Kategorie-Archiv: Aktivitäten

Workshop: Soziale Positionierungen

Wir freu­en uns, Sie zu unse­rem Work­shop am 21. Okto­ber ein­la­den zu dür­fen.


Sozia­le Posi­tio­nie­run­gen
Work­shop des FWF-Pro­jekts „Mar­ria­ge Liti­ga­ti­ons from the 16th to the 19th Cen­tu­ry. Regio­nal and Soci­al Dif­fe­ren­tia­ti­on.“
21. Okto­ber 2017, ab 9.30 Uhr
Semi­nar­raum 1 (1. Stock)
Uni­ver­si­tät Wien (1010 Wien, Uni­ver­si­täts­ring 1)

Ö1-Sendung zu Wirkungen und Nebenwirkungen der Reformation

Bei­trag in der Ö1-Sen­de­rei­he Pra­xis – Reli­gi­on und Gesell­schaft

Hier ein Jahr lang zum Nach­hö­ren.

"Wenn der Hang einmal zu rutschen beginnt - dann ist nicht mehr absehbar, was die Lawine mit in die Tiefe reißen wird - oder auch nicht...

Gestaltung: Markus Veinfurter und Martin Gross

Heute beschäftigen wir uns in der Sendung „Praxis“ schwerpunktmäßig mit zwei unterschiedlichen Aspekten der Reformation - zuerst mit den „Nebenwirkungen“: von der Sprache über das Eheverständnis bis hin zum Bildungswesen. Martin Luther hat auch jenseits des kirchlichen und theologischen Bereichs bewusst oder unbewusst Entwicklungen in Gang gesetzt, die das Leben in Europa bis heute prägen."

Workshop: Soziale und ökonomische Logiken

Wir freu­en uns, Sie zu unse­rem Work­shop Anfang Sep­tem­ber ein­zu­la­den.


Sozia­le und öko­no­mi­sche Logi­ken
Work­shop des FWF-Pro­jekts “Ehe­pro­zesse zwi­schen dem 16. und 19. Jahr­hun­dert. Regio­nale und sozia­le Ver­or­tung”
3. Sep­tem­ber 2016, ab 9.00 Uhr
Semi­nar­raum 1 (1. Stock)
Uni­ver­si­tät Wien (1010 Wien, Uni­ver­si­täts­ring 1)

300 Jahre vor dem Ehegericht

derStandard.at berich­te­te in sei­nem Schwer­punkt ‘Geschlech­ter­ver­hält­nis­se’ über unser For­schungs­pro­jekt
zum Arti­kel

300 Jahre vor dem Ehegericht
ALOIS PUMHÖSEL
Konfliktfelder, Handlungsoptionen: Ein FWF-Forschungsprojekt recherchierte Gerichtsverfahren von 2.100 Ehepaaren seit dem 18. Jahrhundert
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Rückblick auf den Launch des Webportals und die Heftpräsentation

Vor einer Woche haben wir den Launch des Web­por­tals sowie die Erschei­nung des 26. Jahr­gangs der Früh­neu­zeit-Info zum The­ma “streit­paar - Ver­fah­ren in Ehe­sa­chen” gebüh­rend gefei­ert. Ein kur­zer Rück­blick mit Bil­dern…

Andrea Grie­seb­ner und Georg Tschan­nett eröff­ne­ten die Ver­an­stal­tung mit einen paar Wor­ten über die Zie­le und ers­ten Ergeb­nis­se des vom Wis­sen­schafts­fonds zwi­schen 2011 und 2015 finan­zier­ten For­schungs­pro­jekts. Ganz beson­ders gefreut haben wir uns über die Zusa­ge der renom­mier­ten öster­rei­chi­schen Schei­dungs­an­wäl­tin Hele­ne Kla­ar, als Gast­red­ne­rin auf­zu­tre­ten. Sie berich­te­te in ihren Aus­füh­run­gen von ihrer lang­jäh­ri­gen Erfah­rung als Anwäl­tin und Femi­nis­tin.

