 Jun 1999

    Artificial Darwinian evolution, an approach toward the realisation of a growth of knowledge in artificial systems, is compared with the work of Varela, and others, on the realisation of autopoiesis in related discrete, 2-dimensional, homogenous spaces. While both open-ended heredity (von Neumann) and spontaneous autopoiesis have been separately demonstrated in such systems, the combination of the two remains a difficult outstanding problem.

  191. Mitschian, Haymo (2000) Vom Behaviorismus zum Konstruktivismus. Das Problem der Übertragbarkeit lernpsychologischer und -philosophischer Erkenntnisse in die Fremdsprachendidaktik Zeitschrift für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht 4(3) de 28 Aug 2007
  192. Mitschian, Haymo (2000) Vom Behaviorismus zum Konstruktivismus. Das Problem der ‹bertragbarkeit lernpsychologischer und -philosophischer Erkenntnisse in die Fremdsprachendidaktik [From behaviorism to constructivism. The problem of transferring pschological and philosophical insights in learning to language didactics] Zeitschrift für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht [Online], 4(3), 26 pp. de 01 Sep 2000

    The paper provides an overview of theories in language learning methods. It argues that the unreflected confrontation of constructivism with behaviorism may have a negative effect on language teaching and learning.

  193. Moreno, Alvaro, Merelo, Juan Julian & Etxeberria, Arantza (1992) Perception, Adaptation and Learning In: McMullin, B. (ed.) Proc. of the Workshop “Autopoiesis and Perception”, Dublin City Univ., Aug. 25-26 1992. 21 Jun 1999

    Distinguishes ontogenetical adaptation from learning. Ontogenetical adaptation arises as a second order (sensorimotor) loop on the ground of the operational closure that provides autonomy and reproductive identity to the living system.

  194. Moriyama, Shigeru (2000) What is Life and Environment? Autopoiesis of Life World Unpublished paper en 28 Aug 2007

    This paper draws a more detailed picture of life as seen from autopoiesis, a system first conceived and developed by H. R. Maturana and F. J. Varela whose pioneering study on life has enabled us to focus upon how “life” comes into being. As will be shown, this study also aims to shed a new light on the hitherto unexplored nature of life and subsequently that of environment.

  195. Mpodozis, Jorge, Letelier, Juan Carlos, and Maturana, Humberto (1995) Nervous System as a Closed Neuronal Network: Behavioral and Cognitive Consequences In: José Mira and Francisco Sandoval (eds.) From Natural to Artificial Neural Computation. Lecture Notes in Computer Sience 930, Springer Verlag, pp. 130-136 en 14 Feb 2001

    The paper presents a theoretical framework about the nervous system’s operation that explains the origin of coordinated behaviour without violating the structural determinism inherent to the constitutive autonomy of living systems. It is shown that cognition is not the outcome of a computational task but rather is the result of the spontaneous structural coupling that takes place ontogenically and phylogenically between a living system and its circumstances of living.

  196. Murphy, Noel (1992) The Causal and Symbolic Explanatory Duality as a Framework for Understanding Vision In: McMullin, B. (ed.) Proc. of the Workshop "Autopoiesis and Perception", Dublin City Univ., Aug. 25-26 1992. en 21 Jun 1999

    An alternative approach to interpreting biological vision systems is the notion of information as being constructed and co-dependent rather than instructional and referential. This paper examines this radical change in perspective and compares it with a causality framework and with a position on the nature of perception which is based on the idea of universals.

  197. Murray, Joy (1994) Maturana’s Biology and Some Possible Implications for Education In: Fell, L. Russell, D. & Stewart, A. (eds.) Seized by Agreement, Swamped by Understanding. Hawkesbury Printing, Univ. of Western Sydney. 21 Jun 1999

    An attempt to present some of Maturana’s ideas and to suggest some of the implications of his biological theories for education.

  198. Mutschler, Hans-Dieter (1998) Die Welt als Konstruktion [The world as construction] In: Magerl, G. & Komarek, K. (eds.) Virtualität und Realität: Bild und Wirklichkeit der Naturwissenschaften, Böhlau-Verlag: Wien de 05 Feb 2004
  199. Müller, Albert (2000) Eine kurze Geschichte des BCL Österreichische Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaften 11 (1): 9-30. [PDF] de 24 Jun 2000

    Der Autor versucht den Ansatz einer Interpretation zu einem kleinen und ungewöhnlichen Kapitel der Wissenschaftsgeschichte der späten 1950er bis Mitte der 1970er Jahre, dem bisher nicht viel Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt wurde, dem Biological Computer Laboratory des Heinz von Foerster.

  200. Müller, Herbert F. J. Concept-Dynamics and the Mind-Brain Question Karl Jaspers Forum 32 en 06 Dec 2000

    Some difficulties of the relation between thinking and brain function can become more easily comprehensible through an examination of the relevant concept-dynamics. This concerns mainly the transcendence of experience by concepts, and following from here the subject/object split (of ontological or functional type), development and functions of static metaphysics (“realism”), and further the concept- surpassing (encompassing) property of experience. Momentary ongoing experience is the nucleus of thinking (“consciousness”) and must not be neglected in the study of this question. It is “given” (ie, not invented by us) but it is structured by us in its entirety. Whatever can be said about the brain and its functions uses concept-structures which are made by us within given experience. But it is not possible inversely to derive ongoing mind-and-nature experience from objective knowledge, nor can experience be reduced to it. Thinking does not come from the brain, the brain comes from thinking. A belief in mind-independently structured reality blocks the access to the question about this process. On the other hand, metaphysics can become functional in the form of working metaphysics, and in this way the encompassing aspect of experience remains evident.

