ZNR 40 (2018) Heft 1/2


Beiträge

  • Martin P. Schennach, Innsbruck
    „weillen uns aber unverborgen, daß du von disen und andern dergleichen sachen vor andern guete und gewisse nachrichtung […] geben khanst“. Reichart Strein von Schwarzenau und die Anfänge einer österreichischen Staatsrechtslehre, in: ZNR 40 (2018), S. 1–15

Abstract: Schennach’s contribution deals with the unpublished papers of the Lower Austrian Protestant nobleman Reichart Strein von Schwarzenau (1538–1600) in the fields of public law which up to now, apart from his work on the Austrian privileges, have been largely neglected by (legal) historians. In particular, the article takes a closer look at his scientific reports on various questions of Austrian public law (notably on the dynastic rules of succession) drafted on demand of Archduke Matthias. They give an impression of his way of working, which emphasised the importance of history for the development and proof of public law.

  • Hans-ChristoF Kraus, Passau
    Parlamente und Parteien in liberalen und konservativen deutschen Staatslexika des 19. Jahrhunderts, in: ZNR 40 (2018), S. 16–26

Abstract: The article deals with the presentation and interpretation of parliaments and political parties in two important German political lexica of the 19th century, the liberal „Staats-Lexikon“ by Karl von Rotteck and Karl Welcker, and the conservative „Staats- und Gesellschafts-Lexikon“ by Hermann Wagener. The analysis of the relevant lexicon articles shows that the representatives of bourgeois liberalism relied on a moderate monarchy and unequal suffrage, while the conservatives advocated for corporate models of popular representation. The conceptual and substantive ambiguities present in many articles are typical of the transitional years between the Revolution (1848) and the founding of the Reich (1871).

  • Andrea Edenharter, Regensburg
    Der Schutz der Grundrechte in der Früh- und Konsolidierungsphase des schweizerischen Bundesstaates, in: ZNR 40 (2018), S. 27–58

Abstract: This article analyses the protection of fundamental rights in the early stages of the Swiss federal state, examining the Swiss Federal Constitutions of 1848 and 1874 and their influence on the development of fundamental rights protection in Switzerland. The Federal Constitution of 1848 guaranteed only some fundamental rights such as the freedom of trade and of the press, whereas at least some contemporary cantonal constitutions already contained more comprehensive fundamental rights‘ catalogues. With the entering into force of the Constitution of 1848, cantons came under pressure to adapt their fundamental rights to the fundamental rights of the Federal Constitution. Nonetheless, cantons managed to preserve at least some of their peculiarities in the field of fundamental rights protection. The Federal Constitution of 1874 improved the protection of fundamental rights on the federal level, marginalising equivalent cantonal guarantees. Moreover, under the Constitution of 1874, the procedural dimension of fundamental rights protection on the federal level was strengthened, pushing further aside cantonal fundamental rights and fostering a uniform protection of fundamental rights in the Swiss federal state.

  • Sarah Legner, Tübingen
    Private Kartellrechtsdurchsetzung in der Weimarer Republik und im Deutschland der frühen Nachkriegszeit, in: ZNR 40, 2018, S. 59–72

Abstract: In Germany, private antitrust actions took place long before the Act Against Restraints of Competition was passed in 1958. The “Kartellverordnung” of 1923 did not prohibit cartelization. However, it limited the legal exercise of market power that companies had gained through collusion. Still, the “Reichsgericht” managed damage suits relating to the violation of the “Kartellverordnung” very restrictive. Only if a cartel used its market power to boycott other market participants it would grant compensation. Moreover, damages could not be claimed when the cartel court had agreed to the boycott. Therefore, the jurisdiction reverted to § 1 UWG 1909 to grant compensation when a cartel’s behavior was incompatible with public morals. The regulations of the “prohibition of excessive concentration of German economic power” were started to be executed in the American, British and French Occupation Zones after World War Second. They aimed at breaking up the compulsory cartels built during the Nazi-dictatorship. The laws were inspired by the American Sherman Antitrust Act which has prohibited cartels since 1890. German courts approved of them as protective laws in terms of § 823 Abs 2 BGB. Thus, injured parties could claim damages if they suffered from their breach. This can be considered a paradigm shift regarding the cartel friendly view of scholarship and jurisdiction during Weimarer Republic.

  • Gerhard Deter, Berlin
    Rechtsgeschichte in regionaler Perspektive, in: ZNR 40 (2018), S. 73–99

Abstract: This paper initially deals with the terms of regional history and legal history that have been developed by the historical scholarship. Then, studies of legal history are introduced, that incorporate a regional and local historical approach. The author refers to the national spirit doctrine (Volksgeistlehre) of the historical school of law (Historische Rechtsschule) in particular as well as to Otto Brunner’s concept of law as a commonality that binds historical living spaces (Lebensräume). Furthermore, the author introduces research methods in legal history that correspond with the terms of regional and local history.
The writer discusses how the concept of space that was developed by the historical science could make benefit for research in legal history in a comprehensive conclusion. He argues that the German historical landscapes became landscape-based legal communities in certain legal areas.
Finally, the author refers to the methodical approach, which appears suitable to make a substantial contribution of the legal history to the research agenda of the historical regional studies and territorial history.

  • Dirk Blasius, Essen
    Völkerrecht im Jahrhundert der Weltkriege. Eine Studie zu Hermann Jahrreiß, in: ZNR 40 (2018), S. 100–115

Abstract: Today International Law is in a process of constitutionalization. German International Law under the national-socialist dictatorship had changed the structure and trends of International Law. This article will attempt to give a perspective in the relationship between the history of International Law in Germany and the dramatic years in German history after 1918. Hermann Jahrreiß was an academic international lawyer. In the Weimar Republic he was fighting with legal arguments against the Treaty of Versailles. In the „Third Reich“ his publications were in a problematic way near to Nazi foreign policy. Jahrreiß was interested in Carl Schmitt`s works. But he found personal legal arguments. 1941 in his theory „Wandel der Weltordnung“ he kept with Schmitt cautious distance from the racist „lebensraum“-concept of the SS. 1946 he conducted the defence of Alfred Jodl in the International Military Tribunal. In Nürnberg was the extent of crime for Jahrreiß an important experience. He came back to positions on international and constitutional law in the years before 1933.

Forschungsbericht

  • Thomas Simon, Wien
    Rechtsgeschichte Südosteuropas, in: ZNR 40 (2018), S. 116–120

Länderbericht

  • Natalya Paslavska, Lemberg
    Rechtshistorische Forschung in der Ukraine, in: ZNR 40 (2018), S. 121–130

Literaturverzeichnis

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