Musi­ka­lisch beglei­te­ten Susan­na Rid­ler und Sophie Hass­fur­t­her die Ver­an­stal­tung. Dabei grif­fen Sie unter ande­rem einen Eherat­ge­ber aus dem Jahr 1805 auf.

Einladung zur Heftpräsentation und zum Launch des Webportals “Ehen vor Gericht”

Vor kur­zem ist die aktu­el­le Aus­ga­be der Früh­neu­zeit-Info zum The­ma streit­paar – Ver­fah­ren in Ehe­sa­chen erschie­nen. Am 10. Dezem­ber 2015 fin­det die Prä­sen­ta­ti­on des Hefts sowie des Web­por­tals des vom öster­rei­chi­schen Wis­sen­schafts­fonds geför­der­ten For­schungs­pro­jekts Ehen vor Gericht statt. Details zum Pro­gramm fin­den Sie hier.

Web­por­tal “Ehen vor Gericht”

Die Vor­be­rei­tun­gen für das neue Web­por­tal lau­fen auf Hoch­tou­ren. Die neue Web­sei­te wird die recht­li­chen Rah­men­be­din­gun­gen eben­so wie die über­lie­fer­ten Quel­len und die Vor­gangs­wei­se bei der Quel­len­er­he­bung skiz­zie­ren. In die Web­sei­te ein­ge­bun­den wur­de dar­über hin­aus eine Online­da­ten­bank, in der sich Infor­ma­tio­nen zu über 2.100 Ehe­paa­ren aus dem Zeit­raum zwi­schen der Mit­te des 16. und der Mit­te des 19. Jahr­hun­derts befin­den. Wie bis­her, wird das Web­por­tal auch einen Blog umfas­sen, der regel­mä­ßig aktu­el­le Infor­ma­tio­nen und Ankün­di­gun­gen ver­öf­fent­li­chen wird.

Früh­neu­zeit-Info 26/2015

Der the­ma­ti­sche Schwer­punkt der aktu­el­len Aus­ga­be ver­sam­melt die Bei­trä­ge der im Sep­tem­ber 2014 in Wien abge­hal­te­nen Abschluss­ta­gung des genann­ten For­schungs­pro­jekts. Der zeit­li­che Rah­men des Hef­tes reicht vom Spät­mit­tel­al­ter bis ins aus­ge­hen­de 19. Jahr­hun­dert. Die Zusam­men­schau der ein­zel­nen Bei­trä­ge ermög­licht den Ver­gleich kirch­li­cher und welt­li­cher Ehe­ver­fah­ren sowie das In-Bezug-Set­zen der Gerichts­pra­xis unter­schied­li­cher Regio­nen bzw. Rechts­ge­bie­te und Kon­fes­sio­nen. Einen Schwer­punkt bil­den die viel­fäl­ti­gen, oft kom­plex inein­an­der ver­strick­ten Ehe­ver­fah­ren und die von den Streit­par­tei­en (bzw. deren Anwäl­ten) vor­ge­brach­ten Kon­flikt­fel­der. Der obrig­keit­li­che Umgang mit „eigen­mäch­ti­gen Tren­nun­gen“ und „biga­men“ Ehen sowie die Rege­lung der Schei­dungs­fol­gen bil­den einen wei­te­ren Schwer­punkt des Hef­tes. The­ma­ti­siert wer­den dar­über hin­aus auch Ver­fah­ren, in wel­chen der Sta­tus von Ehe­ver­löb­nis­sen zur Dis­kus­si­on stand.

Die Bei­trä­ge ver­deut­li­chen, dass neben sozio­kul­tu­rel­len Kate­go­ri­en wie Geschlecht, Alter, sozia­ler Stand und dem Besitz von öko­no­mi­schem und sozia­lem Kapi­tal vor allem auch das jeweils gül­ti­ge Ehe­gü­ter-, Erb- und Obsor­ge­recht erheb­li­chen Ein­fluss dar­auf hat­te, ob eine Schei­dung bzw. Tren­nung von Tisch und Bett eine leb­ba­re Opti­on dar­stell­te. Metho­disch ver­bin­det die ein­zel­nen Bei­trä­ge zudem die Her­an­ge­hens­wei­se, Mikro- und Makro­be­ne nicht als Gegen­sät­ze zu betrach­ten. Sicht­bar wer­den so Kon­ti­nui­tä­ten und Dis­kon­ti­nui­tä­ten des kano­ni­schen und welt­li­chen Ehe­rechts eben­so wie Fein­hei­ten in den Argu­men­ta­ti­ons­stra­te­gi­en der Streit­par­tei­en.