  201. Müller, Jean-Pierre, and Rodriguez, Miguel O. (1996) A Constructivist Approach To Autonomous Systems Presented at the Growing Mind Symposium (Piaget Centenary), Geneva, September 1996 en 04 Jun 2001

    The authors argue that for a robot, representation cannot be a representation of an external world, inaccessible to the robot anyway, but only of the interaction history as perceived by the robot itself. They propose such a representation as a graph encoding of the interaction history and show its usages for interpreting, structuring and planning without having to refer to any external environment.

  202. Müller, Karl H. & Grössing, Gerhard (2001) Das Gestalten gestalten, das Lernen lernen Der Standard, 19.10.2001 de 18 Dec 2001

    The authors discuss Heinz von Foerster’s suggestions of how to improve the educational system.

  203. Nakott, Jürgen (1998) Neues aus der Gehirnforschung – Jeder irrt, der zu wissen glaubt, was ein anderer denkt Bild der Wissenschaft, October 1998 (alternative URL) de 06 Sep 2001

    Interview with Gerhard Roth. Among other things, Roth discusses solipsims, radical and “moderate” constructivism.

  204. O’Regan, J. Kevin. & Noë, Alva. (2001) What it is like to see: A sensorimotor theory of perceptual experience. Synthese 129: 79-103 en 27 Nov 2003

    The paper proposes a way of bridging the gap between physical processes in the brain and the “felt” aspect of sensory experience. We are able to characterize the phenomenological differences between the different sensory modalities in a more principled way than has been done in the past.

  205. Palmer, Kent (1998) Autopoietic Meta-theory: Paradox and Supra-rationality Unpublished manuscript. en 20 Jun 2000

    In order to cancel the paradoxicality of classicial autopoietic observer systems theory, this paper proposes using supra-rationality. The resulting meta-theory sees the roots of autopietic theory in Formal Structural Systems theory such as that propounded by Klir.

  206. Pangaro, Paul (1997) THOUGHTSTICKER and Me: A Personal History of Conversation Theory in Software, and its Progenitor, Gordon Pask Written for a festschrift in celebration of Gordon Pask to be published by the International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, edited by B. Scott and R. Glanville en 09 Jun 2000

    Describes Pask’s Conversation Theory that gave immediate prescriptions for the construction of training systems and adaptive, personalized information browsers. Over a 15-year period, many software prototypes were constructed and gave proof to the applicability of Pask’s theory. This paper explains how, already, they are practical.

  207. Peschl, Markus & Riegler, Alexander (1999) Does Representation Need Reality? Rethinking Epistemological Issues in the Light of Recent Developments and Concepts in Cognitive Science In: Riegler, A. Peschl, M. & Stein, A. von (eds.) (1999) Understanding Representation in the Cognitive Sciences. New York: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, pp. 9-17. 21 Jun 1999

    This paper discusses the notion of representation. It argues for a distinction between the classical view of referential representation, and the alternative concept of system-relative representation. The latter refers to situated cognitive processes whose dynamics are merely modulated by their environment rather than being instructed and determined by it.

  208. Peschl, Markus F. & Riegler, Alexander (2001) Virtual Science. Virtuality and Knowledge Acquisition in Science and Cognition In: Riegler, A. et al. (eds.) Virtual Reality. Cognitive Foundations, Technological Issues, and Philosophical Implications. Peter Lang Verlag: Frankfurt/M., pp. 9-32. [More about this book] en 18 Dec 2001

    The focus of this paper is the process of knowledge acquisition (KA) and which role virtuality plays in this context. We argue that there are three different modes of knowledge acquisition which can be identified both in the domains of cognition and science: the empirical, the “constructive”, and the “synthetic” mode. We show that the method of constructing knowledge in the virtual domain (i.e., the synthetic mode of KA) is not only a principal mode of KA in our cognition (e.g., thought experiments, making plans, etc.). It becomes increasingly important in the field of (natural) science in the form of simulations and virtual experiments. The attempt to find an answer to the question of whether simulation can be an information source for science, and to validate the computational approach in science, leads to a new interpretation of the nature of virtual models. This new perspective renders the problem of “feature extraction” obsolete.

  209. Peschl, Markus (2001) Constructivism, Cognition, and Science. An Investigation of Its Links and Possible Shortcomings Foundation of Science, special issue “The Impact of Radical Constructivism on Science”, vol. 6, nos. 1-3: 125-161. [More about this journal issue] en 18 Dec 2001

    This paper addresses the questions concerning the relationship between scientific and cognitive processes. The fact that both, science and cognition, aim at acquiring some kind of knowledge or representation about the “world” is the key for establishing a link between these two domains. It turns out that the constructivist framework represents an adequate epistemological foundation for this undertaking, as its focus of interest is on the (constructive) relationship between the world and its representation. The final part of this paper addresses some more fundamental questions concerning the positivistic and constructivist understanding of science and human cognition.

