Aktuelles Heft: ZNR 41 (2019) Heft 1/2


Zum Ausscheiden von Wilhelm Brauneder als Mitherausgeber, in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 1

Beiträge

  • Bernd Mertens, Erlangen-Nürnberg
    Einzelgesetze statt Kodifikation im Deutschen Reich nach 1918, in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 2-19

In the first decades after the German Civil Code (BGB) came into force, legal reforms did not amend the codification itself but were introduced by special legislation. This development gained a specific dynamic after World War I especially in employment law, tenancy law and land law. It had several reasons: a need for immediate reform which could be satisfied more easily and faster by special legislation, the provisional character of such legislation, which – unlike the codification – was not intended to establish permanent law, and finally a mix of private law and public law instruments which were unsuitable for a coherent regulation in a pure private law codification. In fact, the BGB-legislator had foreseen an accompanying special legislation for politically controversial and dogmatically immature matters as well as a delegation of specific matters to state legislation. However, this development became an unexpected problem for the codification and ultimately for the entire private law when the provisional regulations did not only increase more and more, but also changed to permanent law, which was no longer subordinated to the codification, but developed an increasingly autonomous dogmatic life of its own.

  • Jean-Louis Halprrin, Paris
    Les réformes du droit privé franҫais en 1918 et 1919: tournant ou occasion manquée?, in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 20-31

The French Parliament, a Chamber of deputies elected in 1914 with a left-wing majority and a more conservative Senate, did not adopt a great bulk of reforms transforming private law in 1918 and 1919. The statutes concerning rental leases and compensation for war damages were the more important texts about contract and property law. Two labour law statutes increased the rights of workmen: the law about the eight-hour workday and the law about collective bargaining. The failure to extend the right of vote to women had for consequence the status quo about the legal incapacity of married women and the failure of other projects for modernizing family law. Even the texts proposed to fight against low birth rates and to regulate foreign immigration in France failed to be adopted. This slowdown of the momentum for reforms, characterizing a France victorious but exhausted, lasted until the years 1936 and 1945, that were true caesura in the history of French law.

  • Alessandro Somma, Ferrara
    Der Erste Weltkrieg und die italienische Privatrechtswissenschaft, in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 32-46

The 19th century was characterized by a process of marketization, strong enough to produce a push for social protection. In the Unites States, this reaction did not challenge democracy as the foundation of the political order, which was more and more questioned above all in southern Europe with the rise of fascism. This was particularly evident in Italy, where the dictatorship could build upon an authoritarian tradition, which was the reason for many continuities between liberal and fascist Italy. First World War was a sort of stimulus towards such an epilogue, since it paved the way for regulations of the economic order aiming at supporting capitalism with the suppression of social conflict, even if this required the cancellation of democracy. Private law scholars contributed to this result actively or indirectly, by defending the dogmatic tradition, thus preventing attempts to combine social protection and democracy.

  • Wojciech Dajczak, Poznań (Posen)
    Die Privatrechtsentwicklung in Polen nach 1918, in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 47-64

In November 1918 Poland has regained independence after 123 years of partition. This break immediately opened free debate about new law for a revived Polish state. The appointment of a Codification Committee in June 1919 based entirely on an agreement to replace the mosaic of foreign private laws (ie German, Austrian, Russian, French and Hungarian) by unified Polish legislation. Till the outbreak of WW II this aim has been reached in the field of the law of obligations. In other fields of classical private law controversies concerning the codification were too vast. The author focuses on these controversies which raised the following issues: How should the radical social and economic changes after WW I be considered in the drafting of private law for Poland? How should the national identity of private law be understood? On the other hand with reference to the Code of Obligations, which came into force at July 1st 1934, the author compares the demands for a codification of Polish private law to decisions of the Codification Committee and their grounds presented by the main reporter of the draft Code. The paper gives a picture of the Polish debate about codification of private law which detects the correlations between freedom of debate about private law drafting in circumstances of deep cultural, social, economic changes and the efficiency of preparatory works to codification.