Zum Inhalts­ver­zeich­nis
Zu den Abs­tracts

Frühneuzeit-Info 2015 | Themenschwerpunkt Ehekonflikte | Vorschau 6/6

streit­paar - Ver­fah­ren in Ehe­sa­chen
Früh­neu­zeit-Info 26 (2015)
Erschei­nungs­da­tum: Novem­ber 2015
Bestel­lun­gen wer­den ger­ne ent­ge­gen­ge­nom­men: Bestell­schein

Der sechs­te und letz­te Teil der Vor­schau stellt die Bei­trä­ge von Kat­rin Gäde und Ulri­ke Boh­se-Jasper­sen vor:

Umstrittenes Eherecht
Handlungsstrategien und Aushandlungsprozesse in Ehescheidungsverfahren
adliger Paare vom 18. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert
Katrin Gäde
(in German language)

Scandals, affairs and conflicts at noble courts have given rise to gossip ever since. Furthermore they were events of great interest for the public. At the same time divorce and legal separation were no uncommon phenomenons among the nobility in the modern era. Against that background the present article examines separations and divorces of aristocratic couples from the 17th to the 19th century in Central Germany. This involves both - on a judical level - the manifestation of the Protestant matrimonial law and on an actor-centred level – the people concerned, their strategies for action and related to that, the construction of social practice.
By the example of interchurch-couples and their path through several bureaucratic procedures and lengthy negotiations about the further course of action and judicial responsibilities an attempt is made to visualize this aforementioned construction process. The appraisal of negotiations about jurisdictions in matrimonial matters allows the conclusion that individual rights and scopes of action were in need to be negotiated primarily in case of clashing legal standards and conceptions. In studying failed aristocratic marriages it is not only possible to get a deeper insight into gender relations but also to visualize actions and scopes of action as well as conflict settlement of the aristocratic world in modern Europe.
Martina Vilvado y Balverde gegen Antonio Yta
Eine Klage auf Eheannullierung in Sucre aus 1803:
Männlichkeitsentwürfe im spätkolonialen Bolivien
Ulrike Bohse-Jaspersen
(in German language)

This paper describes a marriage annulment proceeding in the town of La Plata, today Sucre, constitutional capital of present-day Bolivia, in 1803. 22-year-old Doña Martina Vilvado y Balverde proceeds a claim before the Court of Appeal of La Plata, setting out that her husband, 32-year-old Spaniard Don Antonio Yta was in fact a woman who deceived her in order to marry and live as her husband with the blessing of the church. The article examines the argumentative strategies of the spouses, the members of the tribunal and other parties to the proceedings.
The case is part of a compilation of marriage proceedings and other court sources, which are analyzed in the context of a dissertation in terms of concepts of masculinity in late colonial Bolivia (Provincia de Charcas) from 1750 to 1825. After an introduction to the historical context and an explanation of the legal framework, the course of the proceedings is described in chronological order until the end of the trial. The paper shows in which way the powers of the secular and ecclesiastical jurisdiction overlap. Given the complexity of the facts both jurisdictions try to avoid clear statements, although it can be demonstrated that there were different legal possibilities to reach a verdict.  The argumentation tries to make clear that the scientific approach to the case must consider the diversity in gender so it needs more than an analysis of socially constructed gender and the historical-cultural aspects.