  210. Pitasi, Andrea (2002) The Technological Construction of Self as Individual Pattern of Communication Us Accepted for the conference program of the 2003 as key note speech V of the European Communication Association (ECA) Munich, March 2003. EN 23 Jul 2003

    This work introduces the epistemological design of CHRP 512 AS which is a technology of self designed to facilitate the individuals to perceive, construct and evolve self referentially their own interpretation, through coding and programming, of the media noise transforming it into meaningful communication. The theoretical foundations of this work are mainly rooted in Niklas Luhmann’s system theory, Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory and in Georg Simmel’s theory of social differentation.

  211. Pitasi, Andrea (2002) Constructivism, Zen Buddhism and the Individual Patterns of Communication Use in the Age of the Plural Self In: Riegler, A. (ed.) Radical Constructivism Paper Collection. Available: http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/papers/ EN 23 Jul 2003

    Leon Rappoport Interviewed by Andrea Pitasi.

  212. Pitasi, Andrea (2004) The Triple Helix of University-Government-Industry Relations In: Riegler, A. (ed.) Radical Constructivism Paper Collection. Available: http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/papers/ en 21 Oct 2004

    Andrea Pitasi interviews Loet Leydesdorff about his book: A Sociological Theory of Communication: The Self-Organization of the Knowledge-Based Society. Parkland, FL: Universal Publishers.

  213. Proulx,Jérôme (2006) Constructivism: A re-equilibration and clarification of the concepts, and some potential implications for teaching and pedagogy Radical Pedagogy en 28 Aug 2007

    The article offers a synthesis and a clarification of important aspects of the constructivist theory of learning – under its “radical constructivist” version as developed and promoted by Ernst von Glasersfeld.

  214. Pörksen, Bernhard (1998) Wir sehen nicht, daß wir nicht sehen Vorabdruck von Heinz von Foerster und Bernhard Pörksen: “Wahrheit ist die Erfindung eines Lügners. Gespräche für Skeptiker.” Carl-Auer-Systeme Verlag: Heidelberg. de 16 Jun 1999

    Der Philosoph und Physiker Heinz von Foerster über die Entwicklung der Kybernetik, die Computermetapher des Geistes und die Versuche, das Gehirn zu verstehen.

  215. Quartz, S. R. & Sejnowski, T. J. (1996) The Neural Basis Of Cognitive Development: A Constructivist Manifesto Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 1996 en 27 Feb 1998

    How do minds emerge from developing brains? According to “neural constructivism”, the representational features of cortex are built from the dynamic interaction between neural growth mechanisms and environmentally derived neural activity.

  216. Ramellini, P. (1998) Some Remarks on Maturana and Varela’s ‘Autopoiesis and Cognition’ Unpublished manuscript. en 12 Mar 1999

    The cases of biomembranes and of the cell are discussed, showing the inexcapable limits of observative distinctions which are the foundations of autopoietic theory. Additionally, a proposal of reconsidering the relation between life and autopoiesis is advanced.

  217. Raskin, Jonathan D. (2002) Constructivism in psychology: Personal construct psychology, radical constructivism, and social constructionism. In J. D. Raskin & S. K. Bridges (eds.) Studies in meaning: Exploring constructivist psychology. New York: Pace University Press, pp. 1-25. en 03 Aug 2003

    This paper attempts to clarify similarities and differences among three key constructivist psychologies. The author describes “personal construct psychology,” “radical constructivism,” and “social constructionism,” and suggests that the commonalities among these approaches outweigh the points of divergence. All three approaches center on human meaning making as psychology’s primary focus of inquiry.

  218. Ravitz, J., Becker, H. & Wong, Y. (2000) Constructivist compatible beliefs and practices among U.S. teachers Teaching, Learning, and Computing: 1998 National Survey Report #4. Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations, University of California, Irvine, and University of Minnesota. en 07 May 2011

    Widely endorsed DoE and NSF-funded study of US teachers' constructivist-related beliefs and practices.

  219. Reinfried, Marcus (2000) Can Radical Constructivism Achieve a Viable Basis for Foreign Language Teaching? A Refutation of the ‘Wolff-Wendt’ Theorem de 29 Apr 2003

    The author comes to the conclusion that radical constructivism will not work as a methodological meta-theory for language learning because it has a number of serious weaknesses at the explanatory level as well as areas of inconsistency. This paper argues, however, for a realistic constructivist version of the theory, which may well serve as an epistemological basis and which, at the same time, opposes learner-centred theories taking an absolutist position in language learning.

  220. Reinhardt, Christoph (1994) Literatur in einem neuen Paradigma des Verstehens - Konstruktivismus und konstruktivistische Thesen zur Hermeneutik Seminararbeit zu “Literarische Hermeneutik” am Institut für Deutsche Sprache und Literatur II der Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt. de 01 Sep 2000
  221. Reithmayr, Franz (1989) Die Innenwelt der Aussenwelt der Innenwelt. Bemerkungen zu Glasersfeld Prima philosophia 2(3), Cuxhaven. Reprinted in Schriftenreihe des IaM 1 de 16 Sep 2004
  222. Riegler, Alexander (1992) Constructivist Artificial Life, and Beyond In: McMullin, B. (ed.) Proc. of the Workshop “Autopoiesis and Perception”, Dublin City Univ., Aug. 25-26 1992. 21 Jun 1999

    This paper provides an epistemological context for Artificial Life projects. In particular it shows how higher cognitive structures may emerge from simple ones. The approach is somewhat radical as it tries to start on the lowest possible level avoiding as many a priori assumptions and anthropocentric ascriptions as possible.

