Typology of Negation in Ob-Ugric
and Samoyedic Languages (NOS)

Existential negation

We are investigating the existential constructions according to the system established by Croft (1991) Type B (special existential negation) is the most frequent among the Uralic languages.

Neg Verb
Neg Ex
Neg Verb
Neg Ex (≠Neg)
Neg Verb
Neg Ex (=Neg)
Finnish, Estonian, Livonian Hungarian, Mari Kamassian, Mator, Enets, Nganasan, Mordvin, Udmurt Khanty, Mansi, Komi, Nenets, Selkup -- --

 Type A: The ordinary existential predicate is negated by the verbal negator

 Type A ~ B: The existential and the standard negation element differ, but the usage of the existential negation element is restricted to e.g. one tense.

 Type B: There is a negative existential predicate different from the verbal negator.

 Type B ~ C: There is a special negative existential predicate that is starting to penetrate into standard negation. This can happen in several ways: 1) the two forms may fuse and this new form may appear as a new standard negation element. (vide Croft 1991: 8); 2) the negation element, which normally appears in existential sentences may also be used in standard expressions.

 Type C: The negative existential is identical to the verbal negator

Type C ~ A: The existential negation element is reassessed to a verbal negation element. The difference to type B is that the reassessment has not been finished yet, viz. negation can be expressed by two different constructions.