  • Martin Löhnig, Regensburg
    Eherechtsreform nach 1918 im mitteleuropäischen Rechtsraum, in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 65-77

After 1918 in the Central European states, there was a considerable legal split in the area of marriage law. Moreover, the statutory regulations in force that were often religiously motivated had lost their legitimacy. Nevertheless, the attempts to unify and reform the marriage law have all failed. The conflicts in the Central European countries on this topic can be classified as part of a European cultural war. Only under totalitarian conditions wide-ranging reforms of marriage law finally took place in Central Europe.

  • Nikolaus Linder, Göttingen
    1918 als Zäsur? Das schweizerische Privatrecht im Zeitalter der Extreme: Eine Forschungsskizze, in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 78-89

During the First World War, Switzerland lived through a phase of extra-constitutional emergency law where direct democracy was severely restricted. During the Great Depression of the 1930s followed a prolonged period of intra-constitutional emergency law which, in turn, merged into the even more comprehensive emergency law of the Second World War, lasting until 1952. What did private law during these times look like? In dealing with three scholarly texts, dating from 1914, 1936 and 1937, the author formulates conditions for an adequate reconstruction of private law in Switzerland during the Age of Extremes.

  • Thomas Freller, Aalen
    Staatsrecht, Verfassungskritik und Katholische Aufklärung – Die Schriften des Ellwanger Juristen Joseph Edler von Sartori, in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 90-120

In 1785 Philipp Anton von Bibra, member of the Cathedral chapter of Fulda and editor of the “Journal von und für Deutschland” published a call for papers to discuss the constitutional defects of the Ecclesiastical States (prince-bishoprics and imperial abbeys) of the so called Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. The winner of this intellectual competition was the paper by Joseph von Sartori who was then employed in the service of the Prince-Provostry of Ellwangen (today in Baden-Württemberg). Presenting rich statistical material Sartori critizised the electoral system of the ecclesiastical states, the exemption of broad parts of the populations – especially the clergy – to pay taxes, the neglect of the industries and the education, as well as the neglect to fight superstition and the concentration of positions in the hands of a few. Sartori then was already a well known figure as author of several books and pamphlets on state law, the jurisdiction of German principalities and the history of South German cities and regions. This paper intends to discuss Sartori`s balanced approach to German state law in a time when other more radical thinkers and jurists like Friedrich Carl von Moser already propagated concepts of secularisation and mediatisation. Sartori`s critizism caused the loss of his employment as senior civil servant, councillor and librarian in the service of the prince provost of Ellwangen. He subsequently moved to Augsburg and Vienna where he continued publishing books on state and church law and worked as a journalist, defending the House of Habsburg against the attacks of the French and the critics of the Empire.

Länderbericht

  • Wouter DruwE, Leuven
    Belgische rechtshistorische Literatur seit 2004. Ein Überblick, in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 121-134