  223. Riegler, Alexander (2001) Towards a Radical Constructivist Understanding of Science Foundation of Science, special issue “The Impact of Radical Constructivism on Science”, vol. 6, nos. 1-3: 1-30. [More about this journal issue] en 18 Dec 2001

    The paper provides an introduction into Radical Constrcutivism (RC) that focusses on organizatorial closure and its consequences. It discusses the question why constructions are not arbitrary, resulting in the formulation of the Postulate of the Limitations of Constructions. Finally, it demands to carry RC further, not just on philosophical grounds, but also into the domain of science.

  224. Rocha, L. (1996) Eigenbehavior and Symbols Systems Research, Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 371-384, 1996, Special Issue Heinz von Foerster Festschrift, Ranulph Glanville (ed.) en 25 Nov 1997

    This paper sketches a rough taxonomy of self-organization which may be of relevance in the study of cognitive and biological systems. The problem is framed both in terms of the language Heinz von Foerster used to formulate much of second-order cybernetics as well as the language of current theories of self-organization and complexity.

  225. Ryder, Martin (1995) USENET: a constructivist learning environment Presented to a session of the Association for Educational Communications (AECT ‘95) in Anaheim CA, February, 1995 en 12 Dec 2003
  226. Scheer, Jörn W. (1996) A Short Introduction To Personal Construct Psychology In: J. W. Scheer & Ana Catina (Eds.) Empirical Constructivism in Europe - The Personal Construct Approach. Giessen: Psychosozial Verlag, pp. 13-17. 16 Jun 1999

    After the “cognitive turn” of late in psychology, Kelly’s theory seems to be more “modern” than ever. On the other hand, with the relativistic ideas of constructivism, especially the “radical” version having become more popular, Kelly’s stance on empirical evidence (validation in his terms) has become increasingly attractive to researchers and practitioners who feel the need of empirical validation of their own concepts.

  227. Schmidt, Siegfried J. (1993) Zur Ideengeschichte des Radikalen Konstruktivismus In: Florey, Ernst & Breidbach, Olaf (eds.) Das Gehirn – Organ der Seele? Zur Ideengeschichte der Neurobiologie. Akademie-Verlag: Berlin, pp. 327-349. de 28 Aug 2007
  228. Schmidt, Siegfried J. (1996) Was leistet ein Vertreter einer historisch-kritischen Hermeneutik für die Kritik am Radikalen Konstruktivismus und an der Em- pirischen Literaturwissenschaft? Deutsche Vierteljahrs Schrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte 70(2) de 28 Aug 2007

    R. Gehrke’s attack on Radical Constructivism and the Empirical Study of Literature is subjected to critical analysis. It is shown that dubious philological procedures are employed in order to discredit an inopportune scholarly position.

  229. Schröder, Stephan Michael et al. (1997) Konstruktion und Diskussion zentraler Arbeitsbegriffe: Konstruktion/Konstruktivismus [Construction and discussion of main working concepts: Construction/Constructivism] In: Working papers “Gemeinschaften” of the Swedish-German research project “Den kulturella konstruktionen av gemenskaper i moderniseringsprocessen: Sverige och Tyskland i jämförelse / Die kulturelle Konstruktion von Gemeinschaften im Modernisierungsprozeß: Schweden und Deutschland”, Number 2 “Konstruktion und Diskussion zentraler Arbeitsbegriffe”, ISBN 3-932406-03-6 de 14 Feb 2001
  230. Schwegler, Helmut (2001) Physics Develops Unaffected by Constructivism Foundation of Science, special issue “The Impact of Radical Constructivism on Science”, vol. 6, no. 4: 241-253. en 18 Dec 2001

    The way physics and other parts of science work can be explained in the framework of radical constructivism. However, this constructivist view itself shows that a uniquily accepted epistemology, constructivism or any other, would not be an advantage for the development of science. Unlike physics some parts of science successfully use constructivist concepts inside their theories. Because this is the case particularly in learning theory, constructivist ideas can help to improve physics teaching.

  231. Schweizer, Stefan (2007) Deutscher Idealismus, Autopoiese und Radikaler Konstruktivismus. 1. Teil: Eine ideengeschichtliche Rekonstruktion Electroneurobiología 15(1): 3-62 de 28 Aug 2007

    The present two-article series first shows that the axiomatics of the systemic-cybernetic-biological theory of self-organization by Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela has its nourishing roots in the philosophy of German Idealism. Especially the completely subject-centered philosophy of Johann Gottlieb Fichte already contains the entire central axiomatics of Maturana and Varela. Some of these ideas, isolatedly, have been usual also before in South America’s German-influenced neurobiology, such as the difference between organization and structure (the first common and essential to every living organism and the second variable, specific and concrete) taught by Ramón Carrillo in Buenos Aires in the 1940’s.

  232. Scott, Bernard (1996) Second Order Cybernetics as Cognitive Methodology Systems Research 13 (3): 393-406 (contribution to a Festschrift in honour of Heinz von Foerster). en 16 Mar 2004

    The paper explores ways in which second-order cybernetics may unify debates and discussions in the vast range of disciplines concerned with the observer, his experiences and his accounts of those experiences. A major aim of the paper is to seek ways of navigating or building bridges between the praxes of rational science and the discourses of phenomenology and poetics.