Frühneuzeit-Info 2015 | Themenschwerpunkt Ehekonflikte | Vorschau 5/6

streit­paar – Ver­fah­ren in Ehe­sa­chen
Früh­neu­zeit-Info 26 (2015)
Erschei­nungs­da­tum: Novem­ber 2015
Bestel­lun­gen wer­den ger­ne ent­ge­gen­ge­nom­men: Bestell­schein

Teil 5 der Vor­schau gibt einen Ein­blick in die Bei­trä­ge von Georg Tschan­nett und Zuzana Pavel­ko­va Čeve­lo­vá:

Unterhaltsstreitigkeiten und deren Regelungen vor dem Wiener Scheidungsgericht
im ausgehenden 18. und in der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts
Georg Tschannett
(in German language)

In October 1848 Heinrich Georg Bayer initiated a matrimonial suit against his affluent wife, in order to claim maintenance from her. This case constitutes a rather unusual action in the Viennese divorce court from the end of the 18th to the mid-19th century, in its attempts to reverse the gender-specific allotment of conjugal duties and rights in general, and the statutory maintenance obligation of the husband in particular. The article will consider the relationship between spousal duties and rights and marital gender relations. In this context, marriage will be interpreted as a legal institution as well as a social relationship. The piece also aims to examine the practices of the Viennese divorce court in relation to maintenance proceedings, addressing the arguments that spouses used to win or to defend an action for maintenance. Perhaps most significantly, it will analyse in detail the negotiating positions that husbands and wives adopted in divorce settlements, and upon which they relied to secure the terms of their divorce.
Ehestreitigkeiten vor dem erzbischöflichen Gericht in Prag in den 1860er-Jahren
Zuzana Pavelkova Čevelová
(in German language)

The paper deals with marriage conflicts in the long 19th century in Bohemia. The first part concerns with the development of contemporary Czech historiography. The second part specifies an arrangement of archiepiscopal sources in Prague which are deposited in the National archive in Prague. The third part of the paper reconstructs the history of a married couple named Houška, who in 1857 fought for annulment of marriage in court. The reason that was put forward by the husband was health problems of his wife. Marriage had been neither nullified nor divorced. The micro historical approach gives an interesting illustration of social life in 19th century, contact of country and the city, expansion of medical science into common people life and the continuing power of the Catholic Church. The aim of the paper is to explain everyday live marriage in 19th century in the Bohemia countryside.

Frühneuzeit-Info 2015 | Themenschwerpunkt Ehekonflikte | Vorschau 4/6

streit­paar – Ver­fah­ren in Ehe­sa­chen
Früh­neu­zeit-Info 26 (2015)
Erschei­nungs­da­tum: Novem­ber 2015
Bestel­lun­gen wer­den ger­ne ent­ge­gen­ge­nom­men: Bestell­schein

In Teil 4 der Vor­schau wer­den der Bei­trag von Clai­re Cha­te­lain und eine Kopro­duk­ti­on von Mar­ga­reth Lanzin­ger, Elli­nor Fors­ter, Jani­ne Maegraith, Sig­lin­de Cle­men­ti und Chris­ti­an Hagen vor­ge­stellt:

Ein adeliges Beamtenpaar vor Gericht
Der Einsatz von Kapitalsorten im Eheverfahren zur Trennung von Tisch und Bett am Ende der Regierungszeit von Ludwig XIV. 
Claire Chatelain
(in German language)

This paper presents a case study, focused on a trial of separation from bed and goods which occurred between a great magistrate and his wife (who came from a financial officer’s family), at the end of the Louis XIV reign. An exceptional documentation (based on summations and other sources, as notarial acts or courts sentences) allowed giving a micro analysis of this historical trial, led in front of the most important court of justice of the French kingdom, theParlement de Paris, which was a secular one. What were the economic grounds of this marital separation? How the procedural followings which lasted five years were shaped? What were the consequences on the couple and their children? This research is interested in the French Old Régime mechanisms of judicial ways to break on kinship relationships especially those in the siblings. It leads to a comparative history in this field.
Konfliktpotenzial und Streitgegenstände im Kontext ehelicher Vermögensregime
Margareth Lanzinger/Ellinor Forster/Janine Maegraith/
Siglinde Clementi/Christian Hagen
(in German language)

