Typology of Negation in Ob-Ugric
and Samoyedic Languages (NOS)

Non–Verbal Predicate Negation

The negation of these constructions have been dealt with to a lesser extent by language typology. Veselinova examined the relation between standard negation, the negation of existential, possessive and locative sentences on the basis of 71 languages. Our research is based upon Veselinova’s results but we are complementing them by new findings.

One-way distinction Two-way distinction Three-way distinction
  SN, NN ˜ LN, EN, PN SN ˜ NN, LN, EN, PN SN, NN, LN ˜ EN, PN SN, PN ˜ NN ˜ LN, EN SN ˜ NN ˜ LN, EN, PN
Estonian, Finnish Hungarian, Mordvin, Nenets, Enets, Selkup Komi, Mari, Kamassian Mordvin Khanty, Mansi Nganasan

One-way: One and the same strategy used for standard, existential and non-verbal, locative and possessive negation.

Two-way: Two elements are used for the expression of the five constructions. Their distribution may differ from language to language.

Three-way: Three different negation elements are used for the five examined categories.