  233. Scott, Bernard (2001) Gordon Pask’s Conversation Theory: A Domain Independent Constructivist Model of Human Knowing Foundation of Science, special issue “The Impact of Radical Constructivism on Science”, vol. 6, no. 4: 343-360. [More about this journal issue] en 18 Dec 2001

    Although it is conceded (as argued by many) that distinct knowledge domains do present particular problems of coming to know, in this paper it is argued that it is possible (and useful) to construct a domain independent model of the processes of coming to know, one in which observers share understandings and do so in agreed ways. The model in question is part of the conversation theory (CT) of Gordon Pask. CT, as a theory of theory construction and communication, has particular relevance for foundational issues in science and science education. CT explicitly propounds a “radical constructivist” (RC) epistemology. A brief account is given of the main tenets of RC and CT’s place in that tradition and the traditions of cybernetics, and of the main concepts of CT.

  234. Searle, John R. Was ist Realismus? Aus Kapitel 7: Existiert die wirkliche Welt? Teil 1: Angriffe auf den Realismus. In: John R. Searle: Die Konstruktion der gesellschaftlichen Wirklichkeit. Zur Ontologie sozialer Tatsachen. Deutsch von Martin Suhr. rowohlts enzyklopädie 55587. Reinbek bei Hamburg 1997. S.162-170. (Maintained by Axel W. Bauer) de 16 Jun 1999
  235. Serani-Merlo, Alejandro (2001) Problemas biofilosóficos y epistemológicos en el estudio de los seres vivos: En diálogo con el pensamiento de Humberto Maturana Romesín [Biophilosophical and epistemological problems in the study of living beings: Reflections on the views of Humberto Maturana] Biological Research 34: 179-189. sp 05 Feb 2004
  236. Serani-Merlo, Alejandro (2002) De seres vivos y opciones metafísicas [On living beings and metaphysical options] Biological Research 35 (1): 7-8. sp 05 Feb 2004

    Criticism on Maturana

  237. Sharov, Alexei (2001) Pragmatism and Umwelt-theory A modified version appears in “Semiotica” en 04 Jun 2001

    The author suggests that Uexküll’s Umwelt-theory provides a biological turn in pragmatism and semiotics. He reviews major arguments pro and against biologically-grounded pragmatism, discusses the relationship between pragmatism and evolutionary theory, and finally shows that the notion of reproductive value can be considered a universal measure of usefulness in intentional systems which may lead to the development of quantitative pragmatism in the future.

  238. Stangl, Werner (1989) Eine radikal konstruktivistische Psychologie - Probleme und Perspektiven Unpublished manuscript of a talk given at a symposium in Vienna, 2 Dec 1989. de 21 Jun 2001
  239. Steffe, Leslie P. (1998) Intersubjectivity in Mathematics Learning: A Challenge to the Radical Constructivist Paradigm? A Reply to Lerman Chreods 13, October 1998. 09 Jun 1999

    The author argues that there is no principled reason for why a social view of knowledge poses a major problem for radical constructivism. He points to fundamental compatibilities between the work of Vygotsky and von Glasersfeld and negates the claim that radical constructivism is unable to provide an adequate account of intersubjectivity.

  240. Stewart, Alan (1994) Constructivism and Collaborative Enterprises In: Fell, L. Russell, D. & Stewart, A. (eds.) Seized by Agreement, Swamped by Understanding. Hawkesbury Printing, Univ. of Western Sydney. 21 Jun 1999

    This paper is a contribution to a dialogue on contructivist ideas in qualitative research in which collaborative inquiry is a central feature. It proposes that a constructivist methodology or epistemology for collaborative inquiry can be developed from primary theoretical concepts such as Structural Determinism of Maturana, second order cybernetics of von Foerster and van Glasersfeld and of Personal Construct Theory of Kelly.

  241. Stewart, Alan (1994) Cybernetic Conversation In: Fell, L. Russell, D. & Stewart, A. (eds.) Seized by Agreement, Swamped by Understanding. Hawkesbury Printing, Univ. of Western Sydney. 21 Jun 1999

    If a therapist, practitioner or facilitator of research engages with individuals or groups on a basis of relational equality the outcomes can be unanticipated new knowledge which leads to new actions. The process by which this happens is called ‘cybernetic conversation’ to point to the ontology of both the ‘creating the relating’ and its outcomes. There is a biological epistemology for the process, based on second order cybernetics whose constructivist underpinning is useful as an ‘as if’ framework for emancipatory action.

  242. Stewart, John (2001) Radical Constructivism in Biology and Cognitive Science Foundation of Science, special issue “The Impact of Radical Constructivism on Science”, vol. 6, nos. 1-3: 99-124. [More about this journal issue] en 18 Dec 2001

    This article addresses the issue of “objectivism vs constructivism” in two areas, biology and cognitive science, which are intermediate between the natural sciences such as physics (where objectivism is dominant) and the human and social sciences (where constructivism is widespread). It is argued that Radical constructivism is self-coherent; but it also rehabilitates a weak form of objectivism as a pragmatically viable alternative. In conclusion, there is an even-handed reciprocity between “objectivist” and “constructivist” perspectives. Finally, the article examines the consequences of this conclusion for fields other than cognitive science: biology; physics and the natural sciences; and the human and social sciences.

