and Samoyedic Languages (NOS)

Type A | Type B | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

one negative element | two negative elements | |||

A1 | A2 | A3 | B1 | B2 |

Finnish, Estonian | Kamassian, Selkup (except for Northern Selkup) | Ungarisch, Northern Selkup, Nenets, Enets | Mansi, Khanty | Nganasan |

**Typ A:**

– the language uses only one construction (transitive or intransitive) for predicate possession,

– the predicate possession construction is either negated with a standard element or with the neg.ex.

**Typ A1:**

– the language has only one negating element (with the exception of imperative sentences),

– negation happens through the standard element

**Typ A2:**

– the language has at least two negating elements,

– the negation of possessive constructions uses the negative existential verb. The negative existential verb is not used for the standard negation.

**Typ A3:**

– the language has at least two negating elements,

– the negation of possessive constructions uses the negative existential verb. Either the standard negation element seeps through to the negative possessive construction, or the possessive negative construction to the standard negation.

**Typ B:**

– the language uses two different constructions to express predicative negation (transitive and intransitive),

– depending on the construction the standard negation element or the neg.ex is used to negate.

**Typ B1:**

– the language uses two different constructions to express possession (one transitive and one intransitive) and has two negating elements,

– the negative existential verb is also used for standard negation (a possible construction to express the past tense).

**Typ B2:**

– the language has two predicative constructions, one transitive and one intransitive, the transitive construction is negated using the standard negation, the intransitive through the neg.ex.