Standard Negation: Standard negation is a construction whose primary function is to express sentental negation (Cf. Miestamo 2000, 2005)
The table below shows the diferent types and subtypes of standard negation. A click on a highlighted term will lead you to its definition below.
|symmetric negation||S||Hungarian, Kamassian, Khanty, Komi, Mansi, Mordvin, Selkup, Udmurt|
|A/Fin/NegVerb||Enets, Estonian, Finnish, Ingrian, Kamassian, Karelian, Khanty, Komi, Livonian, Mansi, Mari, Mordvin, Nenets, Nganasan, Selkup, Saami, Udmurt, Veps, Votic|
|A/CAT||A/CAT/TAM||Komi, Mari, Udmurt|
Asymmetric Negation: In asymmetric negation there are structural differences between affirmatives and negatives in addition to the presence of the negative marker(s). The asymmetric type has different subtypes according to how the asymmetry is manifested in the structure.
A/Cat: Negatives differ from affirmatives in how grammatical categories are marked, but no generalizations can be made about how the categories are affected (as is done in the other three subtypes). Grammatical distinctions made in the affirmative are often lost in the negative.
|OV & VAux||Eastern Mari|
|OV & AuxV||Kamassian, Komi, Enets, Mari, Mordvin, Nenets, Nganasan, Udmurt|
|VO & VAux||--|
|VO & AuxV||Estonian, Finnish, Karelian, Veps, Votic, Ingrian, Saami|