  243. Sweeney, K. (1994) Constructivism in Cognitive Film Theory Film and Philosophy, Volume II, Guest Editor: Allan Casebier en 04 Dec 1997

    Viewers construct a hypothesis about the meaning of the events they perceive. They then match narrative events to this hypothesis so as to infer a film’s meaning. In comprehending or interpreting the screened images, viewers actually construct the film. This thesis about the viewer-created film is referred to as constructivism.

  244. Taverniers, Karin (2003) The Construction of a Multiculturally Changing Self In: Riegler, A. (ed.) Radical Constructivism Paper Collection. Available: http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/papers/ EN 23 Jul 2003

    The paper first analyzes the notion of the Self throughout the history of Philosophy, Psychology, through Postmodernism. Then it demonstrates how Modernism, with its use of objective analysis, systematic knowledge and scientific language, led up to a far more subjective, changing, fragmented, and multidimensional concept of the Self. Finally it shows to cover how society and culture have changed in the past decades, and how this has had an effect on the formation of one’s Identity or one’s Self.

  245. Terpstra, Marin (1999) De wereld en ik (objectiviteit en subjectiviteit) Unpublished manuscript. ne 16 May 2000

    Een gangbare maatstaf om wetenschappelijke kennis (objectief) van alledaagse kennis (subjectief) te onderscheiden blijkt in het licht van de denkfiguur van de communicatie niet zonder problemen.

  246. Thissen, Frank (1997) Das Lernen neu erfinden - Grundlagen einer konstruktivistischen Multimedia-Didaktik In: Beck, U. & Sommer, W. (eds.) LEARNTEC 97. Europäischer Kongreß für Bildungstechnologie und betriebliche Bildung. Tagungsband, Karlsruhe, pp. 69-79 (english version) de en 16 Jul 1999
  247. Thompson, Evan (2001) Obituary of Francisco J. Varela (1946-2001) Pyche 7(2) en 28 Mar 2002
  248. Thompson, P. W. (1995) Constructivism, Cybernetics, and Information Processing: Implications for Technologies of Research on Learning In: Constructivism in Education, ed. By L.P. Steffe and J. Gale, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1995, 123-133. 09 Jun 1999

    The paper attempt to make a case that to do research, we must spend a good part of our time acting as naive constructivists, even when operating within a radical constructivist or ecological constructionist framework. The orientation the author has in mind is not unreflexive, therefore he calls it utilitarian constructivism.

  249. Tinkler, Don (2000) Constructivism, Computers and Information Literacy Tinkler, Don, Constructivism Computers and Information Literacy, en 18 Dec 2001

    A paper developed from a professional development module commissioned in 1997 by the Department of Science and Mathematics, University of Melbourne, for inclusion in a CD-ROM titled CLICK! Computers and Learning in Classrooms, K-6, published by Melbourne University Press in May 2000. (Paper re-written September 2000)

  250. Tötösy de Zepetnek, Steven (2001) Constructivism and Comparative Cultural Studies A modified version appeared in: Frame. Tijdschrift voor Literatuurwetenschap 15 (1): 38-60. en 21 Mar 2001

    The author introduces the beginnings of a theoretical framework for the study of culture and literature. He briefly describes relevant histories of constructivist thought in order to present the background of his proposed framework.

  251. Tötösy de Zepetnek, Steven (2002) Constructivism and Comparative Cultural Studies CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture (Purdue University Press) en 20 Aug 2008

    In this paper, the beginnings of a theoretical framework for the study of culture and literature. The epistemological background of the proposed framework of comparative cultural studies is built principally on Siegfried J. Schmidt’s work in radical constructivism. After the presentation of relevant histories and the tenets of several schools of constructivism applicable for the proposed framework of comparative cultural studies, Tötösy de Zepetnek presents a ten-point preliminary outline of comparative cultural studies. Based on constructivist tenets including constructivist ethics, social responsibility, and a contextual (empirical and systems theory-based) approach, Tötösy de Zepetnek argues that the study of culture and literature and their composite parts and aspects in the mode of comparative cultural studies enhances scholarship in the humanities against the current diminishing relevance of the field.

  252. Umpleby, Stuart A. (1990) The Science of Cybernetics and the Cybernetics of Science Cybernetics and Systems 21 (1): 109-121 en 06 Oct 2000

    Recent developments in cybernetics have challenged key tenets in the philosophy of science. The philosophy of science constitutes a theory of knowledge which is often called realism. However, the philosophy of science is not a unified field, there are a variety of points of view. Contemporary cybernetics, meanwhile, is developing a philosophy called constructivism. This paper compares cybernetics with two important schools of thought within the philosophy of science, lists several different assumptions which lead to misunderstandings between scientists and cyberneticians, and then suggests a way of resolving the differences, not by rejecting science but by enlarging it.

  253. Umpleby, Stuart A. (1991) Strategies for Winning Acceptance of Second Order Cybernetics Presented at the International Symposium on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics Baden-Baden, Germany, August 12-18, 1991 16 Jun 1999

    This paper reviews the strategies that have so far been employed in attempts to win acceptance for second order cybernetics which promises to have an important impact on the philosophy of science. Four strategies are discussed: develop the new point of view; develop applications of the new ideas to show their usefulness; reconstruct the philosophy of science incorporating the new ideas; and contrast the philosophical origins of cybernetics with that of the dominant scientific world view.