In early modern times, property and wealth constituted an area with considerable potential for conflict. The initial thesis of this paper is that the causes of discord and dispute depended decisively on the respective marital property and inheritance systems. Because this could give rise to competing interests in different constellations and situations: between siblings, in-laws, parents, step-parents, other relatives or guardians, and not least within marital context. One setting potentially prone to conflict was the end of a marriage. Previously, implications and consequences of widowhood and divorce or legal separation of bed and board were regarded separately. However, the aim of this paper is to bring post-marital property arrangements and stipulations regarding widowhood together with findings on marital conflicts and separations. The question is to what extent property related subjects of dispute differed depending on whether a marriage terminated because of the death of either husband or wife, or because of divorce or legal separation. Property brought in by brides, questions of livelihood, and post-marital presence in the husband’s family home have all proven to be relevant aspects in both contexts. The study is situated in late medieval and early modern rural and urban areas of southern Tirol and is based on cases from the court books (“Verfachbücher”) and charters for several communities, noble family archives, as well as the consistorial records in the Diocesan archive in Brixen.

Frühneuzeit-Info 2015 | Themenschwerpunkt Ehekonflikte | Vorschau 3/6

streit­paar – Ver­fah­ren in Ehe­sa­chen
Früh­neu­zeit-Info 26 (2015)
Erschei­nungs­da­tum: Novem­ber 2015
Bestel­lun­gen wer­den ger­ne ent­ge­gen­ge­nom­men: Bestell­schein

Teil 3 der Vor­schau prä­sen­tiert die Bei­trä­ge von Andrea Grie­seb­ner und Susan­ne Hehen­ber­ger:

Ausweg und Sackgasse zugleich
Eheverfahren vor katholischen Konsistorien von der Mitte
des 16. bis ins ausgehende 18. Jahrhundert
Andrea Griesebner
(in German language)

Following a brief explanation of canon law the first section provides an outline of the sources for marriage litigations in the archduchy Austria below the Enns. It will highlight the possibilities and limitations the protocols of the consistories offer. The second section provides insights into the variety of marriage litigations made possible at early modern ecclesiastical courts, as well as quantitative trends. Based on a case study the third section provides deepened insight into the various contexts motivating women and men to sue their spouse. Between 1765 and 1781 Magdalena Pürckin and Peter Pürck conducted 13 proceedings, some initiated by the wife, some by the husband. The analytical focus is directed to the particular interest of the plaintiff and the defendant respectively as well as their discursive strategies to get a verdict in his or her own favor. The summary argues that the catholic marriage politics generates the various proceedings the ecclesiastical courts are dealing with. Nevertheless the persistence Peter Pürck in suing his wife for cohabitation and Magdalena Pürckin’s resistance is exceptional.
The article is based on long standing research on churchly marriage jurisdiction in the archduchy Austria below the Enns, financed by the Austria Research Fund and backed by the University of Vienna between October 2011 and October 2015.
Das fehlende fleischliche Band
Sexuelles Unvermögen als Scheidungsargument vor dem Passauer und
Wiener Konsistorium (1560–1783) 
Susanne Hehenberger
(in German language)

Many Catholic spouses filed for divorce or separation by bed and board in the early modern period. Only a few of them argued that their inability to execute the marital duty was the main cause. In this article, I focus on a small sample of 51 couples who used the argument of male or female impotence in the course of marriage litigations in the consistories in Vienna. After exploring the meaning of impotence and divortium in these sources, the article analyses the different interests of claimants (e.g. escape from an unhappy union or the desire for a new marriage) as well as the response of defendants to these allegations (denial, confession, counter-claim or negotiation). As canon law allowed the annulment of marriages only in cases of premarital, enduring and incurable impotence, consistories had to search for clear evidence before they rendered judgement. The appellate court – the nunciature in Vienna –then had to confirm the annulment before it would become effective. In theory, the evidence of one spouse confirmed by an oath cum septima manu (testimony of seven reliable men or women) would suffice as proof. In early modern practice, either the litigant or the consistory often demanded additional medical evidence, which was regularly provided by the medical faculty of the university in Vienna. In cases of female impotence, however, midwives were consulted. Even if evidence seemed clear and the carnal bond was missing, it became increasingly difficult to enforce a divortium quoad vinculum from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. This situation was exacerbated after Pope Benedict XIV created the position of defensor matrimonii in November 1741, a figure who acted ex officio to protect marriage in the first instance.