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Reading in Transliteration: koliuetu 
Reading in Original Script: U sT sE sU sI sL sO2 sK2 s
Variant Reading: koliu : etu
U sT sE sseparator sU sI sL sO2 sK2 s
ko liu : etu
U sT sE sseparator sU sI sL sspace sO2 sK2 s
U sT sE sseparator sI sT sI sL sA24 dK2 s

Object: VR-5 Verona (pot)
Position: bottom, outside
Direction of Writing: sinistroverse
Script: North Italic Script
Number of Letters: 8
Number of Lines: 1
Workmanship: unknown
Condition: complete

Archaeological Culture: unknown [from object]
Date of Inscription: 2nd century BC [from object]
Date derived from: [[date_derivation‎::typology]] [from object]

Type: unknown
Language: unknown
Syntactic Analysis: unknown
Meaning: unknown

Alternative Sigla: Whatmough 1933 (PID): 248
Morandi 2004: 269

Sources: Morandi 2004: 691-692 & 694 (fig. 30.369)
Schumacher 1992: 172
Schumacher 2004: 172 & 340-341



First published in Poggi 1879: pp. 312 ff. (no. 52).

Images in Pauli 1885: Taf. 2,39 (drawing = LIR) and Morandi 2004: Fig. 30, 269 (drawing).

The inscription, part of the collection of Amilcare Ancona (Ancona 1880: pp. 32-33, n. 109, pl. XI, n. 7), was implied to be lost by Whatmough, but found and autopsied anew by Morandi, who also provides a new drawing. Pauli claims to have the drawing reproduced in the Altitalischen Forschungen from Poggi (no. 39), but Poggi only gives an idealised rendering of the characters (p. 312). (Pauli's citing page 90 from Poggi is a mere slip.) It is therefore unclear where that drawing is from (possibly Ancona 1880?). The drawing in Pauli features an Omikron not quite closed in the bottom (expressly mentioned by Poggi 1879: 313) and followed by a short oblique scratch in the lower area. In the middle, Lambda and the three hastae following it are crossed by a long oblique line, which was judged to be an unintentional scratch by Poggi himself, Danielsson 1909: p. 23 and Rhŷs 1913: p. 69 ff., who consequently read U sI sL s. The dot between putative Upsilon and Epsilon was included as a punct by Danielsson, but dismissed by Poggi and Rhŷs. While Poggi did not discriminate between the various North Italic groups, Pauli (p. 56) and Rhŷs classified the inscription as Celtic. It was Whatmough who sorted it among the Raetic testimonies, based on the observations that Verona lies rather far east of the Lepontic area, and that the form of Omikron was typical for Venetic. Disregarding Poggis reading, he preferred to include both scratch and punct, and suggested kolzi·eθu with a Venetic form of Zeta, despite observing that the Venetic features do not agree with the forms of Lambda and Upsilon. Morandi's drawing shows closed Omikron, the small scratch to its left and the punct, but not the longer scratch crossing the letters in the middle.

In consequence of Whatmough's reassignment of the inscription, it was included in Schumacher's preliminary Raetic corpus (Schumacher 1992, Schumacher 2004) and allotted the Raetic siglum VR-5, under which it is included in LexLep.

Epigraphically, the inscription is written in the Lugano alphabet, with Etruscoid (not inverted) Lambda and Upsilon, and Omikron (Rix 1998: p. 10). Raetic inscriptions from the area of Verona have Venetoid inverted forms. The punct, if it is part of the inscription, does not hinder its ascription to the Italo-Celtic corpus (cp. from the area of Verona VR·22). If the longer scratch discounted by Poggi and Morandi cannot be used to turn the sequence iu into consonant + i, it cannot be syllabic in any case. It is unlucky that the find place is only known to be in the environs of Verona, since it can be observed that (with the single possible exception of the Spada di Verona) find places of Raetic inscriptions lie on the left bank of the river Adige, while all the known Lepontic epigraphic material is from the West.

The linguistic interpretation of the text depends on the chosen reading. koliu:etu is Morandi's reading, including the punct. Poggi and Rhŷs read a single word koliuetu. The alternative reading kalitietu proposed by Markey, obviously using Pauli's drawing, must be disregarded since it includes the longer scratch discounted by Morandi. Note, however, his suggestion to consider the smaller scratch next to Omikron (which, again following Pauli, he assumes to be open on the bottom) to be part of the letter, reading Alpha (Markey & Mees 2003: 146, Markey & Mees 2004: 86, esp. Markey 2006: 157).

Further references: Add. CIL 5: 475 (no. 1080), PID: 549 (Commentary), LIR: VR-5, MLR: sub iudice no. 19.


Ancona 1880 Amilcare Ancona, Catalogo Descrittivo delle Raccolte Egizia, Preromana ed Etrusco-Romana, Milano: 1880.
Danielsson 1909 Olof August Danielsson, "Zu den venetischen und lepontischen Inschriften", Skrifter utgivna av Kungliga Humanistiska Vetenskaps-Samfundet i Uppsala 13 (1910-1912), 3-33.
LIR Alberto Mancini, Le Iscrizioni Retiche [= Quaderni del dipartimento di linguistica, Università degli studi di Firenze 8–9], Padova: Unipress 2009–10.
Markey & Mees 2003 Thomas L. Markey, Bernard Mees, "Prestino, patrimony and the Plinys", Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie 53 (2003), 116-167.
Markey & Mees 2004 Tom Markey, Bernard Mees, "A Celtic orphan from Castaneda", Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie 54 (2004), 54-120.
Markey 2006 Thomas L. Markey, "Early Celticity in Slovenia and at Rhaetic Magrè (Schio)", Linguistica 46 (2006), 145-171.
MLR Simona Marchesini, Rosa Roncador, Monumenta Linguae Raeticae, Roma: Scienze e Lettere 2015.
Morandi 2004 Alessandro Morandi, Celti d'Italia. Tomo II: Epigrafia e lingua dei Celti d'Italia. A cura di Paola Piana Agostinetti [= Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica 12.2], Roma: Spazio Tre 2004.
Pauli 1885 Carl Eugen Pauli, Die Inschriften nordetruskischen Alphabets [= Altitalische Forschungen 1], Leipzig: Hannover Hahn 1885.
Poggi 1879 Vittorio Poggi, "Contribuzioni allo studio dell'epigrafia etrusca", Giornale Linguistico 6 (1879), 71-96, 245-318.
Rhŷs 1913 Sir John Rhŷs, The Celtic inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul [= Proceedings of the British Academy 6], London: British Academy 1913, 23–112.
Rix 1998 Helmut Rix, Rätisch und Etruskisch [= Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft, Vorträge und kleinere Schriften 68], Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft 1998.
Schumacher 1992 Stefan Schumacher, Die rätischen Inschriften, Innsbruck: Verlag des Instituts für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck 1992.
Schumacher 2004 Stefan Schumacher, Die rätischen Inschriften. Geschichte und heutiger Stand der Forschung, 2nd, extended edition [= Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Kulturwissenschaft, Sonderheft 121], Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft 2004.
Whatmough 1933 Joshua Whatmough, The Prae-Italic Dialects of Italy. Vol. 2, Part 3: The Raetic, Lepontic, Gallic, East-Italic, Messapic and Sicel inscriptions, Cambridge/Mass.: Harvard University Press 1933.