  254. Umpleby, Stuart A. (1994) The Cybernetics of Conceptual Systems prepared for the Institute for Advanced Studies in Vienna, Austria en 06 Oct 2000

    Cybernetics in the United States has evolved through three identifiable periods. In the first period of the 1950s and 1960s there was a primary concern with designing control systems and with building machines to emulate human reasoning. In the second period of the 1970s and 1980s the focus of attention was on the biology of cognition and constructivist philosophy. In recent years increasing attention has been given to social systems. Whereas the work on the biology of cognition required that attention be shifted from what was observed to the observer, the recent interest in social systems requires an emphasis on multiple observers and their beliefs. The third period of social cybernetics or the cybernetics of conceptual systems is illustrated by considering constructivist cybernetics as a conceptual system created to promote the evolution of certain social systems in a preferred direction.

  255. Ursula Oberst La Psicología Adleriana en el contexto de las teorías constructivistas Unpublished document at the department of Psychology, Ramon Llull University (Barcelona, Spain) sp 15 Jul 2000

    The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler traditionally is thought a psychoanalitic theory. But it can also be considered a constructivist approach. In this article a definition of constructivism in psychotherapy is given and it is shown how the Adlerian theory fits in. Finally, implications for cross-fertilization or theoretical integration will be discussed.

  256. Vanderstraeten, Raf and Biesta, Gert (1998) Constructivism, Educational Research, and John Dewey Presented at the 20th World Congress of Philosophy, in Boston, Massachusetts from August 10-15, 1998. 18 Jun 1999

    This paper will, first, focus on the layout of and diverging perspectives within recent constructivist research in education. Next, the epistemological approach of John Dewey will be discussed, which takes as its starting point the relation of knowledge to action. Finally, we will indicate what a Deweyan approach might add to the constructivist research in education.

  257. Varela, Francisco J. & Shear, Jonathan First-person methodologies: what, why, how? Introduction to: F. Varela and J. Shear (eds.) (1999) The View from Within: First-Person Methodologies. Imprint Academic: London. [Cached PDF version] en 04 Mar 2001

    The authors distinguish between first-person events, which are the lived experience associated with cognitive and mental events, and third-person descriptions, which concern the descriptive experiences associated with the study of other natural phenomena.

  258. Varela, Francisco J. (1992) Autopoiesis and a Biology of Intentionality In: McMullin, B. (ed.) Proc. of the Workshop “Autopoiesis and Perception”, Dublin City Univ., Aug. 25-26 1992. 21 Jun 1999

    The intention of this paper is to indicate some fundamental or foundational issues of the relation between autopoiesis and perception. Since the crisis of classical cognitive science has thrown open the issue of intentionality, iautopoiesis provides a natural entry into a view of intentionalty that is seminal in answering the major obstacles that have been addressed recently.

  259. Varela, Francisco J. (1995) Heinz von Foerster, the scientist, the man Stanford Humanities Review, volume 4, issue 2: Constructions of the Mind 16 Jun 1999
  260. Varela, Francisco J. (1996) Neurophenomenology: A Methodological Remedy for the Hard Problem Journal of Consciousness Studies (special issue on the hard problems, edited by J. Shear) 3 (4): 330-349 16 Jun 1999

    Neuro-phenomenology is the name Varela uses here to designate a quest to marry modern cognitive science and a disciplined approach to human experience, thereby placing himself in the lineage of the continental tradition of Phenomenology.

  261. Varela, Francisco J. (1999) The Specious Present: A Neurophenomenology of Time Consciousness In: J. Petitot, F.J. Varela, B. Pachoud, and J.-M. Roy (eds.) Naturalizing Phenomenology: Issues in Contemporary Phenomenology and Cognitive Science. Stanford University Press, Stanford. [Cached PDF version] 16 Jun 1999

    The purpose of this article is to propose an explicitly naturalized account of the experience of present nowness on the basis of two complementary sources: phenomenological analysis and cognitive neuroscience.

  262. Vernon, David & Furlong, Dermot (1992) Relativistic Ontologies, Self-Organization, Autopoiesis, and Artificial Life: A Progression in the Science of the Autonomous. Part I: The Philosophical Foundations In: McMullin, B. (ed.) Proc. of the Workshop “Autopoiesis and Perception”, Dublin City Univ., Aug. 25-26 1992. 21 Jun 1999

    The authors look at the philosophical aspects of the development of autonomous systems, touching upon the inadequacies of conventional (positivistic) ontologies and philosophies of science, and describe an alternative relativistic ontology. They argue that self-organization is a necessary condition for autonomous systems and we highlight the difficulties that this raises for conventional representational approaches to autonomous systems. Finally, a methodology for discourse in relativistic ontology is discussed.

  263. Vernon, David & Furlong, Dermot (1992) Relativistic Ontologies, Self-Organization, Autopoiesis, and Artificial Life: A Progression in the Science of the Autonomous. Part II: A Scientific Development In: McMullin, B. (ed.) Proc. of the Workshop “Autopoiesis and Perception”, Dublin City Univ., Aug. 25-26 1992. 21 Jun 1999

    The authors describe the progress which has been made towards the development of a computational simulation of autopoietic organization, beginning with a formulation in terms of the Calculus of Indications (incorporating Varela’s extensions to include autonomous forms), and incorporating the Systematic formulation.

  264. Viskovatoff, Alex Foundations of Niklas Luhmann’s Theory of Social Systems. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Dec99, Vol. 29 Issue 4, p481, 36p en 27 Nov 2003

    Crticial article that argues that Luhmann’s choice to make biology especially Maturana and Varela’s theory of autopoiesis the basis of his theory was a poor one and is therefore flawed.