Literaturverzeichnis                                               

  • Tilmann Altwicker – Francis Cheneval – Oliver Diggelmann (Hrsg), Völkerrechtsphilosophie der Frühaufklärung (= Politika 12). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2015. VIII, 278 S. (Miloš Vec), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 142-145
  • Benedikt Beckermann, Verfassungsrechtliche Kontinuitäten im Land Oldenburg. Entstehung, Strukturen und politische Wirkungen der Verfassung des Freitstaats Oldenburg vom 17. Juni 1919 (= Schriften zum Landesverfassungsrecht 5). Nomos, Baden-Baden 2016. 529 S. (Franz Hederer), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 164-167
  • Daniel Damler, Konzern und Moderne. Die verbundene juristische Person in der visuellen Kultur 1880-1980 (= Studien zur europäischen Rechtsgeschichte 300). Klostermann, Frankfurt/Main 2016. 371 S. (Ulli Seegers), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 156-158
  • Frank Decker, Der Irrweg der Volksgesetzgebung. Dietz, Bonn 2016. 183 S. (Wilhelm Brauneder), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 161-164
  • Gerhard Deter, Zwischen Gilde und Gewerbefreiheit. Band 1: Rechtsgeschichte des selbständigen Handwerks im Westfalen des 19. Jahrhunderts (1810-1869); Band 2: Rechtsgeschichte des unselbständigen Handwerks im Westfalen des 19. Jahrhunderts (1810-1869). Steiner, Stuttgart 2015, Bd 1: 393 S, Bd 2: 482 S. (Louis Pahlow), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 148-152
  • Horst Dreier – Christian Waldhoff (Hrsg), Das Wagnis der Demokratie. Eine Anatomie der Weimarer Reichsverfassung. Beck, München 2018. 424 S. (Christoph Gusy), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 167-170
  • Christian O. Kreher, Herkunft und Entwicklung des Zweckgedankens bei Franz von Liszt. Eine rechtshistorische Analyse des Marburger Programms. Schulthess, Zürich-Basel-Genf 2015. 145 S. (David von Mayenburg), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 154-156
  • Robert Kretzschmar – Anton Schindling – Eike Wolgast (Hrsg), Zusammenschlüsse und Neubildungen deutscher Länder im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (= Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für geschichtliche Landeskunde in Baden-Württemberg B/197). Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2013. 323 S. (Wilhelm Brauneder), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 161-164
  • Hiram Kümper – Andreas Maurer (Hrsg), 150 Jahre Mannheimer Akte. Festschrift zum 150jährigen Bestehen der Revidierten Rheinschifffahrtsakte vom 17. Oktober 1868 (= Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Transport- und Verkehrsrecht 12). Nomos, Baden-Baden 2018. 362 S. (Julian Lubini), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 152-154
  • Tilman Lütke, Hanseatische Tradition und demokratischer Umbruch. Die Verfassung der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg vom 7. Januar 1921 (= Schriften zum Landesverfassungsrecht 7). Nomos, Baden-Baden 2016. 724 S. (Franz Hederer), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 164-167
  • Karel Malý, Tři studie o trestním právu v českých zemích v 17. a v první polovině 18. stoleti (Drei Studien über das Strafrecht in den Böhmischen Ländern im 17. und in der ersten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts). Karolinum, Praha 2016. 162 S. (Petr Kreuz), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 140-142
  • Birgit Näther, Die Normativität des Praktischen: Strukturen und Prozesse vormoderner Verwaltungsarbeit. Das Beispiel der landesherrlichen Visitation in Bayern (= Verhandeln, Verfahren, Entscheiden. Historische Perspektiven 4). Aschendorff, Münster 2017. 215 S.   (Markus Schlosser), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 138-140
  • Verena Peters, Der „germanische“ Code Civil (= Beiträge zur Rechtsgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts 95). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2018. 280 S. (Johannes Ulbrich), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 158-161
  • Andreas Rehder, Die Verfassung der Freien Hansestadt Bremen von 1920. Ein Stadtstaat zwischen Tradition und Pragmatismus (= Schriften zum Landesverfassungsrecht 6). Nomos, Baden-Baden 2016. 407 S. (Franz Hederer), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 164-167
  • Christian Georg Ruf, Die Bayerische Verfassung vom 14. August 1919 (= Schriften zum Landesverfassungsrecht 4). Nomos, Baden-Baden 2015. 978 S. (Franz Hederer), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 164-167
  • Marius Tongendorff, Schwyzerische Strafrechtspraxis 1772-1851. Kantonale Rechtsprechung zwischen Mittelalter und Moderne, Tradition und Kodifikation, Rechtsgewohnheit und Gesetz (= Luzerner Beiträge zur Rechtswissenschaft 99). Schulthess, Zürich etc 2015. LXXIII, 796 S. (Markus Schlosser), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 146-148
  • David von Mayenburg, Gemeiner Mann und gemeines Recht. Die Zwölf Artikel und das Recht des ländlichen Raums im Zeitalter der Bauernkriege. Klostermann, Frankfurt/Main 2018. 477 S. (Martin Hille), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 135-138
  • James Q. Whitman, Hitler’s American Model. The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law. Princeton University Press, Princeton 2017. 208 S. (Bernd Mertens), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 170-172
  • Dietmar Willoweit (Hrsg), Föderalismus in Deutschland. Zu seiner wechselvollen Geschichte vom ostfränkischen Königtum bis zur Bundesrepublik. Böhlau, Wien-Köln-Weimar 2019 (Wilhelm Brauneder), in: ZNR 41 (2019), S. 161-164
Copyright © Dandelion by Pexeto