  265. Weber, Stefan (2001) Sind philosophische Duelle immer nur Scheingefechte? Telepolis 23.05.2001 de 22 Mar 2002

    Review of the books Josef Mitterer “Die Flucht aus der Beliebigkeit” and Bernhard Pörksen “Abschied vom Absoluten”.

  266. Wellner, Jörg (1998) Machine Epistemology for Artificial Life In: C. Wilke, S. Altmeyer, and T. Martinetz (eds.) Third German Workshop on Artificial Life, Verlag Harri Deutsch, pp. 225-238. en 04 Jan 2001

    Draws implications from Radical Constructivism for the construction of epistemologically grounded agents in Artificial Life.

  267. Werning, Rolf (1998) Konstruktivismus. Eine Anregung für die Pädagogik? Pädagogik Heft 7-8/1998, S. 39-41 de 02 Jan 2004

    Was ist das Spannende und Innovative am Konstruktivismus, und warum kann es sich aus pädagogischer Sicht lohnen, diese - auf einer metatheoretischen Ebene angesiedelte - Perspektive kennenzulernen?

  268. Whitaker, R. (1994) Interactional models for collective support systems: An application of autopoietic theory In: Glanville, R., and de Zeeuw, G. (eds) Interactive Interfaces and Human Networks, Amsterdam: Thesis Publishers, 1994, 119-135 en 27 Feb 1998

    Interactional models are of increasing concern in the design of information technology (IT), and they will become even more important as systems are progressively targeted to support groups rather than individual users. Deriving from the autopoietic theory of Maturana and Varela are two models of social systems which are employed to analyze IT systems and the design processes by which they are constructed.

  269. Whitaker, R. (1995)
  270. Whitaker, R. (1996) Autopoietic Theory en 09 Jun 1999

    This introductory tutorial is designed to provide a brief overview of autopoietic theory – the work of Chilean biologists Humberto R. Maturana and Francisco J. Varela. Each section provides a summary overview of a key concept.

  271. Wilson, B. G. (1997) The Postmodern Paradigm In: C. R. Dills and A. A. Romiszowski (eds) Instructional development paradigms. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Educational Technology Publications en 04 Dec 1997

    This paper suggests that (1) postmodern perspectives about the world underlie much constructivist writing, and (2) a postmodern stance can offer positive, constructive critiques of instructional design (ID) practice.

  272. Wilson, Brent G. (1997) Reflections on Constructivism and Instructional Design In: C. R. Dills and A. A. Romiszowski (eds.) Instructional Development Paradigms. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Educational Technology Publications. en 20 Jun 2000
  273. Woch, Jens (1998) Towards the Necessity of Constructivism as an Epistemology of Agents in the Social Sciences In: Trappl, R. (ed.) Procs. of the 14th European Meeting on Cybernetics and Systems Research (EMCSR), Vienna/Austria en 25 Jun 2000

    Models of social agents are often based on wrong assumptions in the fields of cognition and epistemology so far. Constructivism seems to provide an appropriate principle for the modelling of inner and outer worlds, because of its refusal of the existence of mutually knowledgeable truth. Therefore, agents based on the principles of constructivism are much better situated for the modelling of social systems.

  274. Ziemke, Tom (2001) The Construction of ‘Reality’ in the Robot: Constructivist Perspectives on Situated Artificial Intelligence and Adaptive Robotics Foundation of Science, special issue “The Impact of Radical Constructivism on Science”, vol. 6, nos. 1-3: 163-233. [More about this journal issue] en 18 Dec 2001

    This paper discusses different approaches in cognitive science and artificial intelligence research from the perspective of radical constructivism, addressing especially their relation to the biologically based theories of von Uexküll, Piaget as well as Maturana and Varela. In particular recent work in ‘New AI’ and adaptive robotics on situated and embodied intelligence is examined, and we discuss in detail the role of constructive processes as the basis of situatedness in both robots and living organisms

  275. Zitterbarth, Walter (1991) Der Erlanger Konstruktivismus in seiner Beziehung zum Konstruktiven Realismus. Chapter 7 In: Peschl, M. F. (ed.) (1991) Formen des Konstruktivismus in Diskussion. Wien: WUV-Universitätsverlag, pp. 73-87. de 20 Apr 2002

    Discusses the relationship between RC and the Erlangen School. (In contrast to its title, it has little to say about constructive realism.)

  276. de Zeeuw, Gerard (2001) Constructivism: A ‘Next’ Area of Scientific Development? Foundation of Science, special issue “The Impact of Radical Constructivism on Science”, vol. 6, nos. 1-3: 77-98. [More about this journal issue] en 18 Dec 2001

    It is argued that a more valuable contribution is possible if Radical Constructivism is seen as a response to the challenge defined by frequent failures of traditional approaches. The latter may be extended such that the extensions converge to Radical Constructivism. Such extensions are based on reported observations, rather than on experiences in general, and are to be attributed meanings-uniquely as well as non-uniquely-by way of a collective. The latter should allow its ‘actors’ to restrict what maintains the collective to what is observable to others, as well as use the collective to restrict their own observations. The study of collectives thus allows for the study of restrictions or values, and hence for including subjective or constructivist experiences beyond (reportable) observations.

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